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Bays.) Narraganset bay runs from north to south, dividing the state into two parts, and communicates with the ocean between point Judith on the west and point Seaconet on the east. It is about 30 miles long and 15 broad, and embraces several considerable islands. The northeast arm of Narraganset bay is called Mount Hope bay; the northwest arın, Greenwich bay; and the northern arm, Providence bay. The principal rivers which fall inló it are Providence river from the north, and Taunton river from the northeast. The commissioners who were appointed to examine the coast of the United States, in 1817, wore of opinion that this bay presented ihe best site for a naval depot in the Unjop north of Chesapeak bay. It is accessible from the sea at all seasons of the year; it affords capacious barbors, and can be entered from the ocean in a few hours' sail; it is not susceptible of a continued blockade ; nor is it obstructed by ice.
Islands.] Rhode-Island, from which the state takes its name, is in Narraganset bay. It is 15 miles long and on an average 3; broad, containing about 50 square miles. Its climate is delightful; the summers are remarkably pleasant, and the winters milder than on the continent. Travellers have called it the Edlen of America. Canonicut is a beautiful island, 7 miles long and i broad, lying northwest of Rhode Island. Prudence island lies N. E. of Canonicut. Block-island, 10 miles S.W. of point Judith, is 7 miles long and 4 broad, and contains about 700 inhabitants.
Face of the Country, doc.] The vorthern part of the state is billy, and has a thin and barren soil; the rest is chiefly level. The islands and the country bordering on Narragan-et bay are very fertile, and celebrated for their fine cattle, their numerous flocks of sheep, and the abundance and excellence of their butter and cheese. The southwestern part of lis' state is an excellent grazing country
Rivers.) The following are the principal rivers. 1. Parotucket river rises in Massachusetts, in Worcester county, and running in a southeasterly direction falls into Providence river one mile below the lown of Providence. There are falls of aboui 50 feet descent, 4 miles from its inouih. Below the falls the river is called the Sockhonk. 2. Providence river is formed by two sipali rivers which onile just above Providence. It is navigable to Providence for ships of 300 ions. 3. Puwluxet river falls into Providence river 5 miles below the town of Providence. It abounds with falls, which furnish fine sileations for mill-seats and 2199fucturing establishments. There are about 40 cotton fuc
tories on this river and its branches. 4. Parcatuck river waters the S. W. part of the state, and runs into Stonington harbor. In the latter part of its course it is the boundary between this state and Connecticut.
Chief Towns. Providence, the largest town in the state, and the third in New-England in respect to population, stands on Providence river, just above the mouth of the Seekhonk, 35 miles from the ocean, and 40 S. S. W. of Bosion. The town is built on both sides of the river, and the two parts are connected by an elegant bridge. Merchavt ships of the largest class ascend to this place. Many of the private houses are handsome build. ings, and the appearance or the town has been recently much innproved by the construction of side walks along the principal streets paved with flag stones. Among the public buildings are the colleges ; 7 banks; and 13 houses of public worship, 4 for Baptists, 3 for Congregationalists, 2 for Methodists, 1 for Episcopalians, 1 for Friends, I for Universalists and one for Africans. Several of the churches are elegant edifices.
Providence is one of the wealthiest and most flourishing towns of its size in the United States. The principal source of its prosperity is the cotton manufacture, which was introduced about 15 years ago, and has increased with astonishiog rapidity. There are now more than 100 cotton factories in Rhode Island and the adjacent parts of Massachusetts and Connecticut, the business of which is transacted principally in Providence. Among the manufacturing establishments within the town are 5 cotton factories, 2 woollen factories, 5 distilleries, 3 rope-walks, and 10 jeweller's shops, where jewelry is mangfactured principally for exportation. The commerce of the town has increased with its manyfactures. The amount of shipping in 1819 was 19,000 tops, of which about 5,000 were employed in the East-lodia trade, and 5,000 or 6,000 in the coasting trade with the southern states, connected principally with the cotton business. Ten or twelve vessels are constantly employed in the exportation of cotton goods. In September, 1815, the town suffered severely from a tremepdous gale, which forced the water in the river many feet above the highest tides, and deluged the town, destroying houses and shipping to an amount estimated at $1,500,000. Population, in 1820, 11,767.
Newport stands on the S. W. side of Rhode Island, 5 miles from the sea and 30 S. by E. of Providence. The harbor spreads westward before the town, and is one of the finest in the world. It is of a semicircular forn, of safe and easy access, sufficiently capacious to contain a large fleet, and deep enough for vessels of the largest burden. The town is built on a beautiful declivity, rising gradually from the harbor, and presents a fine view as you approach it from the water. The beauty of its situation and the salubrity of its climate have made it a place of fashionable resort from the Southern and Middle states during the summer months. Newport was formerly the first town in the state, but it has nos
falles behind Providence in commerce and population. The number of inhabitants in 1820 was 7,319.
Bristol is on the east side of Narraganset bay, 15 miles S. S. E. of Providence. It has a safe and commodious barbor, and is a place of considerable trade. The amount of shipping owned bere in 1815 was 6,944 tons. Population, in 1820, 3,197. Warren is a pleasant town adjoining Bristol on the north. Warwick, on Greenwich bay, 10 miles S. S. W. of Providence, is extensively engaged in the manufacture of cotton goods. It has no less than 15 cotton factories, and in 1820 contained 3,643 inhabitants. Pawtucket village, situated at the falls of Pawtucket river, 4 miles N.E. of Providence, is one of the most flourishing manufacturing villages in the United States.
