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Dover, the capital of the state, is on Jones' creek, about 5 miles from its mouth, and 48 south of Wilmington. It is regularly laid out in four streets, which intersect each other at right angles, leaving in the centre of the town a spacious square, on the east side of which is an elegant state-house. The town has a lively appearance, and carries on considerable trade with Philadelphia, chiefly in flour. The village contains more than 100 houses.
Newcastle is pleasantly situated on Delaware river, 5 miles south of Wilmington. It contains about 200 houses, and carries on considerable trade in wheat. Christiana bridge, on Christiana creek, at the head of navigation, drives a brisk trade with Philadelphia, in floor. Lewistown, on a small creek, 3 miles west of cape Henlopen, contains extensive salt works, in which salt is made from sea-water by the heat of the sun.
Population and Religion.] The population, in 1790, was 59,094; in 1800, 64,273; in 1810, 72,674; and in 1820, 72,749, of whom 4,509 were slaves and 12,958 free blacks. Presbyterians are the most numerous religious denomination. Several years since they had 24 congregations ; the Episcopalians, 14; Friends, 8 ; Baptists, 7; and the Metbodists were numerous in the two southern counties.
Government.] The legislature consists of a senate and house of representatives. The representatives are chosen annually ; the governor and senators triennially. The goveroor can hold his office only three, out of any term of six years.
Manufactures and Commerce.] The Brandywine and Christiana abound with numerous excellent mill seats, which have been to a considerable extent improved, making Wilmington the centre of one of the most important manufacturing districts in tbe United States. In 1815, there were within 9 miles of the town 44 flour mills, 13 cotton manufactories, 15 saw mills, 6 woollen manufactories, 6 gunpowder mills, and several others. The whole value of the manufactures in 1810, was estimated at $1,733,744. The principal article of export is flour. The value of the exports in 1820 was $89,498.
Situation and Extent. Maryland is bounded N. by Pennsylvania ; E. by Delaware and the Atlantic; S. and W. by Virginia, from which it is separated by Potomac river. It extends from 38° to 39° 44' N. lat. and from 73° 10to 79° 20' W. Jon. The area is estimated at 13,959 square miles or 8,933,760 acres, of which one Giftb is water.
Divisions.) Chesapeake hay ruos through the state from porth to south, dividing it into two parts. The part east of the bay is called the eastern shore, and the part west of the bay, the west
ern shore. The state is divided into 19 counties; 11 of of which
in 1810. in 1820. in 1820.
8,005 8,073 3,668 St. Leonard.
17,980 16,400 5,396 Montgomery C. H. Ann-Arundel, 26,668 27,165 10,301 Annapolis. 1 Baltimore, 75,810 96,201 10,388 Baltimore. Harford, 21,258 15,924 3,320 Bellair. Frederic, 34,437 40,459 6,685 Fredericktown, Wasbington,
18,730 23,075 3,201 Hager'stown. Alleghany,
6,909 8,654 795 Cumberland. Cecil,
13,066 16,048 2,343 Elkton. Kent,
11,450 11,453 4,071 Chestertowp. Queen Ann, 16,648 14,952 5,588 Centreville. Talbot,
14,230 14,389 4,748 Easton, Dorchester, 18,108 17,759 5,158 Cambridge. Somerset, 17,195 19,579 7,241 Princess Ann. 1 Caroline, 9,453
1,574 Denton. ( Worcester, 16,971 17,421 4,551 Snow Hill.
Total, 380,546 407,350 107,398 Face of the Country.] In the counties on the eastern shore of the Chesapeake, the land is generally level and low, and in many places is covered with stagnant waters, giving rise in the summer and fall months to agues and intermittent fevers. On the western shore the land below the lowest fails of the rivers is principally level and free from stones. Above these falls the country becomes successively uneven and hilly, and in the western part of the state is mountainous. The principal range of mountains is the Blue ridge or South mountains, which pass through the state in a northerly direction from Virginia into Pennsylvania. The extreme western part of the state is crossed by the Alleghany mountains. Between these and the Blue ridge are several inferior chains, as Will's mountain, Evit's, Warrior, and Ragged mountajus, and Sideling hill, all of which pass into Pennsylvania.
