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ture. It now contains Peal's museum, the largest collection of natural curiosities in America. 2. The new bank of Pennsylvania, erected under the superintendance of Mr. Latrobe ; a large and remarkably elegant edifice of marble, of the lonic order, constructed after the model of the ancient temple of Minerva in Greece. 3. The Pennsylvania hospital, which was established in 1751, and is the most respectable institution of the kind in the United States. It has a valuable anatomical museum, a library of nearly 5,000 volumes, and usually about 300 patients, of whom nearly one half are lunatics. In 1816, a handsome building was erected in the neighborhood of the hospital, to accommodate Mr. West's celebrated painting, representing Christ healing the sick. The profits resulting from the exhibition of the picture have afforded a handsome income to the hospital.

lo 1817 there were 57 places for public worship; 16 for Presbyterians, 6 for Episcopaliaus, 6 for Friends, 5 for Baptists, 4 for Roman Catholics, 11 for Methodists, 2 for German Lutherans, I for Swedes, and one each for English Lutherans, German Presbyterians, Moravians, Universalists, Unitarians, Jews, and Swedenborgians.

Philadelphia is the first city in the United States in the variety, extent and excellence of its manufactures. The commerce is also very extensive. In amount of shipping it is the fourth city in the Union. The pomber of tons, in 1816, was 101,330. It imports foreigo goods for the greatest part of Pennsylvania, for Delaware, and half of New-Jersey ; and is conteoding with New-York, Baltimore, New-Orleans and Montreal for the supply of the western states.

The environs of Philadelphia are pleasant and well cultivate! and adorned with oumerous country seats. Towards the north are Kensington, on the Delaware, well known for ship building; Germantown, a long and populous village, and Frank ford another village, both within 4 or 5 miles. Population of the city and liberties, in 1790, 43,525; in 1810, 92,247, and in 132!). 103,!16.

Pittsburgh is advantageously situated in a plain, between the Alleghany and Monongahela rivers, at the point where they unite to form the Ohio. By means of Alleghany river, and its branches, it has a water communication with the western part of New-York, and boats can approach within a few miles of lake Erie. By the Monongahela and a good turnpike road it is con Dected with Baltimore ; and by the Ohio it has an easy intercourse with all the western states. It is also connected with Philadelphia by an excellent turnpike road. These advantages have made Pittsburg the centre of a great commerce. At the same time all the country around the city is full of coal, and hence the city and its suburbs are admirably situated for such manufacturiug establishments as require the use of fuel, and ex great many such establishments have been erecteil. Here are 8 steam mills; 5 glass houses, in which every kind of glass, from a porter bottle or window pane to the most elegant cut crystal glass is manufactured, to the amount of 200,000 dollars annually;

4 air furnaces,; 3 breweries; numerous flour mills, potteries, forges, blast furnaces, rolling mills, slitting mills, distilleries and other mills and manufactories too numerous to be particularized. The population of the city and township, in 1820, was 11,629.

Lancaster is pleasantly situated, 62 miles west of Philadelphia, on the side of a hill, l} mile west of Conestoga creek, which falls into the Susquehanna 9 miles S. W. of the town. Many of the inhabitants are of German origin, and speak the German language. There are 6 newspapers published in the town, 3 of which are in German. The surrounding country is fertile and highly cultivated, and the towo has considerable trade. Population, in 1820, 6,633.

Harrisburgh, the capital of the state, is regularly laid out on the east bank of Susquehanna river, 35 miles N. W. of Lancaster, 97 W. N. W. of Philadelphia. The state has appropriated $120,000 for the erection of a capitol, the two wings of which are already built. The space left between the wings is 320 feet. The site of the building is a plat of 10 acres, elevated 28 feet above the plain on which the town stands. Population, in 1820, 2,990.

Reading, the capital of Berks county, is a flourishing borough on the Schuylkill, 54 miles N.W. of Philadelphia. It is inbabited chiefly by Germans, and is famous for the manufacture of hats. Population, in 1820, 4,332. Easton, the capital of Northampton county, is pleasantly situated on the Delaware, at the mouth of the Lehigh, 58 miles north of Philadelphia, and contained, in 1820, 2,370 inhabitants. Wilkesbarre, the capital of Luzerne county, is on the eastern branch of the Susquehanna, 119 miles N. W. of Philadelphia. Northumberland, sitnated on the point of land forined at the junction of the two branches of the Susquehanna, is famous as the place of residence of Dr. Priestly during the last years of his life. Sunbury, the capital of Northumberland county, is 2 miles south of Northumberland, on the east side of Susquehanna river.

