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tongae of land which separates it from the Santee. It is intended also to connect Ashley river with the Edisto by a canal 19 miles' long; and considerable progress has already been made in a road through the state, from Charleston through Columbia, anu thence towards Tennessee. In the report of the Board of Public works to the legislature for the year 1820, it is stated " that from the progress made, there is reason to believe that nearly all the improvements contemplated by the legislature, opening an inlaod navigation of more than fifteen huodred miles, will be completed in the year 1822, and within the sum pledged and set apart for internal improvements."

Population.) The population, in 1790, was 239,073; in 1800, 345,591; in 1810, 415,110.; and in 1820, 502,741. Of the population in 1880, more than one half were slaves. The slaves are most ngmerous in the low country. In several districts on the coast there are four or five slaves to one white man, while in -some of the districts in the upper cuantry, there are four or five white men to one slave.

Religion.] The prevailing denominations are Baptists, Methodists, Presbyterians and Episcopalians. In 1811, the Baptists had 100 ministers and 130 churches; the Methodists, 26 travelling and upwards of 90 local preachers ; the Presbyterians, between 80 and 100 coagregations, under the care of about 40 ministers; the Episcopalians, 10 churches and 16 ministers ; the Independents, 7 churches and 6 ministers. There were besides a few German and French Protestants, Quakers, Roman Catholics and Jews.

Government.] The legislature consists of a senate and house of representatives. The senate is composed of 43 members, chosen for four years, and the house of representatives of 124 members, chosen for two years, by districts. The governor is chosen every two years, by a joint ballot of both houses.

Commerce and Manufactures. In 1820, South Carolina was the third state in the Union, in the value of her exports. The amount was $8,882,940, and consisted almost entirely of domestic produce, a considerable portion of which was derived from North Carolina. The staple of the state is cotton. The other articles are rice, lumber, pitch, tar, turpentine, &c. This produce was exported principally in ships belonging to the merchants of he northern states. The amount of shipping belonging to South Carolina in 1815, was only 37,168 tons. Very little attention is paid to manufactures. The value of the manufactures in 1810, was estimated at only $3,623,596.

Islands.] The sea-coast is bordered with a chain of fine islands, the most noted of which are Sullivan's island, James island, and John's island, bordering on Charleston harbor; Edisto island, lying S. W. of John's island, and about 40 miles from Charleston; and Hilton head, the most southern island in Carolina. Between these islands and the shore, there is a very convenient navigation for sea vessels of a small burden, from Georgia to North Carolina, interrupted only by the point of land between Santee river

and Winyaw bay, and the narrow isthmus between Waccamaw and Little rivers. Both these obstructions will be removed by the canals now in progress.


Situation and Extent.] Georgia is bounded N. by Tennessee ; N. E. by South Carolina, from which it is separated by Savannah river ; S. E. by the Atlantic ; S. by Florida, and W. by Alabama. It extends from 30° 20' to 35o N. lat. and from 81° to 86° 48' W. lon. It is 300 miles long from N. to S. and the area is estimated at 60,000 square miles, a considerable portion of which is still in the bands of the Indians.

Divisions.] The part of the state occupied by the whites is divided into 47 counties.


Appling, Baldwin, Bryan, Bullock, Burke, Camden, Chatham, Clarke, Columbia, Earley, Elbert, Emanuel, Effingham, Franklin, Glynn, Greene, Gwinnet, Habersham, Hall, Hancock, Irwin, Jackson, Jasper, Jefferson, Jones,

Pop. Slaves Counties. in 1820. in 1820.

1,264 78 Laurens, 7,734 3,042 Liberty, 3,021 2,238 Lincoln, 2,578 697 Madison, 11,577 5,820 M'Intosh,

4,342 2,095 | Montgomery, 14,737 6,457 Morgan,

8,767 3,461 Oglethorpe, 12,695 7,420 Pulaski,

768 216 Putnam, 11,788 5,159 Rabun, 2,928 367 | Richmond, 3,018 1,347 Scriven, 9,040 1,774 | Tattnal), 3,418 2,760 Telfair, 13,589 6,937 | Twiggs, 4,589 538 Walton, 3,145 277 | Warren, 5,086

399 Washington. 12,734 6,863 Wayne,

411 39 Wilkes, 8,355 1,997 Wilkinson, 14,614 5,494

7,056 2,680 Total, 16,570 6,886

Pop. Slares in 1820. in 1820. 5,436 1,965 6,695 5,037 6,458 3,063 3,735 904 5,129 3,715 1,869 703 13,520 6,045 14,046 7,338

