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tion of mud along the margios of the rivers than at a distance from tbem. Hence it happens that all these rivers are skirted with a rich border' of alluvial land, from 400 yards to a mile and án half in breadth, while the surface in the rear is corered with lakes and impassable swamps.

Levees.] The fertile tracts of alluvial land, which everywhere Border the shores of the Mississippi, have given rise to an artifi-, cial work of great extent, for confining its stream, and for securing the country fron, the effects of its inundations. This work is an embankment on the margin of the river, called the Levee. It is usnally about 5 feet high, and 12 at the base, with sufficient width at the top for a foot path. As there is no stone to be bad, be only material used is a soft clay with cypress staves placed next the river, and the whole covered with earth, and sodded. Every individual is required to keep up the levee in front of his own land, and before the season of high water, it is inspected by commissioners appointed for the purpose in each parish. During the continuance of the floods the levees demand the most vigilant at. tention ; they must be continually watched, and all hands are often drawn from the fields to guard them for whole days and nights.

A crevasse is a breach formed in the levee by the waters of the river in time of inundation. A crevasse, says Mr. Brackepridge, "rushes from the river with indescribable impetuosity, and with a noise like the roaring of a cataract, boiling and foaming, and tearing every thing before it. When a crevasse occurs, the inbabitants, for miles above and below, instantly abandon every em. ployment, and basten to the spot, where every exertion is made, day and night, to stop the breach, which is sometimes successful, but more frequently, the hostile element is suffered to take its course. The consequences are, the destruction of the crop and the buildings, and sometimes the land itself is much injured, the current carrying away the soil, or leaving numerous logs and trees, which must be destroyed before the land can again be cultivated."

On the east side of the Mississippi, the embankment commences about 60 miles above New-Orleans, and extends down the river for more than 130 miles. On the west shore it commences at Point Coupee, 172 miles above New Orleans. It is here that the navigator in descending the river emerges from a gloomy wilderness, presenting detached settlements at long and tedious intervals, into beautiful and finely cultivated plantations. On the side of this elevated, artificial bank, is a range of neatly built houses, appearing like one continued village as far as the city of New Orleans.

Soil and Productions.] The parts of the sfafe which have been brought under cultivation are almost exclusively the narrow strips of rich alluvial land on the banks of the Mississippi, the Teche, Red river, and Ouachita. The staple productions are cotton, sugar, and rice. Tobacco and indigo could be as extensively cultivated as cotton, but they do not afford the same profit On the banks of the Mississippi, La Fourche, the Teohe and the

Vermil-jo, below lat. 30° 12 N. wherever the soil is elevated above the aonual inundation, sugar can be produced; and the lands are generally devoted to this crop. lo all other parts of the state cotton is the staple. The best districts for cotton are the banks of Red river, Ouachita, Teche, and the Mississippi. Rice is more particularly confined to the banks of the Mississippi, where irrigation can be easily performed. The quantity of land within the state, adapted to the coltivation of the three staples, has been estimated as follows : sugar, 250,000 acres ; rice, 250,000; cotton, 2,400,000. Some of the sugar planters have derived a revenue in some years, of $1,000 from the labor of each of their hands; from $500 to $750 is the ordinary calculation. The amount of sugar made in Louisiana in 1810, was about 10,000,000 lbs ; in 1814, not less than 14,000,000; and in 1817, 20,000,000, or nearly one third of the whole amount consumed ip the United States.

Animals.] The extensive prairie lands in the southwestern part of the state, embracing the county of Opelousas, and the greater part of Attakapas, are most admirably adapted to the rearing of cattle, and have bitherto been used almost exclusively for that purpose. From this region the rest of the state is supplied with beef, butter and cheese. Many of the wealthy planters on the Teche and Vermillion bave stock farms on Mermentau and Calcasių rivers, and count their cattle by the thousand. The lakes near the mouths of Calcasiu and Sabine rivers are the retreat of immense flocks of wild geese aod ducks, during the winter season.

