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James river, is named after Gezeral Washington, who endowed it with 100 shares in the James river canal. It has a philosophical apparatus, a library of about 2,000 vol. umes, a president, 2 professors, and about 50 students. The canal shares have in some years produced an income of more than $3,000. Hampden Sidney college, in Prince Edward county, had in 1821, a president, 2 tutors, and 101 students, of whoin 15 were in the grammar school attached to the college.
Population.] The population, in 1790, was 747,610 ; in 1800, 886,149; in 1810, 974,6225 and in 1820, 1,065,366, of whom 425,153 were slaves, and 34,600 free blacks. About three fourths of the population live east of the Blue ridge ; and in this part of the state the slaves are very numerous, constituting in many counties the majority of the population ; but in the counties west of the Blue ridge there are seven whites where there is one slave.
Character.] In respect to character, the Blue ridge divides the Virginians into two classes. Those east of the ridge are chiety of English descept; those west of the ridge are descenda ants of the Scotch-Irish, that is, of emigrants from the north of Ireland. The former were originally Episcopalians, the latter Presbyterians. The people west of the mountains live chiefly by their own labor, and their general character is that of industry, frugality, temperance, shrewdness in their bargains, and perseverance in their undertakings. Their bretbren in the eastern parts are supported by the labor of slaves. They are warmhearted, hospitable, generous and fond of good cheer; inactive, except when stimulated by some strong passion ; prompt to resolve, yet unsteady in the pursuit of their purposes. Wealth is very unequally distributed among them, yet the poor are less abject, and ihe rich less domineering and haughty, than perhaps in any country in the world where the difference of condition is so great.
Religion.] In 1817 the Baptists had 314 congregations in the state ; the Presbyterians, 41 ordained ministers; and the Episcopalians, 34 ministers. There were besides inany Methodists and Friends, and some Lutherans and Roman Catholics.
Government. The legislative power is vested in a senate and house of representatives. The senate consists of 24 members, who are chosen for four years ; one fourth being chosen yearly. The representatives are chosen annually, two from each county, and one from several cities and boroughs. The executive power is vested in a governor, who is chosen annually by joint ballot of both houses, and a council, consisting of members. The governor can hold his office but 3 years in 7.
Revenue.] The ordinary revenue of Virginia amounts to about $600,000, and is raised principally by a tax on land and slaves. The stále has large funds appropriated to various public ob. jects. Besides the literary fund, there is a fund for internal improvement, under the direction of a Board of Public Works,
which amounted in Nov. 1318, to $1,537,561, and which has already promoted the construction of various canals. The Board have recently reported in favor of the practicability of a canal to connect James river with the Ohio.
Commerce and Manufactures. The principal exports are wheat and tobacco. The value of the exports to foreign coun-tries in 1820 was $4,557,957, of which all except $8,829 was domestic produce. The value of the manufactures in 1810 was estimated at $15,263,473. The amount of shipping, in 1816, was 70,361 tons.
Natural Curiosities.] The Natural bridge over Cedar creek, in Rockbridge county, 12 miles S. W. of Lexington, is the most magnificent monument of the power of nature in Virginia. The river at this place runs through a gap or chasm,-90 feet wide at the top, and 250 feet deep; while the sides are almost perpendicular. The bridge is formed by a huge rock, from 40 to 60 feet thick, and in one place 60 feet broad, thrown completely across this chasm at the top. The vast dimensions of the bridge; its lofty, sublime, and even awful air, cannot be adequately recalled eren by those who have seen it: only while we gaze upon its height and proportions can we feel the full effect of its beauty and grandeur.The passage of the Potomac through the Blue ridge at Harper's ferry, forms a scene truly grand and magnificent.-The falling spring in Bath county is a beautiful cascade, streaming from a perpendicular precipice, 200 feet high. The volume of water, however, is too inconsiderable to produce a sublime effect.--There are many carerns in the calcareous parts of Virginia, but they are not thought worthy of a particular account.
