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Edenton is at the head of a bay on the N. side of Albemarle sound, near the mouth of Chowan river. Plymouth is on the S. side of the Roanoke, 5 miles from Albemarle sound.
Education.] The University of North Carolina, at Chapel Hill, 27 miles W. of Raleigh, was incorporated in 1788, and has been liberally patronized by the state. lo 1821 it had a president, 4 professors, 2 tutors and 146 Students.- At Salem, in Stokes county, there is an academy for young ladies, under the direction of the Moravians, which is in high repute, pupils resorting hither from all parts of the Southern states. Within a few
years there has been much zeal displayed in the establishment of acadmies and schools. Previous to 1804, there were but 2 academies in the state. The number at present is 50, and is rapidly in. creasing
Internal Improvements.] Since the year 1815 the state has been zealously engaged in the business of internal improvements. It is intended to improve the navigation of the inlels and sounds, so as to open a direct and easy communication with the ocean ; to remove the obstructions in the navigation of the principal rive ers; to connect the rivers by navigable canals; to improve the roads; and to drain the marshes and swamps of the eastern and southern counties. In prosecution of these plans, skilful engineers have been employed for several years, in making the necessary surveys, and several private companies have been formed under the patronage of the state.
Population.] The population, in 1790, was 393,751; in 1800 478,103; in 1810, 555,500; and in 1820, 638,829, of whom 205,017 were slaves and 14,812 free blacks. The slaves are principally confined to the low country. The western parts of the state were settled by Scotch-Irish emigrants. Almost all the country between the Catawba and the Yadkin is thus peopled. The Moravians, in 1751, purchased a tract of 100,000 acres, ly, ing between the head waters of the Yadkin and the Dan, and it now contains a number of flourishing villages.
Religion.) The Methodists and Baptists are the prevailing denominations, especially in the low country. The Scotch-Irish are Presbyterians, and there are also in the western parts of the state a few settlements of German Lutherans and German Cal. vinists.
Government.) The legislative power is vested in a general assembly, consisting of a senate and house of commons. The senators are chosen annually, one from each county. The members of the house of commons are chosen annually, two from each county, and one from each of the six principal towns. The executive power is vested in a governor, and a council of 7 persons, all of whoin are chosen annually by a joint ballot of the two houses.
Commerce and Manufactures. Most of the produce of North Carolina is exported from the neighboring states. Not a single point has yet been found on the coast, within the limits of the state, at which a safe and commodious port could be established.
Hitherto, the productions of the northern parts of the state, lying on the Roanoke and its branches, and also on the upper parts of the Tar and Neuse, have been sent to the markets of Virginia ; and the trade of Broad river, the Catawha, and the Yadkin has gone to South Carolina. The principal exports are pitch, tar, turpentine, lumber, rice, tobacco, wheat and Indian corn. The value of the exports from the ports of North Carolioa in 1820 was only $808,319. The value of the manufactures in 1810 was estimated at $6,653,152.
Situation and Extent.] South Carolina is bounded N. and N. E by North Carolina ; S. E. by the Atlantic; and S. W. by Georgia, from wbich it is separated by Savannah river. It extends from 32° to 35° 8' N. lat. and from 78° 24' to 33°, 30' W. lon. The area is estimated at 24,000 square miles,
Divisions.] The state is divided into 28 districts.