Chief Towns.) New-Orleans, the capital of the state, is on the east bank of the Mississippi, 90 miles from its mouth in a direct line, and 105 by the course of the river. The city is regularly laid out; the streets are generally 40 feet wide, and cross each other at right angles. On the streets near the river the houses are principally of brick, but in the back part of the lown, of wood. The buildings have no cellars, except the vacancy formed between the ground and the lower floors, which are raised 5 or 6 feet from the earth. The tornadoes, to which the country is subject, will not admit of the buildings being carried up many stories, as in other cities. Among the public buildings are an arsenal, a.custom house, a hospital, a Catholic college, a female orphan asylum, two theatres, 5 banks and several churches for Catholics, Presbyterians and Episcopalians.

The city is admirably situated for trade, near the mouth of a noble river, whose branches extend for thousands of miles in different and opposite directions. It is already one of the greatest emporiums of commerce in America, and since steam-boat navigation has been successfully introduced on the Mississippi, it promises to become, at no distant day, one of the most commercial and populous places in the world. The river in front of the city is crowded with boats from Kentucky, Tennessee, Missouri, Ohio, and even from Pennsylvania and New-York. The population has increased with great rapidity. la 1802 it was estimated at 10,000;

in 1810, it was 17,242; and in 1820, 27,176, of whom, 7:35 were slaves, and 6,237 free blacks.

Natchitoches, pronounced Nakitosh, the largest town in the state west of the Mississippi, is on the west bank of Red river, 200 miles above its junction with the Mississippi. The French established it as a military post in 1717, and about one third of the inhabitants at present are of French origin. In the neighborhood are salt springs from which the settlements on Red river are supplied with this mineral. Alexandria, in the parish of Rapide, is a flourishing settlement on the right bank of Red river, 120 miles from its mouth and 80 below Nalchitoches. Baton Rouge, in east Baton Rouge parish, is on the east bank of the Mississippi, 15 miles above the eflux of the Iberville, and 140 above New-Orleans. St. Francisville is a flourishing settlement in Feliciana parish, on the Mississippi, 30 miles above Baton Rouge. Madisonville, in St. Tamany parish, is 27 miles north of New-Orleans, on the small river Chefuncti, two miles from the point where it discharges itself into lake Pontchartrain.

History.) Louisiana was first settled by the French in 1699. In 1803 the whole country from the Mississippi to the Rocky mountains was purchased by the Uoited States for about $15,000,000. Soon after the purchase, the present state of Louisiana was separated from the rest of the territory, under the name of the Territory of Orleans. In 1811 the territory of Or. Jeans was made a state, and admitted into the Union, under the name of the state of Louisiana. Jo 1812 the United States took possession of West Florida, and the part west of Pearl river was incorporated with the state of Louisiana. In December, 1814, the British made an attack on New Orleans, but were repulsed by the Americans under General Jackson, with the loss of about 3,000 men, killed, wounded and prisoners. The loss of the American army is stated at only seven men killed and six wounded.

Population and Religion.) In 1810 the population was 76,556, to which may be added 10,000 as the population of that part of West Florida which was annexed to the state in 1812. lp 1820 the whole number was 153,407, of whom 69,064 were slaves, and 10,476 free blacks. Two thirds of this population is settled immediately upon the banks of the Mississippi. In the upper sel, tlements the inhabitants are principally Canadians; in the middle, Germans; and in the lower, French and Spaniards. A few years since the inhabitants were principally Roman Catholics. lo 1812 there was not one Protestant church of any denomination in the state. Since that time many have been formed, and the constant introduction of emigrants from the north is effecting a rapid revolution in all the institutions of the country.

State of Society.} In journeying from New-Orleans to the mouth of Sabine river,we meet with men in every stage of civilization. In New Orleans, and other places on the banks of ibe Mississippi, the sugar and cotton planters live in splendid edifices, and enjoy all the pleasures that wealth can impart. In Attakapas and Opelousas, the glare of expensive luxury vanishes, and is

followed by substantial independence. In the western parts of Opelousas are found herdsmen and hunters; the cabins are rudely and hastily constructed, and the whole scene recals to the imagination the primeval state of society.

