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river, which rises near lat. 33° N. and pursuing a southerly course, discharges itself through several mouths into the Rigolets, or channel of communication between lake Pontchartrain and lake Borgne. Below lat. 31° it forms the boundary between Mississippi and Louisiana. 3. The Pascagoula or Chickisawhay river, which runs into a bay of the gulf of Mexico, 38 miles west of Mobile bay, after a southerly course of 200 miles. It is navigable for vessels drawing 6 feet of water 50 miles, and for boats, 100 miles farther, but the bay at its mouth is too shallow to admit vessels drawing more than 4 feet of water.
Face of the Country, Soil and Productions. The southern part of the state, for about 100 miles from the gulf of Mexico, is mostly a flat country, with occasional bills of moderate elevation, and is covered with forests of the long leaved pine, interspersed with cypress swamps, open prairies and inundated marshes. As you proceed farther north, the country becomes more elevated and agreeably diversified, and the soil is a deep, rich mould. The Indian country is very fertile. On the Mississippi, between the mouth of the Yazoo and the southern boundary of the state, there are extensive bottom lands, occupying a surface of about 600 square miles, liable to annual inundation. From these low lands the country rises into hills, and for 10 or 15 miles towards the interior, presents a warm and waving soil, generally composed of rich loam, and admirably adapted to the cultivation of cotton. The price of land is very high in this part of the state, and immense profits have been realized by the cotton planters. The sugar cane is sometimes planted as high up as Natchez, but not with the same success as is experienced farther south. Tobacco and indigo were formerly extensively cultivated, but since the introduction of cotton, they have been almost abandoned. The flour and grain used in the settlements on the Mississippi are principally brought from Kentucky.
Climate.] The climate is temperate, and in the elevated parts of the state, generally healthy. The bay of St. Louis on the southern border, is esteemed one of the most salubrious places in that climate, and is the retreat of many of the citizens of NewOrleans during the sickly season.
Chief Towns.] The city of Natchez is in Adams county, on the E. bank of Mississippi river, more than 300 miles above NewOrleans by the course of the river, and 166 by land. The greater part of the town stands on a bluff, upwards of 150 feet above the surface of the river. Business is transacted principally at the bottom of the bluff, on the margin of the river, where there is a convenient landing place. The country around Natchez consists of excellent cotton lands, and is laid out in extensive plantations. The income of many of the planters is from 5,000 to 30.000 dollars per annum. The town contains a court house, a bank, with a capital of 3,000,000 dollars, and 2 houses of public worship, 1 for Roman Catholics and 1 for Presbyterians. Population, in 1820, 2,184.
Monticello, the capital of the state, is a new town, in Lawrence county, on Pearl river, 90 miles E. of Natchez. Washington is
a flourishing town, 6 miles E. of Natchez, Shieldsborough, in Hancock county, on the bay of St. Louis, 40 miles N. E. of NewOrleans, is a pleasant and healthy settlement, and is much resorted to by the citizens of New-Orleans during the hot months.
Population.] The population in 1810, was 31,306 ; in 1816, 44,208 ; and in 1820, 75,448, of whom 32,814 were slaver. More than half the population is in the counties bordering upon the Mississippi, between the mouth of the Yazoo and the southern boundary, on a territory of about 2,500 square miles.
Indians. The country of the Choctaws lies principally in this state, but partly in Alabama. It extends from the Tombigbee to Mississippi river, and is watered by the Yazoo, Big Black and Pearl rivers, in the upper part of their course. The number of the Choctaws is estimated at 20,000. Within a few years they have made great advances in civilization. They raise coro, cotton and a great many cattle, and often appear clad in garments of their own manufacture.
In 1818 the American Board of Commissioners established a mission among these Indians, which has been prospered beyond the most sanguine expectations. The primary seat of the mission is at Elliot, on !he Yalo Basha creek, about 30 miles above its junction with the Yazoo, and 275 by water from Natchez; but another establishment, called Mayhew, has been recently made on Ook-tib-be-ha creek, 12 miles above its junction with the Tombigbee. School houses have been established at various other places. The Choctawy have from the beginning manifested tbe most friendly dispositions towards the mission; and have recently proved their sincerity by unequivocal evidence. At a treaty, held in 1816, they sold a portion of their country to the United States, for which they are to receive $6,000 adBually, in cash, for 17 years. The whole of this sum they have Toted to appropriate to the support of schools, under the direction of the American Board. The government of the United States has also extended its patronage to the mission. The expenses of erecting a school house and dwelling house, at each of the establishments, have been defrayed from the National treasury, and $1,000 a year has been allowed to the establishment at Elliot.
