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rushes through an opening in the range and down a considerable cataract, after which it is called Windsor river, under which name it pursues a southeasterly direction, and joins the Connecticut 4 miles above Hartford. A canal is in contemplation to connect Farmington river with New-Haven harbor.
3. 'The Hooestennuc rises in the northern part of Berkshire county in Massachusetts, and running in a southerly direction, between the Taghkannuc and Green mountain ranges, enters this state near its N. W. corner, between the townships of Canaan and Salisbury. About 7 miles from the line it is precipitated over a perpendicular declivity 60 feet in height ; after which it runs at first in a southerly and then in a southeasterly direction till it falls into the sound between Milford and Stratford. A bar of shells at its mouth prevents the entrance of large vessels. It is Davigable for sloops and brigs 12 miles, to Derby
Chief Towns. There are 5 incorporated cities in Connecticut, viz. Hartford, New-Haven, Middletown, New-London and Norwich.
Hartford, one of the capitals of the state, is regularly laid out on the west bank of Connecticut river, 50 miles from its mouth. It is advantageously situated for trade, being at the head of sloop navigation, and having an extensive, fertile and thrifty back country. The city is generally well built and makes a handsome appearance. Among the public buildings are a state house ; an asylum for the deaf and dumb, and 6 houses of public worship. There are also 8 distilleries, and manufacturing establishments of va. rious kinds. An elegant bridge over the Connecticut, built at an expense of more than $100,000, connects the town with East Hartford. Population of the city in 1890, 4,726, and including the township 6,901.
New-Haven, the seat of Yale college and the semi-capital of Connecticut, lies around the head of a harbor, which sets op 4 miles from Long-Island sound, 34 miles S. S. W. of Hartford, T'he city is built on a large plain, encircled on all sides except those occupied by the water, by a fiae amphitheatre of hills and mountains, several of which present bold and perpendicular fronts, nearly 400 feet in height. The city is divided into two parts, called the Old and New Townships. The old town is laid out in a large square, divided into 9 smaller squares; each 52 rods on a side, and separated by streets 4 rods in breadth. The central square is open, and is believed to be one of the handsomest in the United States. On and around it are most of the public buildings, viz. a state house ; six college edifices; 3 elegant churches, 2 for Congregationalists and 1 for Episcopalians; and a Methodist church.
The houses in New-Haven are generally built of wood, in a neat and counmodious, but not in an expensive style. . Several of those receotly erected, however, are elegant and stately edifices of brick. The principal streets are ornamented wilb trees, and most of the houses are furnished with a piece of ground in the rear, sufficiently large for a garden and fruit trees, giving to the
city a rural and pleasant appearance. In the north corner of the town, a burying ground has been laid out on a plan entirely new. The field is divided into parallelograms, which are subdivided into family burying places. The ground is planted with trees; the monuments are almost universally of marble, and a copsiderable number are obelisks. The whole has a solemn and impressive appearance.
The harbor is well defended from winds, but is shallow and gradually filling up with mud. This difficulty has been remedied in part by the construction of a wharf nearly a mile in length, exteoding into the harbor. Population of the city in 1820, 7,147, and including the township, 8,327.
Middletown is pleasantly situated on the west bank of Connecticut river 31 miles from its mouth, 15 miles south of Hartford, and 26 N. E. of New-Haven. It is a flourishing town, and has considerable commerce. There are also several important manufactories in the town, most of them recently established. Among them are a sword factory, where about 5,000 swords are annually manufactured ; a pistol factory, which employs 60 or 70 meo, who make 8,000 or 10,000 pistols annually; a rifle factory, which easploys from 25 to 30 hands, and produces 1,000 or 1,200 rifles in a year; an ivory comb factory, and a factory of block-lin buttons. These bave all been established since 1813, and most of the swords, pistols and rifles have been sold to the government of the United States. Population of the city in 1820, 2,618 ; and jocluding the township, 6,479.
