Imágenes de página
PDF
ePub
[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]

Chief Towns.) WASHINGTON CITY, the metropolis of the United States, is pleasantly situated on the N E. bank of the river Potomac, at the point of land formed by the junction of the Eastern branch, 300 miles from the mouth of the river, and 3 below the head of the tide. It is separated from Georgetown on the N.W. by Rock creek, and Tyber creck passes througl: the middle of the city. Washington is regularly laid out in streets running doe north and sonih, intersected by others at right angles. Besides these streets, which are from 80 to 110 feet wide, there are avenues from 130 to 160 feet broad, which diverge from centres in various parts of the city, crossing the other streets transversely. At the points from which the avenues diverge are spacious squares. The ground embraced in the plan of the city is very extensive, but only a small portion of it is yet occupied with buildings.

The principal public buildings and establishments are, 1. The Capitol, which is finely sitoated on an eminence, commanding a view of every part of the city, aod a considerable portion of the adjacent country. According to tbe original plan, it is to be composed of a central edifice and two wings. The two wings were in a state of considerable forwardness in 1814, wben the British amy ander General Ross gained possession of the city and de. stroyed them, together with the President's bouse and other public structures and an extensive library which had been porc based for the use of Congress. The wings of the capitol are now rebuilt, and the central building has been commenced. Tbe wings are each 100 feet square, and the whole building, when completed. will be a magnificent edifice, presenting a front of 362 feet. 2. The President's house, situated about a mile and a half west of the capitol, on the avenue leading to Georgetown. It is 170 feet by 85. and two stories high. 3. Four spacious brick buildings erected in the vicinity of the President's bouse, for the accommodation of the heads of the great departments of government. 4. An extensite novy yard, situated on the Eastern Branch, which forms a safe and commodious barbor. 5. A fort, wbich, from the extreme Southern point of the land on which the city stands, commands the channel of the Potomac, and 6. The general post-office, a brick editice, about a mile W.N. W. of the capitol. The style of the architecture of the capitol is Corinthian, and that of the Presideor's house, lonic ; and both buildings are coostructed of free stone. The capitol square is inclosed by a strong and handsome iron railing; and being planted with trees, and otherwise

between Delaware bay and the Chesapeake by means of a canal from Christiana creek in Delaware to Elk river in this state. When completed it will be 22 miles long, and is intended for ves sels of 70 tons. The expense is estimated at $850,000.

Roads. 1 Excellent turnpikes proceed from Baltimore in vari. ous directions. There is a turnpike from Baltimore to Cumberland on the Potomac, a distance of 135 miles. From Cumberland to Brownsville on the Monongahela, in Pennsylvania, there is now completed by the U. States a free turnpike road of the most superior construction. The distance is 72 miles, making the whole distance from Baltimore to Brownsvilie 207 miles. The road has recently been continued from Brownsville to Wheeling on the Ohio. This is the shortest and best communication yet opened between the tide water of the Atlantic and the navigable western waters.

Population. The population of the state in 1790 was 319,728; in 1800, 349,692; in 1810, 380,546 ; and in 1820, 407,350), of whom 107,398 were slaves and 39.730 free blacks. The slaves are most numerous in the southero half of the state, and in some of the counties they are more numerous than the wbites, but in the counties which border on Pennsylvania, they form only one eighth part of the population.

Religion.) Maryland was originally settled by Roman CathoJics, and they are still the most numerous denomination of Cbris. tians. The other denominations are Episcopalians, who had in 1811, 30 churches and 35 clergymen; Baptists, Friends, Presbyterians, &c.

Manufactures and Commerce.] Furnaces have been erected in various places for the manufacture of iron and iron ware. Glase, paper, and whiskey are also made in considerable quantities. The value of the maonfactures in 1810, was $11,468,794. The principal exports are flour and tobacco. The value of the exports for the year ending Sept. 30, 1820, was $6,609,364, of which $1,927,766 was foreign produce. Maryland is the third state in the Union in amount of shipping. la 1815 the number of tons was 156,062.

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

Situation and Extent. The district of Columbia is a tract of country, 10 miles aquare, on both sides of Potomac river, 120 miles in a direct line from its mouth. It was ceded to the United States by Maryland and Virginia in 1790, and in 1800 became the seat of the General goveroment. It is onder the immediate gov. ernment of Congress.