Government. Mississippi was admitted into the Union as an independent state in 1817. The legislative power is vested in a general assembly, consisting of a senate and house of representatives. The representatives are chosen annually, and cannot be less than 24 nor more than one hundred in number. The senators are chosen for three years, and their number cannot be less than one fourth mor more than one third of the house of representalives. The executive power is vested in a governor, who is chosen by the people for two years.
Education.) Jefferson college, in Washington, near Natchez, was incorporated in 1802, and an edifice, 170 feet by 40, has been erected for the accommodation of students, pother coldege was established at Shieldsborough, in 1818.
Roads and Canals.] The act of Congress admitting this state into the Union appropriates, on certain conditions, which have sioce been complied with, five per cent. of the nett proceeds of the sale of public lands, lying within the state, to making roads and canals.
Siluation and Extent.) Louisiana is bounded N. by Arkansas territory; E. by the state of Mississippi; S. by the gulf of Mex. ico; and W. by Mexico or New-Spain. The boundary runs is follows: Beginning in Mississippi river at 33° N. lat. it proceeds down the river to lat. 31° N. ; thence, along that parallel, to Pearl river; dower Pearl river to the gulf of Mexico; along the gulf of Mexico, including all the islands within six leagues of the shore, to the mouth of the Sabine; up the Sabine to the paraliel of 32° N. lat. thence, due N. to the parallel of 33°; thence, east, along that parallel to the place of beginning. It extends from lat. 29° to 33° N. and from lon. 89° to 94° W. The area is estimated at 48,220 square miles, or 30,860,800 acres. Divisions.] Louisiana is divided into 24 comties and parishes..
. Pop. . Slaves Counties and Parishes.
in 1820. in 1820. Natchitoches, county,
2,870 7,486 2,326 Ouachita, parish,
1.077 2,896 836 Northern Rapide, parish,
6,055 3,489 Section. Catahoula, parish,
1,164 2,287 751 Concordia, parish,
2,875 2,626 1,757 Avoyales, parish,
1,109 2,245 782 Plaquemine, parish,
2,354 1,566 Orleans, parish, *
21,552 41,351 14,946 St. Bernard, parish,
1,020 2,635 1,923 St. Charles, parish,
3,291 3,862 2,987 St. John Baptist, parish,
3,851 2,209 *St. Jaques, parish,
3,955 5,660 3,086 Ascension, parish,
2,219 3,728 2,129 S. E. Sec- Assumption, parish,
2,472 3,576 1,149 Lafourche interior, parish, 1,995 tion.
3,755 968 Iberville, parish,
4,414 2,279. West Baton Rouge, parish, 1,463 2,335 1,303 Point Coupee, parish,
4,539 4,912 3,630 Feliciana, parish,
12,732 7,164 East Baton Rouge, parish,
5,220 2,076 St. Helena, parish,
10,000$ 3,026 830 Washington, parish,
2,517 559 St. Tamany, parish,
1,723 631 * Including the city of New-Orleans. + These five parishes formed a part of West Florida in 1810.
S. W. Attakapas, county, Section. Opelousas, county,
86,536 153,407 69,064
Name.] The whole country between Mississippi river and the Pacific ocean, now belonging to the United States, was once owned by France, and was called Louisiana, in bonour of Louis XIV. la 1803 this country was purchased by the United States from France, for about $15,000,000. It has since been divided into 4 parts, viz. 1. The state of Louisiana. 2. The state of Missouri. 3. Missouri territory. 4. Arkansas territory. The name, Louisiana, is now applieil only to the first of these divisions.