New-London is near the S. E. corner of the state, on the west bank of the Thames, 3 miles from its entrance into the sound. The harbor is the best in the state, having 5 fathoms water, and being safe, spacious and accessible at all seasons of the year; but it is easily blockaded, as, was proved during the late war. It is defended by two forts on opposite sides of the river. The inhabitants own considerable shipping, employed in the coasting trade, the trade with the West Indies, and the fisheries. Population in 1820, 3,330.
Norwich is on the Thames, 14 miles north of New-London and 38 S. E: of Hartford. It is favorably situated for trade, being at the head of navigation on the river, and having an extensive and productive back country. The Yantic river, which here unites with the Shetucket to form the Thames, has a cataract about a mile from its mouth, remarkable for its romantic scenery, and affording fine sites for mills and manufacturing establishments. T'he point of land formed by the union of Shetucket and Yantic rivers is called Chelsea landing, and is the seat of most of the commercial business of the place. Population of the city in 1820, 2,983, and including the township, 3,634.
Litchfield, the seat of a celebrated law school and of Morris academy, is 30 miles W. of Hartford and 36 N. N. W. of NewHaven. Wethersfield is pleasantly situated on the west bank of Conecticut river 4 miles below Hariford. It is famous for raising great quantities of onions. Saybrook, one of the oldest towns
in the country, stands on the west bank of Connecticut river at its mouth. Stafford, famous for its mineral spring and iron works, is 27 miles N. E. of Hartford. Fairfield, the chief town in Fairfield county, is on the coast, 22 miles W. S. W. of New-Haven.The borough of Bridgeport, 4 miles N. E. of Fairfield, has one of the best harbors in the state and is a thrifty commercial place.
Education.] Yale college, in New Haven, is one of the oldest and most respectable colleges in the United States. It was founded in 1701, and was named after Governor Yale one of its most liberal benefactors. Its officers in 1821 were a president; 9 professors, including 4 medical professors; and 6 tutors. The college library contains about 7,000 volumes, and the students bave libraries amounting to 2,000 more. A cabinet of minerals. was deposited here in 1811 by George Gibbs Esq. the original cost of which is said to have been £4,000 sterling.
The college buildings consist of 4 spacious edifices, each 4 stories bigb, and each containing 32 rooms for students; a chapel, containing also a philosophical chamber; a lyceum, containing the library and recitation rooms; a laboratory; and a dining ball.
A medical institution is connected with the college. It was established in 1813, and has 4 professors, a valuable anatomical museum and a medical library. The whole number of studente in 1821 was 407; of whom 78 were medical students, 4 resident graduates and 325 under-graduates. The whole number educated here from the establishment of the institution to 1820 was 3,478 ; of whom there were then living 1,881, a greater number than from any other college in the United States. Efforts are Dow making for the establishment of a Theological seminary, to be connected with the college.
The American Asylum for the education of the deaf and dumb, established in Hartford in 1817, was the first institution of the kind in America. It is under the direction of Rev. Thomas H. Gallaudet, who visited the celebrated schools in Europe to qualify himself for the charge. He has 4 assistants. The number of pupils in 1819 was 50. The Congress of the United States has made a generous grant to the Asylum of more than 23,000 acres of land ; and the Legislatures of some of the states have made appropriations for the support of pupils. The success of the institutiou has hitherto been highly gratifying, and the improvement of the pupils has equalled the most sanguine expectations of their friends.
There is a Foreign mission school at Cornwall, 10 miles N. W. of Litchfield, under the direction of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. It was established in 1817 for the purpose of educating heathen youth from various parts of the world. After they have received their education, they are to be sent home to instruct their own countrymen. In 1821 the number of heathen pupils was 29 ; of whom 7 were Sandwich islanders, 1 Otabeitan, i New Zealander, 1 Malay and 19 Amer
ican Indians. Several natives of the Sandwich Islands, who were educated at this school, have already returned to their country well qualified for usefulness.
A Law school was established at Litchfield in 1784 by the Hon. Tapping Reeve. It has been justly considered as the most respectable and systematic law school in the United States. The number of students educated since its establishment is more than 600.
