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tion, and crosses Oneida creek into Madison county, where it turns to the west and passes through Onondaga county, approaching within a mile and a half of Salina, at the south end of Onondaga lake. It crosses Seneca river at Montezuma, and passing by Lyons and Palmyra, strikes the Genesee river at Kochester. West of the Genesee river, it runs on the south side of the Ridge road, and parallel with it for 60 miles, and then turning to the south, joins Tonnewanta creek 11 miles from its mouth in Niagara river. The channel of the Tondewanta will be made use of for these 11 miles, and the canal will then proceed in a southerly direction, from the mouth of the Tonnewanta, along the east bank of Niagara river, to Buffalo on lake Erie.
This route may be divided into three sections. The western section extends from Buffalo to Montezuma on Seneca river, 160 miles: through this distance, the level of the canal uniformly descends from the lake, and the whole descent is 194 feet hy 25 locks. The middle section extends from Montezuma to Rome, 77 miles; through this distance the level of the canal yoiformly ascends, and the whole uscent is 49 feet. The eastern section extends from Rome to Albany, 113 miles: through this distance the level of the canal uniformly descends, and the whole descent is 419 feet by 46 locks. The aggregate of rise and fall is therefore 062 feet, and the difference of levels between lake Erie and the Hudson, 564 feet.
The canal is 40 feet wide on the surface, 28 at the bottom, and 4 feet deep. It was estimated by the commissioners in 1817 that the whole expense would be $4,881,733, viz: the westero section $1,856,862; the middle section, $853,186 ; the eastern section, $2,196,690 ; and general expenses, $75,000. The canal was commenced on the 4th of July 1817, and the commissioners anticipate its entire completion before the close of the year 1823.
Among the benefits of this grand enterprise, it is expected, that besides furnishing an outlet for the agricultural produce of vast and fertile regions, salt may be supplied to the Atlantic states from the great salt works at Salina, cheaper than from abroad. In the progress of the canal also, gypsum of the best quality has been discovered, and in sufficient quantities for the supply of the whole United States.
The Champlain canal is 22 miles long, from Whitehall at the mouth of Wood creek, on lake Champlain, to Fort Edward on the Hudson. It is 40 feet wide at the surface, 28 at the bottom, and 4 feet deep. The locks are 90 feet long, and 14 feet wide in the clear. The descent from the summit level to lake Champlain is 54 feet, and from the summit level to the Hudson, 30 feet. The expense was about $260,000. The canal was opened in the summer of 1820, and thongh the navigation was interrupted for three months, considerable quantities of luber passed through it. By means of dams, locks and other improvements, a good boat navigation has been opened on the Hudson, from Fort Edward as far down as Saratoga falls. At Saratoga falls a canal was
commenced in 1820, which is to extend along the west bank of the Hudson to Waterford, at the mouth of the Mohawk, a distance of 27 miles. The whole expense of continuing the Champlain canal from Fort Edward to Waterford, was originally estimated at $621,000, but from a more minute examination of the country, and the discovery of unexpected facilities, the estimate is now reduced to $400,000. It is expected that the whole will be completed, and a navigation opened from lake Champlain to the tide waters of the Hudson in 1822. Plans have been recently submitted to the legislature of the state for improving the navigation of the Hudson below the head of tide waters, so as to admit of the ascent of ships to Albany.
At Rome there is a canal, one mile and an half long, connecting Mohawk river with Wood creek, and opening a communication through this creek, Oneida lake, and Oswego river, into lake Ontario.
Education.) Columbia college, formerly called King's college, in the city of New York, was established in 1754. It has a president, 5 professors, 140 students, a library of 3,000 or 4,000 volumes, a valuable pbilosophical apparatus, and an annual revenge of more than $4,000. A Faculty of medicine was formerly attached to the instiiution, but in 1814 it was separated from it.