Carlisle, the seat of Dickinson college, is pleasantly situated 16 miles west of Harrisburg. Population, in 1820, 2,908. York, the capital of the county of the same name, is op Codorus creek, a branch of the Susquehanna, 22 miles W. S. W. of Lancaster. Meadville, the seat of Alleghany college, is on the east side of French creek, 25 miles from its mouth. It contained in 1820, 1,960 inhabitants.

Education. The University of Pennsylvania, in the city of Philadelphia, was incorporated in 1791. It embraces the four departments of arts, medicine, patural science and law, in each of which lectures are given. There are four professors in the department of arts, 5 in that of natural science, 1 in the law department, and 7 in the inedical department. The medical department is one of the most flourishing institutions of the kind in the world. It has about 500 students, from various parts of the United States.

Dickinson college, at Carlisle, was founded in 1783, and was, · for a number of years, a flourishing institution, having a presi

dent, 3 professors, a complete philosophical apparatus, and a library of about 3,000 volumes. its exercises, for several years, were suspended, but have recently been resumed. Washington college, at Washington, 26 miles S. W. of Pittsburg, was established in 1802, and had in 1817 a president, 2 professors, a library and philosophical apparatus, and about 100 students. The course of education is completed in three years. Jefferson college, at Canonsburg, 18 miles S. W. of Pittsburg, was established in 1802. It has a president, 2 professors, a library of about 1,000 volumes, a philosophical apparatus, and about 90 students. The course of studies is completed in 3 years. Alleghany college was founded at Meadville in 1815. A building was commenced in the summer of 1820 designed to accommodate 100 students. The library is valued at 6,000 dollars. The funds of the institution are yet small, but have been recently increased by a grant of 5,000 dollars from the Pennsylvania legislature. The Moravians have two flourishing schools at Bethlehem, on the Lehigh, 12 miles S. W. of Easton. They are in high repute, and receive many scholars from New York and Philadelphia. One of the schools is for young ladies and the other for boys.

Roads.] There are excellent turnpike roads leading from Philadelphia in various directions. The principal is from Philadelphia through Lancaster to Pittsburgh. A diagonal road across the state from Philadelphia to the town of Lrie on lake Erie is considerably advanced, and a road from Philadelphia through the eastern counties towards Sacket's harbor, on lake Ontario, is executed to the line of New York. These are in faci military roads, the importance of which may be felt in future wars.

Canals. A canal is now in progress connecting the Tulpehocen, which falls into the Schuylkill just above Reading, with the Swatara, which falls into the Susquehanna at Middletown. The obstructions to the navigation of the Schuylkill below the mouth of the Tulpehocen have been removed, The legislature of Pennsylvania have recently appropriated a large sum to the improvement of inland navigation.

Population.] The population, in 1790, was 434,373; in 1800, 609,545; in 1810, 810,091 ; and in 1820, 1,049,398, of whom 211 were slaves and 30,202 free blacks. The inhabitants are of Several different nations. About one half are of English origin; one fourth, German ; and an eighth, Irish. The remainder are Scotch, Welsh, Swedes, and Dutch. The great mass of the population is in the southern half of the state, particularly in the S. E. near the banks of the Susquehanna and Delaware rivers. The northern half of the state, in 1820, did not contain one fifth part of the population.

Language and Religion.] The language commonly spoken is the English ; but the Germans, Dutch and Irish retain their own language, and many of them cannot speak English. Out of 84

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newspapers published in the state a few years since, 15 were in the German language.-There are many different denominations of Christians in Pennsylvania. A few years since the Presbyterians, German Calvinists, German Lutherans, Friends, and Baptists had each pearly 100 congregations. Besides these, there are Methodists, Episcopalians, Scotch Presbyterians, Moravians, &c.

Government. The legislative power is vested in a senate and house of representatives. The number of senators cannot be less than one fourth, nor greater than one third of the number of representatives, They hold their offices four years, and one fourth of them are elected each year. The number of representatives cannot be less than 60, nor more than 100, and they are chosen annually. The governor is elected for three years ; but is not eligible more than 9 out of any 12 years.

