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apparatus is complete, and the cabinet of mineralogy and natural Iristory is valuable. The college edifice is of stone, and styled Nassau Hall in honor of the Prince of Orange.
A Theological seminary was also established in Princeton in 1812, ly the General Assembly of the Presbyterian church. It has 3 professors, and the number of students in 1821 was 73. The editice for the accommodation of the institution is a stone building 150 feet by 50, four stories bigh, and containing rooms for 100 students. The term of study is three years. During the sessions of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian church, and the General Synod of the Associate Reformed church, in the spring of 1821, a plan was adopted to effect a union of the two churches and of their respective Theological seminaries, which has since been carried into effect. The library of the Associate Reformed church's Theological seminary, formerly established in New-York, and copsisting of 4,000 valuable volumes (which cost $17,000,) has been transfered to Princeton, and the funds of the two institutions are also united.
Queen's college was founded in New-Brunswick by ministers of the Reformed Dutch church, for the education of their clergy, and incorporated in 1770. In 1810, a Theological seminary was established in the city by the General Synod of the Reformed Dutch churches, and to a certain extent connected with the college. The two departments, however, are maintained by different funds, and are amenable to different tribunals. The college edifice is of stone, 3 stories high and unfinished. The exercises of the college have for some time past been suspended, and the building appropriated to the accommodation of Theological students. The library contains 700 or 800 volumes. The Theolog. ical department has 2 professors, and about 15 students.
Population.] The number of inhabitants in 1790 was 184,139;' in 1800, 211,149 ; in 1810, 245,562, and in 1820, 277,575, of whom 7,557 were slaves and 12,460 free blacks. The northern part of the state is most populous. Many of the inhabitants emigrate every year to the new settlements in the western country.
Religion.) The Presbyterians are the most numerous religious denomination. The number of their churches in 1818, was 74 ; of Dutch Reformed, 31; of Baptists, 30; of Episcopalians, 24 ; of Congregationalists, 9. At the same time the Friends bad 44 meeting houses, and the Methodists were numerous.
Government.] The legislature is composed of a legislative council and house of assembly. The council is chosen annually, and consists of 13 members, each county choosing one. The assembly consists of 35 members, and is chosen annually. The executive is composed of a Governor, chosen by joint ballot of the legislature; a vice-president; chosen by the council; and a privy council, consisting of three members of the legislative council.
Manufactures and Commerce.] Iron is extensively manufactured in Morris county. Shoes are made in great numbers at Newark. Phe value of the manufactures of the state in 1810 was estimated at $7,054,594. Almost all the foreign goods con
samed in this state are imported at New-York and Philadelphia, and the produce of the state is principally carried to those citjes for exportation. The value of the exports from the ports of ibis state, in 1820, amounted only to $20,531 ; and the amount of duties paid in 1815 was only $13,612. The amount of shipping in 1816 was 33,211 tons.
Situation and Extent.] Pennsylvania is bounded N. by NewYork; E. by New-Jersey, from which it is separated by Delaware river ; S. E. by the state of Delaware; S. by Maryland and Virginia ; W. by a part of Virginia and Ohio, and N. W. for a little distance, by lake Erie. It extends from 39° 42' to 47° 17' N. lat. and from 74° 32' to 80° 27' W. lop. It is 307 miles long from E. to W. and 160 broad. The area is estimated at 46,000 square miles. It is very regular in its shape; the porthern and southern boundaries being parallels of latitude, and the western boundary a line of longitude.
Divisions. The state is divided into 51 counties and about 740 townships.
Pop, in 1810.
6,143 12,168 15,746 43,146
Pop. in 1820.
19,370 34,921 10,324 15,340 20,248 46,275 11,554 37,842 10,193
3,287 13,796 44,451
9,397 23,606 21,653 14,810
8,553 27,285 31,892 15,554, 20,142 8,832
561 68.336 16,988 19,895
6,178 26,757 31,883 14,374 - 3,758 24,714 23,083 12,544 14,778 6,214
Pop. in 1810.
1,687 Union, Venango,
Pop, in 1820.
186 2,894 11,339 13.974 9,960 4,021 18,619 4,915 1,976 40,038
4,127 30,540 38,759
Face of the Country.] Several mountainous ridges traverse the central parts of the state from S W. to N. E. all of which are commonly comprehended under the name of Alleghany or Appalachian mountains. The Kittatinny or Blue mountains come from Maryland, and passing through Franklin and Cumberland Counties, cross the Susquehanna just above Harrisburg; after which they traverse Dauphin and Northampton counties, and then crossing Delaware river continue their course in the same direction through New-Jersey. West of the Kittatinny mountains are numerous inferior and parallel ridges, particularly near the southern boundary of the state, where the traveller meets successively with Sideling hills, Ragged mountains, Great Warrior, Evit's and Will's mountains. After these is the great Alleghany ridge, which, being the largest, gives its name to the whole range. It comes from Maryland, and runs from S. W. N. through the centre of the state, dividing the waters which flow east into the Susquebinna from those which flow west into the Ohio. West of the Aileghany range, and parallel with it, are the Laurel mountains and the Chesnut ridge.— These mountains pass through the state like a broad belt and cover the southwestern, central, and portheastern sections. The northwestern and southeastern sections are either level or gently undulating.