Union college, in Schenectady, was incorporated in 1794, and is a very flourishing institution. The college edifices are finely situated on an elevated spot of ground, and contain accomodations for more than 200 students. The philosophical apparatus is respectable. The library contains about 5,000 volumes. The officers in 1820 were a president, 4 professors, and 2 tutors. The number of students at the same period was 245.
Hamilton college, situated near the village of Clinton, 10 miles W. S. W. of Utica, was incorporated in 1812, and has been liberally patronised by the legislature and by individuals. It has a president, 3 professors, 2 tutors, a library of about 2,000 volumes, and 100 students. The college buildings are about a mile west of the village, on a high hill, commanding a very extensive prospect
A college of Physicans and Surgeons was establised in the city of New-York in 1807, and in 1814 the Faculty of Medicine which was formerly attached to Colombia college, was voited with it. Thus united, the college of Physicans has 7 professors, and is one of the most respctable and flourishing medical institusions in the country. The Elgin Botanic garden is attached to this institution.
The Common School fund consisted in 1822 of $1,139,130 and 25,000 acres of land. It yields annually the sum of $77,417, which is appropriated to the support of common schools, and it appears from the report of the Superintendant in 1820, that nine tenths of all the children in the state between 5 and 15 years of age received instruction. Besides the common schools and the colleges, there are 40 or 50 incorporated academies in the state. All these institutions are under the superintendance of a body of
literary men, called " the Regents of the University of NewYork.” The Regents are appoioted by the legislature, and it is their duty to visit the colleges, academies and schools; to inspect the system of education, and make yearly report thereof to the legislature; to incorporate colleges and academies, and also to distribute among these institutions the income of a fund appropriated by the legislature to the encouragement of literature. The Literature fund amounted in 1822 to $99.535, and yielded an income of $5,142.
Religion. The denominations of Christians in this state are Presbyterians, Episcopalians, Associate Reformed Presbyterians, Dutch Reformed Presbyterians, Congregationalists, Baptists, Methodists, Friends, German Lutherans, German Calvinists, Moravians, Catholics and Shakers. Religion is not supported by law. All denominations are left at liberty to support their own ministry in such way as is most agreeable to them.
Governmenı.] The Legislature consists of a Senate of 32 members, and of a House of Representatives, who may not exceed 150. The state is divided into four great districts for the choice of Senators. They hold their seats for four years, and one fourth part is elected every year. The Representatives are chosen annually by counties. The Governor and Lieut. Governor are elected for three years, A Council of Appointment, consisting of the Governor and a Senator from each of the four great districts, is chosen annually by the Legislature. The number of officers annually appointed by this Coupcil is enormous; embracing most of the subordinate officers of the state.
Population.] The population of New-York has increased with astonishing rapidity for the last 70 years. lo 1756 it was 110,317; in 1790, 340,120 ; in 1800, 586,050 ; in 1810, 959,049; and in 1820, 1,372,812, of whom 10,088 were slaves and 29,289 free blacks. The whole population has thus more than quadrupled within the last 30 years. The Dutch were the original settlers of the state, and iheir descendants constitute still a respectable portion of the population ; but probably two thirds of the present inhabitants are emigrants from New-England or their immediate descendants. Next to the New-Englanders and the Dutch, are tbe English, Irish, Scotch and French.
Indians.] There are about 5,000 Indians io this state. Tliey are principally the remains of the Iroquois or Six Nations, a powerful confederacy of Indians, who formerly occupied a great part of the state. The names of the tribes are, Mohawks, Senecas, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Tuscaroras. The Mobawks lire at present on Grand river in Upper Canada ; the Senecas, on Genesee river, Alleghany river, Buffalo creek, and other places in the western part of the state ; the Oneidas, at Oneida castle, near Oneida lake; the Onondagas, principally at Onondaga village, near the lake of the same name, and the Cayugas near Buffalo ; and the Tuscaroras, at a village a few miles south of Oneida cas. te. The Stockbridge Indians, about 400 in Dumber, live in a place called New Stockbridge, 7 miles S. of Oneida castle.