Bacon academy in Colchester, 15 miles west of Norwich, was founded in 1801. Its funds are $30,000 and the number of scholars is usually about 90. The Episcopal academy at Cheshire, 13 miles north of New-Haven, has a fund of $25,000; and usually about 70 students. There are also academies at Plainfield, Litchfield, and almost all the principal towns in the state.
Common schools are universally established. They are supported by a school fund arising from the sale of lands in Ohio, which formerly belonged to the state. This fund amounted in May 1821 to $1,700,000, and the yearly income, together with $12,000 from the public taxes, is annually devoted to the mainteoance of common schoolmasters in every town in the state. The amount paid to the towns from this fund in 1818 was $70,914. The whole amount of the slate tas in 1817 was only $46,362; the income of the fund exceeding the amount of the tax by more than 22,000 dollars.
Religion.) The Congregationalists are the most numerous religious denomination. In 1818 they had 213 congregations ; the Episcopalians, 74; Baptists, 90 ; and Methodists 53. There are very few of any other sect.
Government.] The legislative power of the state, according to the new constitution, adopted in 1818, is vested in a general assembly, consisting of two houses, viz. the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate consists of 12 members, chosen annually by general ballot. The House of Representativer consists of 201 members, chosen by the different towns ; the larger towns being each entitled to two Representatives and the smaller towns to one. The executive power is vested in a governor who holds his office for one year. A lieutenant governor is also appointed, who is ex officio President of the Senate. Any person of 21 years of age, having resided in a town for six months, and possessing a freehold estate of the annual value of serea dollars is entitled to vote at all elections of state officers. The judicial power of the state is vested in a Supreme court of errors, a Superior court, and such inferior courts as the General Assembly shall from time to time establish. The judges of the Supreme court and of the superior court hold their offices during good behaviour, but no judge or justice of the peace is capable of holding his office after he has arrived at the age
years. Population] The population in 1790 was 23,946 ; in 1800, 251,002: in 1810, 261,942, and in 1820, 275,248. The ate very thickly settled, and many thousands emigrate every year to the western country.
Roads and bridges.] There are numerous turnpike roads, connecting the principal towns and intersecting the state in every direction. The most expensive is that from Hartford to NewHaven, which is 34 miles long. The common roads are generally good. The most considerable bridge is that over the Connecticut at Hartford. The bridges on this river are frequently carried away by freshets, especially when the ice breaks up in the spring of the year.
Mineral waters.] There is a mineral spring at Stafford, which is more celebrated than any other in New-England. The waters are efficacions in cases of dropsy, gout, rheumatism, scorbutic, scrofulous and cancerous complaints; and are much resorted to in the summer season.
Manufactures.] In Connecticut a larger portion of the population are engaged in manufactures than in any other state except Rhode Island. The manufacture of tin into culinary vessels is carried on to a very great extent. The ware, thus made, is taken by pedlars aod sold in all parts of the United States, in Florida, Louisiana and Canada. Berlin, 10 miles south of Hartford, is the principal seat of the tin manufacture. In Hamden, which adjoins New-Haven on the north, there is an extensive guo factory, where large quantities of fire arms have been made. Cotton and woollen "goods, nails, glass, bats, buttons, wooden clocks, and many other articles are among the manufactures. • Commerce. The principal exports are horses, mules, butter and cheese, cider, Indian corn, beef, pork, &c. The foreign trade is carried on principally with the West Indies; but the exports in the coasting trade to the Southern states are of more value than those in the foreign trade.
Situation and Extent.] New York is bounded N. by Lower Canada; E. by Vermont, Massachusetts, and Connecticut ; S. by New-Jersey and Pennsylvania ; and W. and N. W. by Upper Canada, from which it is separated by lake Erie, Niagara river, lake Ontario, and the river St. Lawrence. It extends from 40° 35' to 45° N. lat. and from 73° to 79° 55' W. lon. Its length from east to west on the parallel of 42° is 340 miles. The area is estimated al 46,000 square miles or 29,494,720
Divisions.) The state contains 4 districts, which are divided into 50 counties, and subdivided into towos.