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literary men, called “ the Regents of the University of NewYork." The Regents are appointed by the legislature, and it is their duty to visit the colleges, academies and schools ; to inspect the system of education, and make yearly report thereof to the legislature ; to incorporate colleges and academies, and also to distribute among these institutions the income of a fund appropriated by the legislature to the encouragement of literature. The Literature fund amounted in 1822 to $99.535, and yielded an income of $5,142.
Religion.] The denominations of Christians in this state are Presbyterians, Episcopalians, Associate Reformed Presbyterians, Dutch Reformed Presbyterians, Congregationalists, Baptists, Methodists, Friends, German Lutherans, German Calvinists, Moravians, Catholics and Shakers. Religion is not supported by law. All denominations are left at liberty to support their own ministry in such way as is most agreeable to them.
Government. The Legislature consists of a Senate of 32 members, and of a House of Representatives, who may not exceed 150. The state is divided into four great districts for the choice of Senators. They hold their seats for four years, and one fourth part is elected every year. The Representatives are chosen annually by counties. The Governor and Lieut. Governor are elected for three years. A Council of Appointment, consisting of the Governor and a Senator from each of the four great districts, is chosen annually by the Legislature. The number of officers annually appointed by this Council is enormous; embracing most of the subordinate officers of the state.
Population. The population of New-York has increased with astonishing rapidity for the last 70 years. lo 1756 it was 110,317; in 1790, 340,120 ; in 1800, 586,050 ; in 1810, 959,049; and in 1820, 1,372,812, of whom 10,088 were slaves and 29,289 free blacks. The whole population has thus more than quadrupled within the last 30 years. The Dutch were the original settlers of the state, and iheir descendants constitute still a respectable portion of the population ; but probably two thirds of the present jobabitants are emigrants from New England or their immediate descendants. Next to the New-Englanders and the Dutch, are tbe English, Irish, Scotch and French.
Indians.] There are about 5,000 Indians in this state. They are principally the remains of the Iroquois or Six Nations, a powe erful confederacy of Indians, who formerly occupied a great part of the state. The names of the tribes are, Mohawks, Senecas, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Tuscaroras. The Mohawks lire at present on Grand river in Upper Canada ; the Senecas, on Genesee river, Alleghany river, Buffalo creek, and other places in the western part of the state ; the Oneidas, at Oneida castle, Dear Oneida lake; the Onopdagas, principaliy at Onondaga village, Dear the lake of the same name, and the Cayugas near Buffalo ; and the Tuscaroras, at a village a few miles south of Oneida cas. tle. The Stockbridge Indians, about 400 in number, live in a place called New Stockbridge, 7 miles S. of Oneida castle.
· Revenue and Debt.] The expenses of the canals are defrayed from monies obtained on loan. For the payment of the interest, a canal fund is provided, consisting of auction duties, duties on salt, canal tolls, and 5,000 dollars as a commutation for a tax on steam boat passengers ; all of which together yield at present about $200,000 annually. The general fund of the state, exclusive of the school fund, the canal fund and the literature fund, amounts to $3,077,857, principally in bank stock, and bonds and mortgages. The revenue for the year 1822, was estimated at $469,928. lode. pendently of the general fund, the state owns nearly $1,000,000 acres of land. The public debt, besides the canal debt, amounts to $1,280,000, for which a yearly interest of $76,800 is paid.
Commerce and Manufactures.] The exports consist principally of pot and pearl ashes, wheat, lodian corn, rye, beef, pork, and lumber. Their value, in 1816, was $19,690,031; in 1820, $13,163,244, about one third of which was foreign produce. The exports from New York exceed those of any other state in the Union, and in 1815 it paid more than one third of the revenge of the United States, and more than twice as much as any other state. In amount of shipping it is surpassed only by Massachusetts, and in the value of manufactures only by Pennsylvania. The value of the manufactures, in 1810, was $25,370,289; the amount of shipping, in 1815, 309,290 tons; and the rerepue paid in 1815, $14,491,739.