Revenue and Debt.] The expenses of the canals are defrayed from monies obtained on loan. For the payment of the interest, a canal fund is provided, consisting of auction duties, duties on salt, canal tolls, and 5,000 dollars as a commutation for a tax on steam boat passengers ; all of which together yield at present about $200,000 annually. The general fund of the state, exclusive of the school fund, the canal fund and the literature fund, amounts to $3,077,857, principally in bank stock, and bonds and mortgages.
The revenue for the year 1822, was estimated at $469,928. ladependently of the general fund, the state owns nearly $1,000,000 acres of land. The public debt, besides the canal debt, amounts to $1,280,000, for which a yearly interest of $76,800 is paid.
Commerce and Manufactures.] The exports consist principally of pot and pearl ashes, wheat, Indian corn, rye, beef, pork, and lumber. Their value, in 1816, was $19,690,031; in 1820, $13,163,244, about one third of which was foreign produce. The exports from New-York exceed those of any other state in the Union, and in 1815 it paid more than one third of the revenue of the United States, and more than twice as much as any other state. In amount of shipping it is surpassed only by Massachusetts, and in the value of manufactures only by Pennsylvania. The value of the manufactures, in 1810, was $25,370,289 ; the amount of shipping, in 1815, 309,290 tons; and the revenue paid in 1815, $14,491,739.
Islands.) Long island extends in an easterly direction from the city of New York, 140 miles in length. Its average breadth is 10, and the area is estimated at 1,400 square miles. The eastern end of the island is indented by a deep bay, and the most eastero point is a cape, well known to mariners, called Montauk point. The north side of the island is rough and hilly, but the soil is well calculated for raising grain, hay and fruit. The south side lies low, and has a light, sandy soil, but is well adapted to Indian com and various kinds of grain : on the sea-coast are extensive tracts of salt meadow. The island is divided into three counties, King's, Queen's and Suffolk. King's county, at the west end of the island, is inbabited chiefly by the Dutch. This county and the western part of Queen's have been rendered fertile and productive hy husbandry. The greater part of Suffolk has a thin soil, yet it is well furnished with wood, and large quantities of this article are sent to the New-York market. Along the south side of the island for 100 miles, there is a narrow beach of sand and stones, between which and the shore is a long parrow bay, 3 miles broad in the widest places. There are various inlets through the beach, which admit vessels of G0 or 70 tons.
Staten island forms the county of Richmond. It is 14 miles long and & broad, and lies 9 miles S. W. of New-York city. It is separated from Long-Island by the Narrows, and from the Jersey shore by a narrow strait called Staten Island sound. New-York bay is on the N. E. and Amboy bay on the south.
Grand island, in Niagara river, is 12 miles long and from 2 to 7 broad, and contains 48,000 acres. It commences three miles
below Black rock, and terminates 14 above the falls. The land is well wooded, and capable of caltivation. This island is the property of the state, and constitutes part of the fund for defraying the expenses of the Erie canal.
Situation and Extent.] New-Jersey is bounded N. by NewYork; E. by the Atlantic ocean, and Hudson river, whichi separates it from New-York ; S. by Delaware bay, and W. by Delaware river which separates it from Pennsylvania. It extends from. 74° to 75° 29' W. lon. and from 39° to 41° 24' N. lat. It is 160 miles long from north to south, and contains 8,320 square. miles, or 5,324,000 acres.
Divisions. The state is divided into 13 counties and 120 towns.
Bays.) Delaware bay separates New-Jersey from Delaware. Amboy bay lies directly south of Stalen island, and opens into the Atlantic between Sandy Hook and the Lony island shore. Newerk bay is directly north of Staten island : it communicates with New-York bay on the east, through a narrow strait called the Kills, and with Amboy bay on the south through a long, varrow strait, called Staten island sound.
Capes.] Sandy Hook is a noted point of land projecting from the Jersey shore in Monmouth county. The highlands of Neversink are on the sea-coast near the Hook, and are the first lands that are discovered by mariners, as they come upon the coast. Cape