Manufuctures.] In value and variety of manufactures this is the first state in the Union. The value in 1810 was estimated at $33,691,111. Pennsylvania has many advantages for a manufacturing state. Her numerous rivers abound with fine mill-seats, and the western parts of the state furnish inexhaustible stores of coal. In 1816 there were more than 5,000 improved mill-seats in this state.

Commerce. Most of the foreign goods consumed in this state, Delaware, and the western part of New-Jersey, are imported at Philadelphia. Goods to an immense amount are also transported, in wagons from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh, and thence distributed through the western country. It is computed that 10 wag gons, on an average, leave Philadelphia every day for Pittsbugh, loaded with merchandize; and the annual value of the goods thus transported, is estimated at $18,000,000. In 1815, the amount of revenue paid from this state into the National Treasury was $7,142,333, an amount greater than that of any state, except New-York. In amount of shipping Pennsylvania is the fifth state in the Union ; the number of tons in 1816 was 102,474. The value of the exports from this state in 1820 was $5,743,549, of which $2,794,670 was foreigo produce.

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Situation and Extent.) Delaware is bounded N. by Pennsylvania ; E. by Delaware river, Delaware bay and the ocean ; S. and W. by Maryland. It extends from 38° 30' to 39® 45 N. lat. and from 74° 56' to 75° 40' W. Ion. It is 87 miles long from N. fo S. and from 10 to 36 broad. The area is estimated at 2,120

square miles.

Divisions.] The state is divided into 3 counties and 24 hundreds.

Counties. Hundreds
Newcastle, 9

5 Sussex, 10

Pop. Pop. in 1810, in 1820. Chief towns. 24,429 27,899 Wilmington, Newcastle: 20,495 20,793 Dover. 27,750 24,057 Georgetown.

Total, 24

72,674 72,749

Face of the Country.) The northern half of the county of Newcastle is hilly. The rest of the state is generally level and low. The height of land in the peninsula between Delaware and Chesapeake bays is in this state. It commences in Cypress swamp, which lies on the southern boundary, and as it proceeds north preserves a general parallelism with the coast of Delaware bay, at ihe distance of about 15 miles from it. Its

progress in the two lower counties and a part o: Newcastle is marked by a chain of swamaps, from which the waters descend on each side to the Delaware and Chesapeake.

Soil and Productions.] The soil in the county of Newcastle consists of a strong clay; in Kent there is a considerable mixture of sand, and in Sussex, sand predominates. Wbeat is the staple production. It grows here to very great perfection. Indian corn, rye, oats, &c. are also cultivated.

Rivers.] The Delaware is for a small distance the eastern boundary. Brandywine creek rises in Chester county, Pennsylvania, and running E. of S. 45 miles, passes by Wilmington, and falls into the Delaware 2 miles below. It abounds with fine mill-seats, the descent of the river being 300 feet in the course of 25 miles, Christiana creek rises on the confines of Maryland, and pursues an easterly course of 25 miles to the Brandywine, which it joins about a mile from its mouth. It is navigable for boats to Christiana bridge, 13 miles. Duck creek forms the boundary between the counties of Newcastle and Kent. Farther south are Jones creek, Mother Kill, Mispillion oreek, Broad Kill and Indian river.

Chief Towns.] Wilmington, the largest town in the state, is sitgated between Christiana and Brandywine creeks, about a mile above their confluence, 2 miles west of Delaware river and 28 S. W. of Philadelphia. The principal part of the town is situated on the S. W. side of a hill, which rises 109 feet above the tide, and is regularly laid out in streets crossing each other at right angles. On the N. E. side of the same hill, at a village on the Brandywine, separated by a short space from the rest of the town, are 14 flour mills, forming the finest collection in the United States. The Christiana admits vessels drawing 14 feet of water to the town, and those drawing 8 feet can ascend 3 miles further. The Brandywine has 7 feet of water to the mills. The town contains 2 market houses, a spacious almshouse, 3 banks, an academy, a United States arsenal, and 8 houses of public worship, 2 for Presbyterians, 2 for Episcopalians, and 1 each for Friends, Baptists, Roman Catholics and Methodists. Population, about 5,000.

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