Islands.) Long island extends in an easterly direction from the city of New York, 140 miles in length. Its average breadth is 10, and the area is estimated at 1,400 square miles. The eastern end of the island is indented by a deep bay, and the most eastern point is a cape, well known to mariners, called Montauk point.
T'he north side of the island is rough and hilly, but the soil is well calculated for raising grain, hay and fruit. The south side lies low, and has a light, sandy soil, but is well adapted to Indian com and various kinds of grain : on the sea-coast are extensive tracts of salt meadow. The island is divided into three counties, King's, Queen's and Suffolk. King's county, at the west end of the island, is inbabited chiefly by the Dutch. This county and the western part of Queen's have been rendered fertile and productive by husbandry. The greater part of Suffolk has a thin soil, yet it is well furnished with wood, and large quantities of this article are sent to the New-York market. Along the south side of the island for 100 miles, there is a narrow beach of sand and stones, between which and the shore is a long parrow bay, 3 miles broad in the widest places. Tlere are various inlets through the beach, which admit vessels of G0 or 70 tons.
Staten island forms the county of Richmond. It is 14 miles long and & broad, and lies 9 miles S. W. of New York city. It is separated from Long-Island by the Narrows, and from the Jersey shore by a narrow strait called Staten island sound. New-York bay is on the N. E. and Amboy bay on the south.
Grand island, in Niagara river, is 12 miles long and from 2 to 7 broad, and contains 48,000 acres. It commences three miles
below Black rock, and terminates 14 above the falls. The land is well wooded, and capable of caltivation. This island is the property of the state, and constitutes part of the fund for defraying the expenses of the Erie canal.
Situation and Extent,) New-Jersey is bounded N. by NewYork; E. by the Atlantic ocean, and Hudson river, which separates it from New-York ; S. by Delaware bay, and W. by Delaware river which separates it from Pennsylvania. It extends froin 74° to 75° 29' W. lon, and from 39° to 41° 24' N. lat. It is 160 miles long from north to south, and contains 8,320 square. miles, or 5,324,000 acres.
Divisions.] The state is divided into 13 counties and 120 towns.
Bays.) Delaware bay separates New Jersey from Delaware. Amboy bay lies directly south of Stalen island, and opens into the Atlantic between Sandy Hook and the Long island shore. Newerk bay is directly north of Staten island : it communicates with New-York bay on the east, through a narrow strait called the Kills, and with Amboy bay on the south through a long, varrow strait, called Staten island sound.
Capes.] Sandy Hook is a noted point of land projecting from the Jersey shore in Monmouth county. The bighlands of Neversink are on the sea-coast near the Hook, and are the first lands that are discovered by mariners, as they come opon the coast. Cape
May, at the southern extremity of the state, is one of the capes of
Face of the Country.] The three oorthern counties are mountainous, being traversed from S.W. to N. E. by several ridges, which are considered as a cuntinuation of the great Alleghany or Appalachian range ; the next four are agreeably diversified with hills and vallies. The six southern counties, including all the coast from Sandy Hook to Cape May, are level and principally barren, producing little else but shrub-oaks and pellow pines.
Soil and Productions. The mountainous and hilly parts of the state have generally a strong soil, and form a fine grazing country. The farmers there raise great numbers of cattle for the markets of New-York and Philadelphia. They also raise wheat, rye, maize, buckwheat, potatoes, &c. Near New-York and Philadel. phia, great attention has been paid to the cultivation of fruit and vegetables; and the finest apples, pears, peaches, plums, cherries and melons are carried to these markets. Fine orchards abound in all the northern half of the state, and the cider of New-Jersey, particularly that of Newark, is of proverbial excellence.
Minerals.) The most important mineral production is iron, which is fouad in immense quantities among the mountains in the northern part of the state. In the county of Morris there are 7 rich iron mines, 2 furnaces, 3 rolling and slitting mills, and about 30 forges. Great quantities of bog iron ore are also found in the southern counties; and the annual produce in the whole state is estimated at 2,800 tons, exclusive of hollow ware and various other castings, of which vast quantities are made.