Pop. Slares: Divricts. in 1820. in 1820. | Districts. in 1820. in 1820. Abbeville, 23,167 9,615 | Laurens,
17,682 4,879 Barnwell, 14,750 6,336 | Lexington, 8,083 2,800 Beaufort, 32,199 27,339 Marion,
10,201 3,463 Charleston, 80,212 57,221 Marlborough, 6,425 3,033 Chester,
14,189 4,542 | Newberry, 16,104 5,749 Chesterfield, 6,645 2,062 Orangeburgh, 15.653 8,829 Colleton, 26,404 21,770 Pendleton, 27.022 4,715 Darlington, 10,949 4,473 Richland, 12,321 7,627 Edgefield, 25,119 12. 198 Spartanburgh, 16,989 3,308 Fairfield, 17,174
25,639 Gheorgetown, 17,603 15,546 | Union,
14,126 4,278 Greenville, 14,530 3,423 Williamsburgh,
5,864 6,025 1,434 | York,
14,936 4,590 Kershaw, 12,432 no return Lancaster, 8,716 2,798
Total, 502,741 251,783
Face of the Country.] The sea coast is bordered with a fine chain of islands, between which and the shore there is a very convenient navigation. The main land is naturally divided into the Lower and Upper country. The low country extends 80 or 100 miles from the coast, and is covered with extensive forests of pitch pine, called pine barrens, interspersed with swamps and marshes of a rich soil. After leaving the low country, in pro ceeding into the interior, you first pass through a region of little sand hills, resembling the waves of the ocean in a high sea, This corious country, sometimes called the middle country, continues for 50 or 60 miles, till you arrive at the Ridge, which is a remarkable tract of high ground as you approach it from the
sea, but level as you advance from the N. W. Beyond this ridge, commences a fine healthy country of hills and dales, terminating, in the western extremity of the state, in lofty mountains. Table mountain, in Pendleton district, four miles from the northern boundary of the state, is 4,300 feet above the level of the sea, and is the highest land in the state.
Soil and Productions.] The banks of the rivers and creeks, in the low country, are bordered with a belt of excellent land, producing cotton and maize in abundance; the marsbes and swamps in this district make fine rice plantations; and some of the low grounds between the sand hills in the middle country, are suitable for agriculture and pasturage; but with these exceptions, the whole country below the Ridge has a sandy barren soil, not worth coltivation. The soil of the upper country is generally strong and productive. Cotton and rice are the staple productions of the state. The climate and soil are equally well adapted to tobacco, grain, and indigo, and these were formerly cultivated to a great extent: but since the invention of the machine to cleanse upland cotton from its seeds, the cultivation of cotton has become so profitable, that almost every thing else is neglected.
Climate.] The clinate of the upper country is healthy at all seasons of the year. In the low country, the summer months are sickly, particularly August and September, and at this season the climate frequently proves fatal to strangers. November and December are the best months in the year for strangers to arrive in Carolina.
Rivers.] The following are the principal rivers, beginning in the east. 1. The Great Pedee, which rises in North Carolina, where it is called Yadkin river. Alter entering this state it ruos in a S. S. E. direction, receives Lynche's river and Black river from the west, and the Little Pedee and Waccamaw rivers from the east, and discharges itself into Widyaw bay, which communi. cates with the Atlantic, 12 miles below Georgetown. It is navigable for sloops of 70 tons, about 130 miles, to Greenville, and for smaller boats, to Chatham, 20 miles higher up. 2. The Santee, the principal river of South Carolina, is formed by the Congaree and Wateree, which unite about 25 miles S. E. of Columbia. It runs in a S. E. direction, and discharges itself into the ocean through two mouths, a few miles south of the entrance to Winyaw bay. The Congaree is formed by the union of Broad and Saluda rivers, the former of which rises in North Carolioa, and running in a S. E. direction, receives the waters of several considerable creeks and unites with the Saloda a few miles N. W. of Columbia. Near the point of their confluence successive ledges of granite run across both streams, occasioning falls of no incousiderable elevation and extent. The Santee is navigable to Camden, on the Wateree branch, for boats of 70 tons; and on the Congaree, steam boats ascend as far as Columbia. 3. Cooper and Ashley rivers discharge themselves into Charleston harbor, one on the eastern and the other on the western side of the city.
4. Edisto river is formed by two branches which unite in Orangeburg district. It runs in a southeasterly direction, and discharges itself into the ocean through twe mouths, called the North and South Edisto inlets, which inclose between them Edisto island. It is navigable for large boats 100 miles. 5. The Savannah, which forms the boundary between South Carolina and Georgia.
Chief Towns.) Charleston is built on the tongue of land between the rivers Ashley and Cooper, which unite immediately below the city and form a spacious and convenient harbor, communicating with the ocean at Sullivan's island, 7 miles S. E. of the city. The harbor bas a bar at its mouth, over which in the deepest places there are 16 feet of water at low tide. The city is regularly laid out in parallel streets, from 35 to 70 feet in width, running from river to river, and intersected by others at right angles. The new houses are of brick and many of them are elegant.