Education.) Brown university in Providence is one of the most fourishing and respectable literary institutions in the United States. It was originally established at Warren, in 1784, and was removed to Providence in 1770. It has a president, 8 professors, 2 tutors and 160 students. The college library contains about 6,000 volumes, and the society libraries of the students 2,000 or 3,000 more. The philosopbical apparatys is extensive and complete. There are two college edifices of brick, containing rooms for 200 students. They are pleasantly situated on an eminence, and command an extensive and variegated prospect. It is required that the president and a majority of the trustees of this university should be of the Baptist denomination.
Common schools are not supported by law in Rhode Island as in the other New-England states. Academies, however, are established in all the principal towns, and private schools are maintained during the winter months in almost every part of the state,
Population. The population in 1790 was 68,825; in 1800, 69,122 ; in 1810, 76,931 ; in 1820, 83,059, or 53 for each square mile. In Charlestown, on the southern shore of the state, are the remains of the once famous Narragapset tribe of Indians. They are now reduced to about 100 souls, and are a miserable, degraded race of beings.
Religion.] The Baptists are the most numerous denomination of Christians. They have 57 congregations; the Friends, 18; Congregationalists, 11 ; Episcopalians, 5; Moravians, 1; Jews, I.
Government. The constitution of the state is the charter granted to the colony by Charles II. in 1663. The legislative power is vested in a General Assembly consisting of two branches, ihe Senate and House of Representatives. The Senate consists of teo members, and the House of Reprcsentatives of two deputies from each town, with the exception of Providence, Portsmouth, Warwick and Newport; the three first of which are entitled to four each, and the last to six. The Representatives are chosen semi-annually. The executive power is vested in a Governor, or, in case of his death, in a Lieut. Governor, both of whom bave
seats in the Senate. The possession of a freehold estate is a ne cessary qualification of a voter.
Manufactures and Commerce.] In no state in the Union is so large a proportion of the population and capital employed in manufactures as in Rhode Island. The principal article is cotton goods, which are manufactured in large quantities in Providence and the vicinity. There are now more than 90 cotton mills in the state, many of which are extensive establishments.—The exports are fish, beef, pork, cattle, lumber, &c. Cotton goods and other manufactured articles are also transported in considerable quantities to the Southern states. In 1819 there were 33 banks in this state, of which 7 were at Providence, 6 at Newport, and $ at Bristol.
Situation and Extent. Connecticut is bounded N. by Massachusetts ; E. by Rhode-Island ; S. by Long-Island sound ; and W. by New-York. It extends from 41° to 42° 2' N. lat. and from 71° 29' to 73° 24' W. lon. It is 72 miles long on the northern boundary and 46 on the eastern. The area is estimated at 4,674
Divisions.] The state is divided into 8 counties and 122 towns.
The four first named counties border on Long-Island sound from east to west ; the four last border on Massachusetts from west to east. Hartford and Middlesex counties are intersected by Connecticut river.
Face of the Country.) The face of the country is greatly diversified by hills and vallies. The hills are generally of a moda erate size, and occur in quick succession, presenting to the trav. eller a beantiful and constantly varying prospect. There are several ranges of mountains which come from Massachusetts, and traversing the state from oorth to south terminate near Loug-Island sound. Beginning in the east, the first is the Lyme range,
which runs on the east side of Connecticut river, at the distance of 8 or 10 miles, and termipates in Lyme at the mouth of the river. This range throws off a branch in Glastegbury, which runs S. W. across Connecticut river and terminates in East Haven. The next is the Mount Tom range, which runs on the west side of the Connecticut, in a direction nearly south, and terminates at NewHaven in a fine perpendicular bluff called East Rock. The Green mountain range is still farther west. It runs nearly parallel with the Mouot Tom range and terminates also in New-Haven in a noble bluff called West Rock. The Taghkannuc range rups on the west side of the Hooestepnuc along the western boundary of the state, and terminates in Norwalk near the S. W. extremi. ly of the state. There are no lofty summits in these ranges. The highest are the Blue hills, in Southington, in the Mount Tom range, and these are supposed not to exceed 1,000 feet in height.
Soil and Productions.] The soil is generally excellent, and fitted for all the purposes of agriculture. Much of it has been under actual coltivation for the greater part of a century, and still retains its original strength. The county of Pairfield and the interval land on Connecticut river are the best in the state. lodian corn, rye, grass and potatoes are the principal agricultural productions. Oats and flax are also raised extensively. Almost every farm has one or more orchards, and great quantities of cider are annually made. The crops of onions, turnips and beans are also of great consequence to the Connecticut farmer. Im. mense oumbers of neat cattle and of hogs are fattened upon maize. Cheese is made in great quaotities and constitutes the chief produce of several towns.
Rivers. The following are the principal rivers, beginning in the east; 1. Tbe Thames is formed by Shetucket and Yantic rivers which unite at Norwich landing; whence the common stream pursues a southerly course for 14 miles, and discharges itself into Long-island sound at New-London. It is navigable for sea vessels to Norwich. The Shetucket is formed by the union of tbe Willimantic, Mount Hope and several other streams, which rise in the northern part of the state and unite in the town of Windbam; whence the common stream proceeds in a S. E. direction, and after receiving the Quinibaug from the east, joins Yantic river and forms the Thames. The Quinibaug rises on the borders of Massachusetts, and running south joins the Shetucket 3 miles above Norwich landing.
2. The Connecticut comes from Massachusetts, and running at first in a southerly and afterwards in a southeasterly direction, falls into Long-Island sound between Saybrook and Lyme. There is a bar at the mouth which at full tide has 10 feet water. The river is Davigable for vessele drawing 8 feet of water to Hartford, 50 miles. Farmington river is a western branch of the Connecticat. It rises in Massachusetts, and runs in a southeasterly direction to Farmington in this state, where it turns to the north and ronning at the foot of the western declivity, of the Mount Tom roge of mountains for 16 miles, is joined by Salmon river and