Rivers. The Delaware separates New Jersey from Pennsylvapia. It is navigable for sloops to Trenton, where there are falls which obstruct the navigation; but above the falls it is navigable 100 miles for boats of 8 or 9 tons. Hudson river forms part of the eastern boundary.
Raritan river is formed by two branches which rise in the western part of the state and upite in Somerset county. After their union the river rups a little S. of E. and passing by New-Brunswick and Amboy, falls into Amboy bay. Steam boats and sloops of 80 tons ascend to New-Brunswick, 17 miles. The Passaic, which falls into Newark bay 2 or 3 miles from the town of Newark, is navigable 10 miles for small vessels. At Patterson, 15 miles north of Newark, is the cataract or great falls The river, which is here 40 yards wide, moves in a slow, gentle current, until coming to a precipice it falls 70 feet perpendicularly in one entire sheet, presenting a scene of singular beauty and grandeur. The Hackinsack rises in New-York, and flowing south at the distance of 4 or 5 miles from the Hudson, falls into Newark bay near ihe mouth of the Passaic. Great Egg Harbor river rises in Gloucester county, and during the latter part of its course forms the boundary between the counties of Cape May and Gloucester. It is parigable 20 miles for vessels of 200 tons. :
Chief Towns.] TRENTON, the capital of the state, is on the east side of Delaware river, opposite the falls, 30 miles N. E. of Philadelphia. At the foot of the falls there is an elegant bridge over the Delaware, 1,100 feet long and 36 wide. The city contains a handsome state house ; an academy ; 2 banks; and 2 cotton factories erected in 1815, one of which is a very extensive establishment, employing more than 350 hands. Population, in 1820, 3,942.
New Brunswick, the seat of Queen's college, is on the S. W. bank of the Raritan, 27 miles N. E. of Trenton. Population, in 1820, 6,764. About half of the inhabitants are of Dutch origin. Princeton is a pleasant village of about 100 houses on the great road between New-York and Philadelphia, 50 miles from the former and 40 from the latter. The college of New-Jersey and the Theological Seminary of the Presbyterian church are in this place.
Newark is pleasantly situated near the west bank of Passaic river, 2 or 3 miles in a direct line from its mouth, and 9 miles west of New-York city. It is a beautiful town and contains 2 banks, an academy, and five houses of public worship, 2 for Presbyterians, and one each for Episcopalians, Baptists and Methodists. Population, in 1820, 6,507. Elizabethtown is pleasantly situated 6 miles south of Newark, on Elizabethtown creek, which discharges itself into Staten island sound at Elizabethtown point, 2 miles below. Vessels of 200 or 300 tons come up to the mouth of the creek, and a steam boat regularly plies between the city of New York and Elizaheidetown point. Population, in 1820, 3,515.
Burlington, the capital of Burlington county, is on Delaware river, 11 miles below Trenton. Population, in 1820, 2,758. The most populous part of the town is on an island in the Delaware. Perth Amboy, situated on a point of land at the union of Raritan river with Arthur Kull sound, 35 miles S. W. of NewYork city, has one of the best harbors on the continent. Patterson, situated at the great falls of the Passaic, 15 miles north of Newark, is a flourishing manufacturing village. In 1821 it contained 11 cotton mills ; 3 fax mills, where the duck for the U. States' navy is manufactured; a mill for rolling sheet iron, and a nail factory. Population, in 1820, more than 1,700.
Canal.] It has long been in contemplation to open a bavigable communication between Philadelphia and New York, by means of a canal from New-Brunswick on the Raritan, to Trenton on the Delaware. A company was incorporated in New-Jersey many years ago for this purpose, and a survey of the intended roule was made, from which the practicability of a canal for sea vessels was ascertained. The expense is estimated at $800,000.
Education.) The College of New-Jersey, at Princeton, was founded in 1733, and hes always been one of the most respectable and flourishing literary institutions in the country. In 1820 it bad a president, 3 professors, 3 tutors and 121 students. The college library contains abou: 8,000 volumes; the philosophical