Divisions. The District is divided into 3 cities or towns and 2 counties.

[blocks in formation]

Chief Towns.) WASHINGTON CITY, the metropolis of the United States, is pleasantly situated on the N E. bank of the river Potomac, at the point of land formed by the junction of the Eastern branch, 300 iniles from the mouth of the river, and 3 below the head of the tide. It is separated from Georgetown on the N.W. by Rock creek, and Tyber creek passes throngl: the middle of the city. Washington is regularly laid out in streets running due north and south, intersected by others at right angles. Besides these streets, which are from 80 to 110 feet wide, there are avenues from 130 to 160 feet broad, which diverge from centres in various parts of the city, crossing the other streets transversely. At the points from which the avenues diverge are spacious squares. The ground embraced in the plan of the city is very extensive, but only a small portion of it is yet occupied with buildings.

The principal public buildings and establishments are, 1. The Capitol, which is finely situated on an eminence, commanding a view of every part of the city, and a considerable portion of the adjacent country. According to the original plan, it is to be composed of a central edifice and two wings. The two wings were in a state of considerable forwardness in 1814, when the British army ander General Ross gained possession of the city and destroyed them together with the President's house and other public structures and an extensive library which had been purchased for the use of Congress. The wings of the capitol are now rebuilt, and the central building has been commenced. The wings are each 100 feet square, and the whole building, when completed, will be a magnificent edifice, presenting a front of 362 feet. 2. The President's house, situated about a mile and a half west of the capitol, on the avenue leading to Georgetown. It is 170 feet by 85, and two stories high. 3. Four spacious brick buildings erected in the vicinity of the President's house, for the accommodation of the heads of the great departments of government. 4. An extenside navy yard, situated on the Eastern Branch, which forms a safe and commodious barbor. 5. A fort, wbich, from the extreme southern point of the land on which the city stands, commands the channel of the Potomac, and 6. The general post-office, a brick editice, about a mile W.N. W. of the capitol. The style of ibe architecture of the capitol is Corinıbian, and that of the President's house, lonic ; and both buildings are constructed of free stone. The capitol square is inclosed by a strong and handsome iron railing; and being planted with trees, and otherwise

ornainented, will afford a delightful walk for the inhabitants and visitors of the city. The amount expended by the United States on the public buildings previously to their destruction by the British in August 1814, was $1,214,291, and there have been appropriated towards rebuilding the same, $1,207,788.

Besides the buildings and establishments above epumerated, Washington contains a city ball, a theatre, a college, 4 banke, several manufacturing establishments, and 12 houses for public worship, 3 for Presbyterians, 2 for Episcopalians, 2 for Baptists, 2 for Methodists, 2 for Catholics and 1 for Friends. There is a bridge about one mile long over the Potomac, three over the Eastern branch, and 2 over Rock creek. The population of Washington in 1800 was 3,210; in 1810, 8,208; and in 1820, 13,247, of whom 3.741 were blacks.

Alexandria is pleasantly situated on the west bank of the Potomac, 7 miles south of Washington. It has a commodious harbor, sufficiently deep for the largest ships, and is a place of extensive trade, especially in the article of four. Population, in 1820, 8,218.

Georgetown is pleasantly situated on the east side of the Potomac, at the junction of Rock creek, which separates it from Washington city, 3 miles west of the Capitol. It contains a college and five houses of public worship, 2 for Episcopalians, 2 for Methodists, and one for Presbyterians. Population, in 1820, 7,360.

Education.) The Columbian college went into operation at the commencement of the year 1822. It has a president, 4 professors and 2 tutors. A large brick building bas been erected for the accommodation of students, on the high ground north of the city of Washington, in a remarkably healthy situation, 3 miles from the capitol. A Baptist Theological Seminary is to be connected with the institution.

The Roman Catholics have a college in Georgetown, established in 1799. It has 2 spacious brick edifices, finely situated, with a library of 7,000 volumes, and about 150 students. In 1815 it was raised by Congress to the rank of an university, and author ized to confer degrees.

[ocr errors]

VIRGINIA.

