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horth of that parallel. The Creeks now owu about 15,000 square miles, extending from Ocmulgee to Chatahoochee river, and traversed from north to south, nearly in the middle, by Flint river in the upper part of its course. The number of the Creeks was formerly estimated at 24,000, but in their war with the United States in 1813–14, they suffered severe losses. They are now reduced to 20,000, but are still the most warlike tribe on this side the Mississippi. For several years past efforts have been made to introduce among them agriculture and the arts of civilized life, and with considerable success. The Cherokees lately possessed 16,000 square miles in the northern part of the state ; but in 1819, they ceded a large district of it to the United States. Their country embraces also the N. E. part of Alabama, and the S. E. part of Tennessee.

Governinent.] The legislature is styled the general assembly, and consists of a senate and house of representatives, chosen annually by counties. Each couoty sends one senator and from one to four representatives. The governor is chosen for two years by the general assembly.

Commerce and Mannfacturcs.) In 1820 Georgia was the seventh state in the union in the value of her exports. The amount was $6,594,623, and consisted almost wholly of domestic produce. The staple of the state is cotton. The amount of shipping in 1815 was only 15,590 tons. The value of the manufactures for the year 1810 was estimated at $3,658,481.

Islands.] There are numerous islands near the coast. The principal, beginning in the north, are, Tybee, on which is a light house, at the north of Savannah river; Warsaw, Ossabaw, St. Catherine's, and Sapelo, between the mouths of the Ogechee and the Alatamaha : St. Simons and Jykill, between the mouths of the Alatamaha and the Salilla ; and Cumberland island, which extends from the mouth of the Satilla to that of St. Mary's river.

Curiosity.] In the N. W. corner of the state, within half a mile of Tennessee river, is Nickojack cave. It commences in a precipice of the Rackoon mountain, with a mouth 50 feet high, and 160 wide. Its roof is formed by a solid and regular layer of limestone, having no support but the sides of the cave, and as level as the floor of a house. The cave consists chiefly of one grand excavation through the rocks, preserving for a great distance the same dimensions as at its mouth. What is more remakable still, it forms for the whole distance it has yet been explored, a wall. ed and vaulted passage for a stream of cool and limpid water, which, where it leaves the cave, is 6 feet deep and 60 feet wide. Col. Ore, of Tennesse, explored this cave a few years since. He followed the course of the creek in a canoe for three miles within the care, and was prevented from proceeding further by a fall of waler,


Situation and Extcnt.) Alabama is bounded N. by Tennessee ; E. by Georgia, from wbich it is separated in part by the Chataheochee ; S. by Florida and the gulf of Mexico; W. by the state of Mississippi. The western boundary begins on Tennessee river, at the mouth of Bear creek, and proceeds by a direct line to the N. W. corner of Washington county, and thence, due south, to the Gulf of Mexico. The southern boundary here commences, and proceeds eastwardly, including all the islands within six leagues of the shore, to the Perdido river; thence, up the same, to the parallel of 31° N. lat. and thence, due east, along that parallel, to the western bouodary of Georgia. The area of the state is estimated at 44,000 square miles.

Divisions.] The state is divided into 24 counties.

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Rivers.) The Tennessee enters the state at its N. E. corner, and curving towards the south, leaves it at its N. W. The Chatahoochee forms part of the boundary between Alabama and Georgia.

The Mobile is formed by the union of the Alabama and Tombigbee, 40 miles above the town of Mobile. After a course of about three miles, it divides, and enters Mobile bay in several channels. The maiu western channel retains the name of Mobile river; the main eastern channel is the deepest and widest, and is called the Tensaw.

Alabama river is the eastern branch of the Mobile. It is formed by the Coosa and Tallapoosa, both of which rise in Georgia, near the sources of the Chataboochee and Savannah rivers, and flowing in a S. W. direction, unite 3 miles below fort Jackson ; after which the common stream, taking the name of Alabama river, runs in a S. S. W. direction till its union with the Tombigbee. From its mouth to Cahawba, 210 miles, it has 4 or 5 feet of water; and from Cahawba to the forks of the Cooga and Tallapoosa, 3 feet in the shallowest places. The Tallapoosa is pavi. gable for boats to the Great falls, 38 miles. The navigation of

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the Cooga is interrupted by falls at the distance of 7 miles from its mouth. The principal tributary of the Alabama is the Cahawba, which joins it at the town of Cahawba, 160 iniles below the forks of the Coosa and Tallapoosa.

The Tombigbee rises in the N. W. part of the state, and flowing in a southerly direction, near the western boundary, for about 450 miles, joins the Alabama to form the Mobile. It is navigable for boats to the mouth of the T'uscalqosa, its principal tributary. The Tuscaloosa or Black Warrior is navigable for boats to the falls, situated near lat. 33° 15' N.

Bay) Mobile bay, at the mouth of Mobile river, is 30 miles long, and on an average 12 broad. It communicates with the gulf of Mexico, by two straits, one on each side of Dauphin island, which lies at its mouth. The strait on the west side will pot admit the passage of vessels drawing more than 5 feet of water ; that on the east side, between the island and Mobile point, has 18 feet of water, and the channel passes within a few yards of the point. There is a bar which runs across the bay aşar its upper end, over which there is only I feet of water.

Face of the Country, Soil and Productions.) A ridge of highlands divides ine waters which fall into the Tennessee on the north from those which flow into the gulf of Mexico on the south. North of this ridge is a limestone region ; south of it the whole country is alluvial. The soil is generally fertile, particularly on the banks of the rivers. The country bordering on Tennessee river, for the space of 100 miles east and west, and 40 from north to south, is regarded by some as the garden of North America. Thousands of emigrants from the neighboring states have resorted hither within a few years. Madison county, which lies in this region, 7 or 8. years ago was a mere wilderness. In 1820 it contained more than 17,000 inhabitants, and produced 15,000 bales of cotton or 4,500,000 pounds. Cotton is the staple production of the state, and the great article of export.