Soil and Productions.] The soil is well adapted to the culture of tobacco and wheat, which are the staple productions of the state. Some cotton of inferior quality is also raised, and in the western counties considerable quantities of flax and hemp. Two articles are said to be peculiar to Maryland ; the genuine white wheat, which grows in Kent, Queen Ano's and Talbot counties, on the eastern shore; and the bright kite's fort tobacco, which is produced on some parts of the western shore south of Baltimore. -Iron ore abounds in various parts of the state, and coal is found in inexhaustible quantities, and of a superior quality, on the Potomac, in the neighborhood of Cumberland.
Rivers.) The Potomaç is the boundary between Maryland and Virginia from its mouth to its source. The Susquehunna termi
City and County
nates its course in this state, and falls into the bead of Chesapeake bay.
The principal rivers which fall into Chesapeake bay from the western shore are, 1. The.Patapsco, which rises in the northern part of the state, and running in a southeasterly direction, discharges itself into Chesapeake bay between Nortb point and Bodkin's point. It is navigable to Baltimore, 14 miles, for ships drawing 18 feet of water. About 8 miles above, at Elkridge landing, there are falls. 2. The Severn, a short river, which passes by Annapolis and falls into the Chesapeake 2 miles below. 3. The Patuxent, which rises about 30 miles west of Baltimore, and running in a southeasterly direction, discharges itself into the Chesapeake, about 15 miles norih of the mouth of the Potomac, after a course of 110 miles. It is navigable for vessels of 250 tons to Nottingham, 46 miles, and for boats to Queen Ann. 14 miles farther.
The principal rivers which fall into Chesapeake bay from the eastern shore are, 1. Elk river, which rises in Chester county in Pennsylvania, and running in a southerly direction passes by Elkton, and discharges itself into Chesapeake bay 14 miles below. It is navigable to Elkton fur vessels drawing 12 feet of water. 2. Chester river, which rises on the borders of Delaware, and running in a southwesterly direction passes by Chestertown, and falls into the Chesapeake 14 miles below. 3. The Choptank, the Nanticoke, the Wicomicn, and Pocomoke, all of which rise in Delaware and pursue a southwesterly course. –The rivers in Maryland are generally very broad near their mouths and may be regarded, for some distance, as bays or arms of the Chesapeake.
Chief towns.] Baltimore, the largest town in Maryland, and in population the third in the United States, is built around a bay, which sets up from the north side of Patapsco river, and affords a spacious and convenient harbor. The strait which connects this bay with the river is very narrow, scarcely a pistol shot across, and is well defended by Fort M'Henry. A small river, called Jones' Falls, falls into the north side of the harbor, after dividing the city into two parts, called the town and Fell's point, which are connected by bridges. At Fell's point the water is deep enough for vessels of 500 or 600 tons, but none larger than 200 tons can go up to the town.
The city is generally well built. The houses are chiefly of brick; many of them are handsome, and some splendid. Among the public buildings are the State penitentiary, a theatre, a hospital, 10 banks and 31 houses of public worship, 5 for Roman Catholics, 5 for Episcopalians, 5 for Methodists, 4 for Presbyterians, 3 for Baptists, 2 for Seceders, 2 for Friends, and one each for Lutherans, lodependents, Dunkers, Unitarians and Swedenborgians.
A marble monument to the memory of General Washington bas been recently erected, op an elevation at the north end of Charlesstreet. The base is 50 feet square, and 23 feet high, and on it is another square of about half the extent and elevation. On this
is a lofty column, 20 feet in diameter at the base, and 14 at the top. On the summit of this column, 163 feet from the ground, the statue of Washington is to be placed.-The battle monument, erected to the memory of those who fell in bravely defending their city from the attack of the British on the 12th and 13th of September 1814, is a handsome structure of stone, situated on a large square in North Calvert-street.
Baltimore is well situated for commerce. It is connected by good turnpike roads with various parts of Pennsylvania, and with the navigable waters which ruo into the Ohio. It possesses the trade of Maryland, and of a great portion of the back country of Peonsylvania, and the Western states. ly amount of shipping, it in the third city in the Union. The number of tops in 1815 was 101,960. The growth of the city has been remarkably rapid. In 1770 the population was only 300 ; in 1790, 13,508 ; in 1800, 26,514 ; in 1810, 46,555 ; and in 1920, 62,738, of whom 6,966 were slaves, and 10,325 free blacks.