Among the public buildings are a city-ball, a theatre, an orphan asylum, an alms-house, 6 banks, and 18 houses of public worship, viz 3 for Episcopalians, 3 for Presbyterians, 3 for Methodists, 2 for Independents, one each for Lutherans, Baptists, French Protestaots, Friends, Roman Catholics and Jews, and an orphan house church. The library society have a well chosen library of 13,000 volumes, which is increased annually by the importation of books to the value of about £300 sterling.–The commerce of Charleston is extensive and flourishing. It imports the foreign goods consumed in South Carolina, a considerable part of North Carolina, and a part of Georgia. In 1815 it was the fifth town in the United States in amount of shipping, the number of tons being 36,473. The population, in 1790, was 16,359; in 1800, 18,712; in 1810, 24,711 ; and in 1820, 24,780, of whom 12,652 were slaves, and 1,472 free blacks. The citizens of Charleston have ever been distinguished for polished manners and unaffected hospitality.
Columbia, the capital of the state, and the seat of South Carolina college, stands on the east side of the Congaree, just below the confluence of Saluda and Broad rivers. It is regularly laid out on an elevated plain, which slopes on every side,commanding an extensive prospect. It contains a state bouse, 4 houses for public worship, and about 3,000 inhabitants.
Georgetown is situated on Winyaw bay, near the mouth of the Pedee, 13 miles from the sea and 60 N.N. E. of Charleston. It is connected by the Pedee and its branches with an extensive and fertile back country, but there is a bar at the mouth of Winyaw bay which prevents the entrance of vessels drawing more than 11 feet of water. The population is estimated at 2,000.
Beaufort, on Port Royal island, 73 miles S. W. of Charleston, has a deep and spacious harbor, and contains about 1,000 inhabilants. Camden, the capital of Kershaw district, is on the E. side of the Wateree, 35 miles N. E. of Columbia. It is regularly laid out, and contains about 200 houses. The river is navigable to
this place for boats of 70 tons, and there is a lively trade witti the back country. Camden is remarkable for two battles fought here during the revolutionary war. Winnsborough, on a branch of the Wateree, 30 miles N. N. W. of Columbia, is the seat of a college called Mount Zion college, which, however, is not at present in operation.
Education.] South Carolina college was founded in Columbia by the legislature ip 1801, and is immediately ander the patronage of the state. It has a president, 4 professors, 2 tutors; more than 100 students, a well selected library of 5,000 volumes, and a fine mathematical apparatus. Handsome brick buildings are erected for the accommodation of the president, professors and students. The legislature make an annual grant to the college of about $10,000, and are perpetually extending to it a fostering hand.-There is a chartered college at Beaufort, with funds of 60,000 or 70,000 dollars, and a handsome edifice ; but it is not provided with instructors in the studies of a collegial course, and does not confer degrees.
There are academies in various parts of the state, and the leg-islature annually appropriates $30,000 for the support of free schools, which are established all over the state. The South Carolina society, formed in the year 1737, for the purpose of charitably educating poor children of both sexes, has a sund of $137,000, and supports a school of upwards of 70 children, who are clothed as well as educated.
Internal Improvements. There is a caval, 22 miles long, connecting Santee with Cooper river, by which the produce of a large section of this state, and of a part of North Carolina, is carried to the city of Charleston. It is 35 feet broad on the surface,20 feet at the bottom, and 4 feet deep. The descent from the summit level to the Santee is 35 feet, and is effected by 4 locks ; the descent from the summit level to Cooper river is 68 feet, and is effected by 9 locks. The expense of the canal was $650,667. The tolls do not exceed $13,000
Since the year 1818 the state has been zealously engaged in the business of internal improvements. A Board of Public works. has been appointed, and the sum of one million dollars has been appropriated to the improvement of inland navigation. Capals are already completed around the falls at the mouths of Broad and Saluda rivers, and a communication is thus opened between Columbia and the fertile country on their borders.--Canals have also been commenced around the fails in the Wateree above Camden, by which the navigation will be opened into North Carolina, and with the aid of similar improvements, already commenced in that state, will be extended nearly to the sources of the river.-The Waccamaw, which joins the Pedee near its mouth, ruos nearly parallel to the sea-coast, and is navigable for vessels of 150 tons to the distance of 80 milcs. It is intended to unite this river by a canal with Little river, which discharges it. self in North Carolina within the sea islands.-From Georgetown hårbor, a canal, 5 miles long, has been commenced across the