Situation and Extent.] North Carolina is bounded N. by Viroginia ; E. by the Atlantic ; S. by South Carolina ; and W. by Tennessee. It extends from 33° 50' to 36° 30' N. lat. and from 75° 45' to 84° W. lop. The area is estimated at 48,000 square miles.
Divisions.] The state is divided into 62 counties.
Pop. in 1820
5,609 13,253 12,661 6,464 3,912 13,394 14,446 8,098 9,744 13,276
Slaves in 1820,
1,629 5,417 3,808 3,469
913 5,027 4,757 1,854 3,599 5,745
Pop. Slaves Counties.
4,533 2,174 Person,
3,445 | Wayne,
Slaves in 1820. in 1820. 23,492 6,153 8,008
2,616 6,857 2,465 9,029 3,684 10,001 4,241 11,331 1,080 7,537 2,021 8,204 2,099 11,474
2,974 26,009 5,381 15,351 3,371
8,908 2,857 14,033 2,204 12,320 1,365
4,319 1,261 20,102 7,417 11,158 6,754 3,986
1,667 9,040 3,162 9,967 1,191
Capes.] Cape Hatteras, in lat. 35° 15' N. is a point running out from the middle of a long narrow sand island, which separates PamJico sound from the ocean. Cape Lookout is south of Cape Hatteras, in lat. 34° 22' N. Cape Fear, still further south, in lat. 33° 48' N. is remarkable for a dangerous shoal, called, from its form, the Frying pan.— All these capes are dangerous to mariners, particularly cape Hatteras, where numerous vessels have been shipwrecked.
Face of the Country.) Along the whole coast of North Carolina is a ridge of sand, separated from the main land, in some places by Darrow sounds, in others by broad bays. The passages or inlets through it are shallow and dangerous, and Ocracoke inlet is the only one, north of cape Fear, through which vessels pass. In the counties on the sea coast the land is low, and covered with extensive swamps and marshes, and for 60 or 80 miles from the shore is a dead level. Beyond this, the country swells into hills and at length into mountains, the most western part of the country being traversed by the Alleghany and several parallel ridges.
Soil and Productions. In the low country the soil is generally sandy, and except on the banks of the rivers, is not fit for cultivation; but it is covered with forests of pitch pine, which grows here to great perfection, and yields in abundance, tar, tarpentine, boards and various kinds of lumber, which together form about balf the exports of the state. In the swamps rice of a fine quality is raised; and in the upper country the soil produces in abuddance, wheat, rye, barley, oats, hemp, tobacco and Indian corn.
Swamps.) Dismal swamp is a tract of marshy land, commencing in the $. E. part of Virginia and extending into North Carolioa. It is 30 miles long from north to south and 10 broad, and embraces about 150,000 acres, senerally covered with trees; in
the moist parts with juniper and cypress, and in those that are drier with white and red oak and sereral species of pines. In the centre is Drummond's pood, 15 miles in circumference. The Chesapeake and Albemarle canal passes through the swamp, and is supplied with water from Drummond's pond. Alligator swanip lies on the south side of Albemarle sound. Near the centre it contains a large lake, the waters of which have been partly drained off by a canal, and a great tract of land round the lake has thus been converted into excellent rice plantations.