Annapolis, the capital of the state, is 30 miles south of Baltimore, on the south bank of the river Severn, a small distance from its mouth. The state house is a noble edifice, and stands in the centre of the city. From this point the streets diverge in every direction, like the radii of a circle. The population of the city in 1820 was 2,260.
Fredericktown, the capital of Frederick county, is on a branch of Monocasy creek, 42 miles west of Baltimore. It is a flourishing town and carries on considerable trade with the back coupiry. Population, in 1820, 3,640. Hagerstown or Elizabethtown, the capital of Washington county, is on the west bank of Antietam creek, 27 miles N. W. of Fredericktown. It contains about 300 houses, principally built of brick and stone. The trade with the western country is considerable. Cumberland, the capital of Alleghany county, is on the Potomac, at the junction of Will's creck.
Elkton, the capital of Cecil couniy, is situated at the forks of Elk river, 13 miles from its mouth. The tide flows up to the town, and there was formerly a brisk trade between Philadelphia and Baltimore through this place. Snow Hill, the capital of Worcester county, is on the Pocomoke, more than 20 miles front its mouth. It is a place of considerable trade, and in 1816 the amount of shipping was 7,364 tons.
Education. There are several literary institutions in the city of Baltimore. A medical college was founded in 1807. In 1812 the institution was enlarged, and received a new charter. Bow styled the University of Maryland, and embraces the departments of languages, arts, sciences, medicine, law and divinity. The medical department has 6 professors, and is in a very flourishjog state. There are no professors as yet in the other departmeots. St. Mary's college, also in Baltimore, has a valuable libraTy, a chemical and philosophical apparatus, and about 150 stydents. Baltimore college has 2 instructors and about 60 students.
Canal. A company was incorporated many years since by the states of Delaware and Maryland, for opening a communication
between Delaware bay and the Chesapeake by means of a canal from Cbristiana creek in Delaware to Elk river in this state. When completed it will be 22 miles long, and is intended for ves sels of 70 tons. The expense is estimated at $850,000.
Roads.] Excellent turnpikes proceed from Baltimore in vari. ous directions. There is a turnpike from Baltimore to Cumberland on the Potomac, a distance of 135 miles. From Cumberland to Brownsville on the Mon ngahela, in Pennsylvania, there is now compieted by the U. States a free turnpike road of the most superior construction. The distance is 72 miles, making the whole distance from Baltimore to Brownsville 207 miles. The road has recently been continued from Brownsville to Wheeling on the Ohio. This is the shortest and best communication yet opened between the tide water of the Atlantic and the navigable western waters.
Population.] The population of the state in 1790 was 319,728; in 1800, 349,692; in 1810, 380,546 ; and in 1820, 407,350), of whom 107,398 were slaves and 39,730 free blacks. The slaves are most numerous in the southero half of the state, and in some of the counties they are more numerous than the wbites, but in the counties which border on Pennsylvania, they form only one eighth part of the population.
Religion.] Maryland was originally settled by Roman Catholics, and they are still the most numerous denomination of Chris. tians. The other denominations are Episcopalians, who had in 1811, 30 churches and 35 clergymen; Baptists, Friends, Presbyteriaus, &c.
Manufactures and Commerce. Furnaces have been erected in various places for the manufacture of iron and iron ware. Glass, paper, and whiskey are also made in considerable quantities. The value of the manufactures in 1810, was $11,468,794. The principal exports are flour and tobacco. The value of the exports for the year ending Sept. 30, 1820, was $6,609,364, of which $1,927,766 was foreign produce. Maryland is the tbird state in the Union in amount of shipping. In 1815 the number of tons was 156,062.
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.
Situation and Extent.] The district of Columbia is a tract of country, 10 miles square, on both sides of Potomac river, 120 miles in a direct line from its mouth. It was ceded to the United States by Maryland and Virginia in 1790, and in 1800 became the seat of the General goverament. It is under the immediate gove ernment of Congress.
Divisions. The District is divided into 3 cities or towns and a counties.