5,283 2,022 15,475 7,241 524

15 8,608 4,831 3,941 1,833 2,644 568 2,104

646 10,640 3,462 4,192

631 10,630 4,041 10,627 3,898

1,010 333 17,607 9,356 6,992 1,463

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Face of the country, Soil and Productions.] From the ocean, for the distance of 7 miles, there is a margin of islands and marshes, intersected by rivers, creeks and inlets, communicating with each other, and forming an inland navigation for vessels of 100 tons, along the whole coast. These sea islands consist generally of a species of land called hammock, which produces

cotton of a superior quality. A narrow margin on the coast of the main consists also of hammock lands and salt marshes. Immediately back of this are the pine barrens, interspersed with numerous inland swamps. The rivers and creeks have also near their mouths marshy lands, called brackish swamps ; and higher up, river tide swamps, which are entirely fresh. The pine barrens reach 60, and in some places 90 miles from the coast. Beyond this commences a country of sand hills, from 30 to 40 miles wide, interspersed with fertile tracts, and extending to the falls of the rivers. The part of the state above the falls of the rivers is called the Upper country, and has generally a strong fertile soil. Cotton is the principal production of Georgia. It is of two kinds, the black seed, or sea island, and the green seed, or upland. Rice is extensively cultivated in the swamps of the low country. The fruits are figs, oranges, melons, pomegranates, olives, lemons, &c. The forests atford fine timber, chiefly oak and pine, for exportation. png

Climate.] The climate does not differ essentially from that of South Carolina. The winters are mild and pleasant. Snow is seldom or never seen, and vegetation is not often injured by severe frosts. Cattle subsist tolerably well through the winter, without any other food than what they obtain in the woods and savannas, and are fatter in that seas son than in any other. In the upper country the air is pure and salubrious throughout the year, and the water abundant and good. In the low country the inhabitants are subject to various disorders, arising partly from the badness of the water, which is generally brackish ; aod partly from noxious vapors, which are exhaled from the stagnant waters, and putrid matter, in the rice swamps. Savannah has heretofore been very unhealthy, on account of the large extent of lands in the vicinity devoted to the cultivation of rice : but in 1817, the inhabitants voted 70,000 dollars to the proprietors of these lands, as an inducement to abandon the wet cultivation and adopt the dry inode.

Rivers.] Savannah river separates Georgia from South Carolina on the northeast. The Tennessee just touches the state on the northwest ; the Chatahoochee separates it from Alabama on the S. W. and the St. Mary's from Florida on the south.

The Savannah is formed by the union of the Tugaloo and Kiowee, both of which rise in the western part of North Carolina. The Tugaloo forms the boundary between South Carolina and Georgia from the parallel of 35° N. lat. till it unites with the Kiowee, after which the common stream under the name of Savannah river, runs in a S. E. direction, and meets the Atlantic in Tybee sound under lat. 32° N. It is navigable for large vessels to Savannah, 18 miles, and for boats, to the falls, at Augus. ta, 340 miles farther. Above the falls, boats can go 60 miles without obstruction.

The Ogeechee rises in Greene county, and running in a S. E. direction, passes by Georgetown and Louisville, and fails into Ossabaw sound, at Hardwick, 20 miles south of Savagnah, after a course of about 200 miles



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The Alatamaha is formed by the Oconee and Ocmalgee, both of which rise in the northern part of the state, and runniog in a direction E. of S. parallel with each other, for several hundred miles unite at the southern extremity of Montgomery county. After their union the river runs in a S. E. direction about 100 miles, and discharges itself into the Atlantic by several mouth:, 60 miles S.W. of Savannah. It is navigable for vessels of 30 tons as far as Milledgeville on the Oconee branch, 300 miles from the

The bar at the mouth has 14 feet of water at low tide. The Satilla discharges itself into the Atlantic under the paralJel of 31° N. lat. opposite the northern extremity of Comberland jsland, after an E. S E. course of about 190 miles.--St. Mary's river, which, during its whole course, forms the boundary between Georgia and Florida, rises in Okefonoco swamp. It first takes a southerly direction for a considerable distance; then, after bending eastward, turns to the north, and proceeds as far as dat. 30° 40%. Its course is thence S. of E. for 60 miles, to the ocean, into which it discharges itself between Amelia and Cumberland islands. It has 21 feet of water on the bar at high tide, and is navigable for vessels drawing 14 feet of water for more than 70 miles.