Chief Towns.) Mobile is on the western channel of Mobile river, near its entrance into Mobile bay, 33 miles north of Mobile point. It is built on a high bank, in a dry and commanding situation, but the approach to the town for vessels drawing more than $ feet of water is difficult and circuitous. It formerly belonged to the Spaniards, but came into the possession of the United States in 1913, since which it has rapidly increased in population, and an attempt has been made to make it the depot for the produce of the rich and extensive country on the Tombigbee and Alabama rivers. There is, hower, a vigorous rivalry between this place and Blakely:

Blakely is a new town, laid out in 1813, on the Tensaw or eastero outlet of Mobile river, 6 miles from its mouth, and 10 E. N. E. of Mobile. It has in some points a decided superiority over Mobile as an emporium for the commerce of the state. The same wind that enables a vessel to enler Mobile bay will carry her to the wharves of Blakely, which is not the case with Mobile. Another advantage is an open road to the rapidly improving


country on Alabama river. Vessels drawing 12 feet of water can enter the port at full tide.

St. Stephens is on the west side of Tombigbee river, 80 miles by land above Mobile. The river is navigable to this place for vessels drawing 4 feet of water. Cahawba, the seat of government, is situated at the junction of Cahawba river with the Alabama, 77 miles N. E. of St. Stephens. It was laid out in 1813. Eagleville is a French settlement, situated near the junction of the Black Warrior with the Tombigbee.

Huntsville, the capital of Madison County, is situated near the head waters of Indian creek, 10 miles N. of Tennessee river. It is regularly laid out, and contains 150 dwelling houses, a court house, a bank, 2 printing offices, and 2 houses for public worship. Most of the cotton which is raised in Madison county is purchased here, and sent in wagons to Tennessee river, where it is shipped for New Orleans.

Forts.) Fort Claiborne is on the east side of Alabama river, at the head of schooner navigation, 60 miles above its junction with the Tombigbee, and 25 E. of St. Stephens. Fort Jackson is between Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers, about 3 miles above their junction. Fort Stoddart is on the west side of Mobile river, 44 miles from its mouth, at the head of sloop navigation.

Population] Alabama has been but recently settled, and the population has increased with astonishing rapidity. In 1810, there were less than 10,000 inhabitants; in 1816, 29,683; in 1818, 70,594, and in 1820, 127,901, of whom 41,879 were slaves. The settlements at present are principally confined to the banks of the great rivers. The counties on the Tennessee contain more than one third of the whole population.

Indians.] The Indians formerly occupied the whole state, but their title has beea almost extinguished by the government of the United States. The Cherokees, however, still own a large section in the N. E. part of the state ; the Creeks occupy the country between Coosa river and the eastern boundary; and the Choctaws inhabit a considerable tract between the Tombigbee and the western boundary.

History.] Alabama and Mississippi formed a part of Georgia, till 1800, when they were separated from it, and established by act of Congress as a separate government, under the name of the Mississippi Territory. In 1817 Alabama was separated from Mississippi and became a territorial government, and on the 3d of March, 1819, was admitted into the Union as an independent state.

Education, Rouds and Canals.] In the act of Congress admitting Alabama into the Union, two townships of land were granted to the state, for the support of a college ; and one section, or thirty-sixth part, of every township, was given for the support of schools. Five per cent of the net proceeds arising from the sale of the public lands within the stále, were also appropriated to making roads and canals for the benefit of the state.


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Situation and Extent.) Mississippi is bounded N. by Tennessee; E. by Alabama; S. by the gulf of Mexico and Louisiana ; W. by Louisiana and Arkansas territory. The boundary runs as follows: Beginning on the Mississippi river, at the point where the southero boundary line of the state of Tennessee strikes the same; thence east, along the said boundary line to the Tennessee river; thence, up the same, to the mouth of Bear creek; thence, by a direct line, in a southerly direction, to the N. W. corner of the county of Washington; thence, due south, to the gulf of Mexico; thence, westwardly, including all islands within six leagues of the shore, to the most eastern mouth of Pearl river; thence, up said river, to the parallel of 31° N. lat.; thence, west, along said parallel to the Mississippi river; thence, up the same, to the place of beginning. It extends from lat. 30° 10' to 35° N. and From loo. 880 10 to 91° 35' W. The area is estimated at 45,000

square miles.

Divisions.) About one half of the territory of this state, embracing the northern and north-eastern parts, is in the possession of the Chickasaw and Choctaw Indians. The part of the state belonging to the whites is divided into 17 counties.

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Rivers.] The Mississippi forms the western boundary from Jat. 31° 10 lat. 35o N. Its priocipal tributaries are, 1. The Yazoo, which rises near the northern boundary of the state, and pursuing a S. W. course, runs into the Mississippi, 12 miles above the Walaut hills and 100 above Natchez. Ji is navigable 100 miles. 2. Big Black river, which empties itself 50 miles abore Natchez, after a S. W. course of 170 miles, for 70 ot' which it is navigable. 3. The Homockitto, which joins the Mississippi a little above Fort Adams, after a S. W. course of 70 miles. For about 15 miles from its mouth, the banks of the Homochilto are annually overflowed. 4. Buffalo river, which falls into the Mississippi at Loftus' heigbts, 2 miles above Fort Adams.

The principal rivers in the southern part of the stale, are, ļ. The Amite, which rises in the county of the same name, and pyrsues a southerly course into the state of Louisiana, 2. Pearl

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