Rivers.] The following are the principal rivers, beginning in the east. 1. The Chowan is formed by the Nottaway and Blackwater, which rise in Virginia and pursuing a southeasterly course unite on the Virginia live, and the Meherrin which falls in from the west 10 miles below. After their confluence, the Chowan runs in a S. E. direction, 40 miles, and falls into the head of Albemarle sound. 2. The Roanoke is formed by the Staunton and Dan, the former of which rises in the Alleghany mountains in Virginia, and the latter on the borders of North Carolina and Virginia. After their union near the southern boundary of Virginia, the river assumes the name of Roanoke, and flowing S. E. falls into the head of Albemarle sound near the mouth of the Chowan. It is navigable to Halifax, near the foot of the Great Falls, 75 miles by land from the mouth of the river, for vessels of 45 tons burden. At the great falls tbe river descends 100 feet in a distance of 12 miles; but a canal is now in progress around these falls, which will open the navigation for batteaux as far as the junction of the Dan and the Staunton. The Dan has been made navigable to Danville, and the Staunton is navigable for some distance for boats of 5 tons. The lands on the Roanoke are among the most productive in the United States. Their products for exportation may be estimated at $2,500,000 annually, and when the full effect of the improrements in the navigation of the river is realized, will probably exceed $5,000,000. At present a great portion of the proluce is carried to Norfolk through the Dismal swamp canal, but efforts are now making by the North Carolinians to secure this trade to some port within the limits of their own state. 3. Pannlico or Tar river rises in Warren county, in the northern part of the state, and running in a S. E. direction --for 180 miles falls into Pamlico sound at its western extremity.. It is navigable for vessels drawing 9 feet of water to Washington, 40 miles, and for boats carrying 30 or 40 hogsheads to Tarborough, 50 miles farther. 4. The Neuse_rises near Hillsborough in Orange county, and running in a S. E. direction for about 400 miles, falls into Pamlico sonod at its S. W. extremity. It is navigable for sea vessels beyond Newbern, and for boats, to Smithfield, 160 miles from its mouth. 5. Cape Fear river is formed by Haw and Deep rivers, both of which rise in the northern part of the state, and running each alout-90 miles in a S. E. direction, upite about 30 miles S. W. of Raleigh. The course of the river is thence E. of S. about 160 miles to the ocean, into which it discharges itself between Cape Fear island and Smithyille. It is
navigable for sea vessels to Wilmington, 34 miles from its mooth, for large boats to Fayetteville, and for small boats above the forks. Its principal tributaries are, Clarendon river, or the N.E. branch, which unites with it just above Wilmington, and is navigable for 70 miles ; and Black river, which joins it a few miles farther up. 6. Yadkin river rises in the Alleghany mountains, and runding in a S. E. direction through Wilkes, Surry, Rowan, Montgomery, Anson and Richmond counties, passes into South Carolina. In Montgomery county are the narrows, where the river, which was before 200 or 300 yards wide, is contracted to 30. A few miles below the narrows it receives Rocky river from the west, and then takes the name of Great Pedee, which it preserves during the remainder of its course. This river was surveyed under the direction of the Yadkin Navigation company, in 1818, from Wilkes courthouse, in the mountains, to Cheraw Hill, about 6 miles below the South Carolina boundary, a distance of 247 miles. The expense of making it navigable for boats of ten tops through this distance, is estimated at $250,234, exclusive of the narrows, where for the present it is intended to make a turnpike road for seven miles. 7. The Catawba, which rises in the western part of the state and passes into South Caro. lina, where it takes the name of Waterce. 8. Broad river, still farther west, which rises in the Alleghany mountains, and
passes almost immediately into South Carolina.
Chief towns.] Newbern, the largest town in the state, is on a flat sandy point of land, at the junction of Neuse river with the Trent. It carries on considerable commerce, and contained, in 1820, 3,663 inhabitants.
Raleigh, the capital, is a beautiful town in Wake county. It is regularly laid out, and contained, in 1820, 2,674 inhabitants. The state-house is a beautiful building of brick, and has been recently adorned with a superb marble statue of Washington, executed in Italy by the first sculptor of the age.
Fayetteville is advantageously situated near the west bank of Cape Fear river, at the bead of navigation for large boats, and is one of the most flourishing commercial towns in the state. Large quantities of tobacco, cotton, Daval stores and other produce are brought to this place from the back country, and carrical down the river to Wilmington, in boats containing about 120 barrels. The growth of Fayette ville has been very rapid. The population, in 1820, was 3,532.
Wilmington, on the east side of Cape Fe:r river, just below the junction of the N. E. branch, 34 iniles from the ser, is the depot for the produce of a large section of North Carolina, and the exports from this port have usually been twice as much as from all the other ports of the state. The situation, however, is considered unhealthy, and vessels draiving more than 11 feet of water, cannot pass over the flats, forme! 20 miles below the town, by the meeting of the tide waters with the current of the
Popolatiou, in 1820, 0,633.