Situation and Extent.) Virginia is bounded N. by Pennsylvania ; N. E. by Maryland ; E. by the Atlantic; S. by North Carolina and Tennessee; and W. by Kentucky and Ohio, from the last of which it is separated by the river Ohio. It extends froma 36° 30' to 40° 43' N. lat. aod from 75° 25' to 83° 40' W, lon. The area is estimated at 64,000 square miles:

Divisions.] Virginia is divided into 102 counties,

Counties. Pop. Slaves Counties. Pop. Slaves in 1820. in 1820.

in 1820. in 1820. Accomack, 15,966 4,480 Madison, 8,490 4,612 Albemarle, 19,750 10,659 Mason,

4,868

593 Amelia,

11,104 7,400 ! Matthews, 6,920 3,186 Amherst, 10,423 5,577 Mecklenburg, 19,786 11,402 Augusta, 16,742 3,512 Middlesex, 4,057 2,166 Bath, 5,237 1,202 | Monongalia, 11,060

375 Bedford, 19,305 5,177 Monroe

6,620 501 Berkeley, 11,211 1,898 Montgomery,

8,733 1,255 Botetourt, 13,589 2,806 Morgan,

2,500 G3 Brooke,

6,631 383 | Nansemond, 10,494 4,526 Brunswick, 16,687 10,081 | Nelson,

10,137 5,660 Buckingham, 17,569 9,939

New Kent,

6,630 3,759 Cabell, 4,789 392 | Nicholas,

1,853 48 Campbell, 16,569 7,445 Norfolk, 15,478 5,924 Caroline, 18,008 10,999 Northampton, 7,705 :3,323 Charles city, 5,255 2,967 Northumberland, 8,016 3,268 Charlotte, 13.290 8,124 Nottoway, 9,658 6,676 Chesterfield, 18,003 9,513 | Ohio,

9,182 409 Culpeper, 20,944 9,468 Orange,

12,913

7,518 Cugaberland, 11,023 6,813 Patrick,

5,089 1,213 Dinwiddie, 13,792 7,751 Pendleton, 4,846 381 Elizabeth city,

3,789

1,643 Pittsylvania, 21,323 8,484 Essex,

9,909 6,046 Powhatan, 8,292 5,476 Fairfax, 11,404 4,673 | Preston,

3,422 80 Fauquier, 23,103 11,167 Prince Edward, 12,577 7,616 Floranna, 6,704

3,206

Princess Anne, 8,768 3,705 Franklin, 12,017 3,747 | Prince William, 9,419 4,380 Frederick, 24,706 7,179 Prince George, 8,030 4,323 Giles,

4,521 307 | Randolph, 3,357 131 Gloucester, 9,678 5,208 | Richmond, 5,706 2,664 Goochland, 10,007 5,526 Rockbridge, 11,945 2,612 Grayson,

5,598
345 Rockingham,

1,871 Greenbrier, 7,041 786 Russel,

5,536

526 Greensville, 6,858 4,512 Scott,

4,263 Halifax, 19,060 9,882 | Shenandoah, 18,926 1,901 Hampsbire, 10,889 1,609 Southampton, 14,170 6,737 Hanover, 15,267 8,756 Spottsylvania, 14,254 7,724 5,700 914 Stafford,

9,517 4,368 Harrison, 10,932 569 Surry,

6,594

3,340 Henrico, 11,600 5,417 | Sussex,

11,884 7,045 Henry, 5,624 2,178 Tazwell,

3,916 Isle of Wight, 10,139 4,297 | Tyler,

2,314 100 James city,

3,161 1,677 | Warwick, 1,608 954 Jefferson, 13,087 4,132 Washington, 12,444 1,908 Kenaxha,

6,399

1,073 Westmoreland, 6,901 3,393 King and Queen, 11,798 6,041 Wood,

5,860

852 King George, 6,116 3,504 Wythe,

9,692 1,533 King William, 9,697 6,010 York,

4,384 2,165 Lancaster,

5,517 2,944 Richmond, city, 12,067 4,387 Lee,

4,256 366 Williamsburg, city, 1,402 783 Lewis,

4,247 115 Petersburg, town, 6,690 2,428 Loudoun, 22,702 5,729 Norfolk, borough, 8,478 3,261 Louisa,

13,746 7,560 Lunenburg, 10,662 6,663

Total,

1,065,368 425,153

14,784

258

Hardy,

463

« AnteriorContinuar »