Government.] The legislative power is rested in a general assembly, consisting of a senate and house of representatives. The representatives are chosen for two years, and their number cannot be more than 50 nor less thao 25. The senate consists of 14 members, chosen by districts, for four years. The executive power is vested in a governor, who is chosen by the general assembly out of the two bighest candidates voted for by the people, and bolds his office for 4 years.

Education.) Till very recently education was much neglected. Many of the inhabitauts are unable to read or write. The government, however, has now coininenced the establishment of schools, academies, and higher seminaries of learning. There is a Catholic college at New-Orleans.

Coinmerce. The exports from Louisiana are not contined to its own produce. The bulky articles of all the Western states go down the Mississippi and are cleared out at New Orleans. The value of the exports has increased with wondertul rapidity. In 1804 it was $1,600,362 ; in 1806, $3,807,323 ; in 1815, $5,102,610 ; in 1817, $13,501,036, or nearly two thirds as wuch as that of the whole United States in 1791. The number of arrivals and clearances at the port of New Orleans, during the year ending October 1st, 1817, was 1,030. During the same year, 1,500 fat bottomed boats, and 500 barges arrived at the city from the upper country.

The difficulty of ascending the rapid current of the Mississippi heretofore prevented New-Orleans from supplying the Western states with foreign merchandize. It was found cheaper to purchase goods in Philadelphia and Baltimore, and transport them by land across the Alleghany mountains, than to stem the rapid carrent of the Mississippi. But steam hoats are now successfully employed in ascending this river, and New-Orleans is rapidly be. coming the emporium of the Western country. In 1819 there were 50 sleum-boats on the western waters connected with the commerce of that city, and there were at the same time 13 new boats on the stocks.


Situation and Extent.) Tennessee is bounded N. by KenIncky; E. by North Carolina ; S. by Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi; and W. by Mississippi river, which separates it froin Arkansas territory. It extends from 350 to 36° 30' N. lat. and from 81° 30' to 90° 10' W. lon. It is 430 miles long, 10+ broad, and contains about 40,000 sqnare miles, or 25,600,000 acres,

Divisions.) The staie is divided into 48 counties, of wbich 26 are in West I'ennessee god 22 in East Teonessce.

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Counties, Pop.

Pop. Slaves

in 1810, in 1820. in 1820. Bedford,

8,242 16,012 3,588 Davidson,


20,154 7,899 Dickson,

4,516 5,190 1,305 Franklin,


16,571 4,167 Giles,

4,546 $2,558 3,261 Hardin,

1,462 136 Hickman,

2,583 6,080 700 Humphreys,

1,511 4,067 542 Jackson,

5,401 7,593 750 Lawrence,

3,271 204 Lincoln,

6,104 14,761 2,250 Maury,

10,350 22,141 6,420 Montgomery, 8,021 12,219

4,663 Overton,

5,643 7,128 665 Perry,

2,384 223 Robertson,


9,938 2,520 Rutherford, 10,265 19,552

5,187 Shelby,

354 103 Smith,

11,649 17,580 3,554 Stewart,

4,262 8,397 1,352 Sumner,

13,792 19,211 5,762 Warren,

5,725 30,348 950 Wayne,


72 White,

4,028 8,701 593 Williamson, 13,153 20,640 6,972 Wilson,

11,952 18,730 3,844 Total, 160,370 287,501 67,682



349 Bledsoe,


4,005 361 Blount,

3,259 11,258 1,050 Campbell,

2,668 4,244 116 Carter,

4,190 4,835 345 Claiborne,

4,798 5,508 377 Cocke,

5,154 4,892 468 Granger,

6,397 7,651 656 Greene,

9,713 11,324 829 Hamilton,


39 Hawkins,


7,643 10,949 1,331 Jefferson,

7,309 8,953 892 Knox,

10,171 13,034 1,825 Marian,

3,888 167 M'Mion,


153 Monroe,


156 Morgan,


46 Rhea,

2,504 4,215 334 Roane,

5,508 7,895 814 Sevier,

4,505 4,772 290 Sullivan,

6,847 7,015 836 Washington,

7,740 9,557 979 Total,

101,277 135,312 12,413 West Tennessee, 160,370 287,501 67,682 Grand total, 261,647





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