The Chatahoochee and Flint rivers unite at the S. W. extremity of the state to form the Appalachicola. The Chatahoochee rises in the northern part of the state, near the head waters of the Savannah, and runs first in a S. W. direction almost to the western boundary; it then turns and pursues a course E. of S. till it meets Flint river. During the latter part of its course it forms the boundary between Georgia and Alabama. Flint river rises near the head waters of the Ocmulgee, and runs at first in a southerly and afterwards in a southwesterly direction through a fertile country for about 200 miles.

Swamp.] Okefonoco spump lies partly in Georgia and partly in Florida. It is 180 miles in circumference, and gives rise to two rivers, the St. Mary's, which has already been described, and the St. Juan or Suwaney, which runs wholly in Florida. There are some spots of rich hammock land, and some pine barrens interspersed among the swampy tracts. The only inhabitants are alligators, snakes, frogs and musketoes. The pumber of these insects, and the large portion of poisonous vapor produced in warm weather, render it uninhabitable by any human being.

Chief Towns.) Savannah is on a brigh sandy bluff, 40 feet above low water mark, on the S. W. bank of Savannah river, 27 miles from the bar at its mouth. Vessels drawing 14 feet water can come up to the city. karger veseels receive their cargoes 3 miles below. The city is regularly laid out in the form of a parallelogram, and contains 10 public squares, at equal distances from each other, inclosed and planted with trees. Many of the houses recently erected are splendid edifices. Among the public buildings are a hospital, theatre, 3 banks, and 10 houses of public worship. The city is the centre of commerce for a large extent of country. To nine months, ending June 30th

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1817, produce was exported to the amount of $9,966,503. Popalation, in 1820, 7,523, of whom 3,075 were slaves.

Augusta is on Savannah river, just below the falls ; 127 miles N. W. of Savannah by land, 340 by water. It is well situated for commerce, and large qnantities of produce are brought hither to be carried down the river to Savannah. It contains a theatre, an academy, a spacious city hall, 5 houses for public worship, and about 4,000 inhabitants.

Milledgeville, the capital of the state, is on the Oconee, 300 miles by water from the mouth of the Alatamaha. The Oconee is navigable to this place for boats of 30 tons, and large quantities of cotton and other produce are brought here to be carried down the river. Population, in 1820, 2,069.

Sunbury is a pleasant and healthy town at the head of St. Catherine's sound, 40 miles S. of Savannah. Darien is on a high sandy bluff, on the north and principal channel of the Alatamaha, 12 miles from the bar at its mouth, and 62 S. S. W. of Savannah. Owing to the rapid settlement of the country between the Oconee and Ocmulgee, it has risen within a few years to be a place of much importance. Exertions are now making to render this town the place of export for the produce of the rich back country with which it is connected. Brunswick, on the N. bank of Turtle river, 10 miles S. of Darien, has a fine harbor. SCMary's, on the N. side of St. Mary's river, 9 miles from its mouth, has a good barbor, and contained, in 1820, 771 inbabitants.

Education.] The university of Georgia consists of a college, called Franklin college, established at Athens, 70 miles N. of Milledgeville, and of an academy, either established, or to be pse tablished in each county. This body of institutions is under the direction of a Senatus Academicus, consisting of the Governor and Senate of the state, and 15 trustees. The senatus academicus appoints a board of commissioners in each county to xaperintend the academy of the county, and the inferior schools. Inc 1817, $200,000 were appropriated by the legislatore for the establishment of free schools throughout the state.-Franklin college commenced operation in 1803. It has a president, 4 professors. 2 tutors, and about 30 students. Its funds are 100,000 dollars in bank stock, and 50,000 acres of land.

Population and Religion.] The population in 1790 was 82,548;in 1800, 162,686 ; in 1810, 252,433; and in 1820, 340 989,baving increased more than fourfold in 30 years. Or the popis lation in 1820, 149,676 were slaves, and 1,763 free blacks. TheBaptists and Methodists are much the most numerous religious denominations.

Indians.] The western part of the state is in possession of the Todians, viz. the Creeks and the Cherokees. The Indian country lately embraced more than 40,000 square miles, or two thirds of the whole state ; but by the treaty of Fort Jackson, the claim of the Creeks was extinguished to more than 11,000 square miles in the southern part of the state, including the whole country below the parallel of 31° 35', and a considerable districe

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