Rivers.] The Delaware is the eastern boundary. It rises in the state of New York, and pursues a zig-zag course resembling the letter W. It is navigabile for ships of the line 40 miles, to Philadelphia. Its principal tributaries from this state are, the Lehigh, wbich rises in Luzerne county and runs into the Dela
ware at Easton, after a southeasterly course of 75 miles, for 30 of which it is navigable ; and the Schuylkill, which rises also in Luzerne county, and after a S. E. course of 120 miles, falls into the Delaware, opposite Mud island, 6 or 7 miles below Philadelphia.
The Susquehanna, one of the largest rivers in the United States, is formed by the union of two principal branches, the eastern and westero. The eastern branch rises in Otsego lake, in tbe state of New-York, and running in a southwesterly direction into Pennsylvania, receives Tioga river near the northern boundary. It tben flows, first S. E. and afterwards S.W. till at Northumberland it receives the western branch, wbich brings the waters of the central portion of the northern half of the state. Alier the union of the two branches, the course of the river is at first south and then S. E. till it falls into the head of Chesapeake bay near the N. E. corner of Maryland. During the last 50 miles of its course, the parigation of the river is obstructed by an almost continued series of rapids, but further up, to the union of the two branches, there is no obstruction which cannot be surmounted at a moderate expense. The navigation of the river is good for export trade, and immense quantities of lumber in the form of boards, scantling, shingles, &c. continually descend it to Baltimore.-The principal tributary of the Susquehanna, after the union of the two branches, is the Juniatta, which rises in the Alleghany ridge, and joins it 11 miles above Harrisburg, after an easterly course of about 180 miles.
The Ohio is formed by the union of the Alleghany and Monongahela rivers,which meet at Pittsburg in the western part of the state. 1. Alleghany river rises in the northern part of the state, and runs at first in a northwesterly direction into the state of New-York, and then by a bend to the S. W. again enters Pennsylvania, and pursues its course in a southerly direction till it joins the Mooongahela. It is a steady stream, and navigable for keel boats of 10 tons to Hamilton, in New-York, 260 miles above Pittsburg. Its principal tributaries are French creek, which rises near lake Erie, and empties at Franklin, 80 miles north of Pittsburg; and Toby's creek, an eastern branch, which joins it 20 miles below Franklin. 2. The Monongahela rises in Virginia, and after a northerly course of 300 miles uoites with the Alleghany at Pittsburg. It is navigable for large boats 60 miles, to Brownsville, and small boats proceed to Tygart's valley, 200 miles from the mouth of the river. Its principal tributary is the Youghiogeny rises in Virginia, and pursuing a northwest erly course pierces tbe Laurel mountains, where it descends the falls called the Ohiopyle falls, after which it continues its course in a northwesterly direction till it joins the Monongahela 15 miles S. E. of Pittsburg.
Clinute.] The climate of Pennsylvania is perceptibly more temperate than that of the New-England states. The winters are never so severe, and the summers are generally warmer. Snow lies on the ground but a short period in the winter, and
sleighs are but little used. This is, however, generally, a healthy country, and has but few peculiar diseases.
Soil and Productions. A great portion of the state is good land, and much of it excellent. The richest tract is in the S. E. on both sides of the Susquehanna, comprising the counties of York and Lancaster, Franklin and Cumberland. This part of the state has long been settled, and is finely cultivated. The tract between lake Erie and Alleghany river has also a superior soil, but is as yet very thinly inhabited. Wheat is by far the most important agricultural product, and grows here to great persection. The next in value is Indian corn. Rye, harley, buck. wheat, oats, hemp and fax are also extensively cultivated.--The most important mineral is coal, which is found in abundance in the western part of the state. The country around Pittsburg, including 8 or 9 counties, is one great bed of coal, and the hills within sight of the town are full of that mineral. It is also found near the sources of the Lehigh and the Schuylkill. Iron ore also abounds in various parts of the state.
Chief Towns.] Philadelphia, the largest town in Pennsylvania, is on the west bank of Delaware river, which is here seveneighths of a mile wide, 126 miles from the Atlantic ocean by the course of the bay and river, and about 55 or 60, in a S. E. direction, over land. The form of the ground plot of the proper city is an oblong, about one mile froin north to south, and two from east to west, lying in the narrowest part of the isthmus between the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers, about 5 miles in a right line above their confluence. The buildings now extend beyond these limits, and occupy a space exceeding 3 miles in length from N. to S. and on High or Market street extend from the Delaware to the Schuylkill
. All the houses built beyond the boundary line of the oblong city are said to be in the “liberties," as the jurisdiction of the corporation does not extend to that part of the town. Some of the streets in the liberties are irregular, but the city is regularly laid out in streets which cross each other at right angles. Of these, there were originally 9 which extended from the Delaware to the Schuylkill, and which were crossed by 23, running north and south. The number of squares in the original plan was 184, but as several of them have been intersected by new streets, their number now amounts to 304 ; Broad-street is 113 feet wide; High-street, 100; Mulberry-street, 60; and the other streets, in the original plan, 50 feet wide. The streets are paved with stones in the middle, and bave neat foot paths of brick; and being furnished with common sewers and gutters, are, in general, kept very clean. Lamps, disposed at convenient distances, give light to all parts of the town in the night. The houses are generally constructed of brick, three stories high, plain and neat, without much ornament. The city is supplied with water from the Schuylkill. by aqueducts, which distribute it to every part of the town.
Among the public buildings are, 1. The state house, which was erected about the year 1753, and is admired for its architec