Rivers.] The Mississippi forms the eastern boundary of the state from 33° to 31° N. lat. Near lat. 31° it receives Red river from the N. W. after which, instead of receiving the tribute of inferior streams, it divides into numerous branches or outlets, which diverging from each other, slowly wind their way to the sea, forming what is called the Delta of the Mississippi. Of these outlets, the most western is the Atchufalaya, which leaves the main stream 3 miles below the mouth of Red river, and diverging westward, flows into Atchafalaya bay, in the gulf of Mexico. About 130 miles below the Atchafalaya, is the outlet of the Pluqueminc. Its main stream unites with the Alchafalaya, but it has other communications intersecting the country in different directions. Thirty-one miles below the Plaqueinine, aod 81 above New Orleans, is the outlet of La Fourche, which communicates with tbe gulf of Mexico by several mouths. Below ibe La Fourche, numerous smaller streams branch off from the river at various points. On the east side of the Mississippi, the principal outlet is the Iberville, which, leaves the maio stream about 100 miles below the mouth of Red river, and running in an easterly direction, receives the Amite from the north, and discharges itself into lake Maurepas. Lake Maurepas discharges itself into lake Pontchartrain ; lake Pontchartrain, into lake Borgne ; and lake Borgne into the gulf of Mexico. The Iberville is Davigable three months in the year for vessels drawing 3 or 4 feet of water, but during the resi of the year it is entirely dry from the Mississippi to the mouth of Amite river.
The principal tributary of the Mississippi is Red river, which joins it in lat. 31° 5' N. It enters the state near the N. W. corner in one undivided stream, and after flowing in a southerly direction about 30 miles, spreads out into a number of chann-ls and lakes, forming an inundated swamp, six miles wide and 50 long. This overflowed tract in Red river may be regarded as the commencement of its delta, as the river never again upites in one continuous stream. The navigation of the river is interrupted at a place called Rapide, 135 miles from its mouth, by a ledge of rocks, and further up many parts of the channel are choked with trees. The principal tributary of Red river is the Ouachita or Wachitta which rises in Arkansas territory, and
Howing south into Louisiana, joins Red river 23 miles from its mouth About 30 miles above its union with Red river it is joined by the Tensaw and Catahoula, and after their junction, it usually takes the name of Black river. The Ouachita can be ascended in boats 600 miles.
The principal rivers east of the Mississippi are, the Amite, which rises in the state of Mississippi, and running in a southerly direction, joins the Iberville, 40 miles above its entrance into lake Maurepas; and Pearl river, which also rises in the state of Mississippi, and running in a southerly direction, discharges itself into the Rioglets, or channel of communication between lake Pontchartrain and lake Borgne, after forming for some distance the boundary between the states of Mississippi and Louisiana.
The principal rivers west of the Mississippi are, the Teche, which rises near the centre of the state, and running in a S. E. direction, joins the Atchalalaya, about 15 mijes above its entrance into the gulf of Mexico; the Vermillion, which is west of the Teche, and discharges itself into Vermillion bay; the Mermentau and Calcasiu, which run into the gulf of Mexico, west of the Vermillion; and the Sabine, which rises in the Spanish province of Texas, but from lat. 32° to its mouth forms the western boundary of Louisiana. The Mermentan, the Calcasiu and the Sabine, before entering the gulf of Mexico, spread out into broad lakes, and then contract again into narrow rivers.
Face of the Country.] Along the whole southern border of the state, from Pearl river to the Sabine, are vast prairies, which for every purpose of a general sketch, may be described as one immense meadow, occupying 10,000 square miles, or one fifth of the surface of the state. The part of this tract about the mouths of the Mississippi, for 30 miles, is one continued swamp, destitute of trees, and covered with a species of coarse reed, 4 or 5 feet high. Nothing can be more dreary than the prospect from a ship's mast, while passing this immense waste.-The northern and central parts of the state have been but recently explored, and are as yet very imperfectly known.
A large extent of country in this state is annually overflowed by the Mississippi. From lat. 32° to 31° the average width of the overflowed land may be estimated at 20 miles; from lat. 31° to the efflux of the La Fourche, a little above lat. 30°, the width is about 40 miles. All the country below the La Fourche is overfioned. The whole extent of lands thus inundated is 8,340 square miles; aod if to this be added 2,550 square miles for the inundated lande on Red river, the whole amount in the state will he 10,890 square miles. It must not be imagined, however, that this extensive tract is one continued sheet of water. It is rather intersected by innumerable canals and lakes, which, interlocking in a thousand mazes, chequer the whole face of the country. The area actually submerged is estimated at only 4,000 square miles. It is remarkable that the banks of the Mississippi, and several of its branches, are considerably elevated above the level of the adjacent country. This is occasioned by a more copious deposi