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the Massachusetts Insane Hospital, an almshouse, town house ; and 5 houses for public worship, 2 for Congregationalists, 1 for Baptists, 1 for Universalists and 1 for Methodists. A navy yard of the United States occupies the S. E. part of the town. It consists of about 60 acres of land, on which are erected a marine hospital, a spacious ware house, an arsenal, and house for the accomodation of the superintendant, all of brick ; and an immense wooden edifices under which the largest vessels of war are built. The celebrated battle of " Breed's hill,” commonly, but incorrectly called “Bunker hill battle,” was fought in this town, June 17, 1775. The population of Charlestown in 1820 was 6,591.
Plymouth is on the coast 36 miles S. S. E. of Boston. It is the oldest town in New England. The first settlers landed here on the 22d of December 1620. A part of the rock on which the pilgrims landed has been removed to the centre of the town, and the anniversary of their landing is still celebrated. The harbor of Plymouth is spacious but shallow. The amount of shipping in 1815, was 18,875 tons. Population in 1820, 4,384.
Provincetown is situated at the extremity of thc peninsula of cape Cod, 60 miles S. E. of Boston by water, 116 by land. Its harbor, which is one of the best in the state, opens to the southward, and has depth of water for any ships. The houses are one story high and set on piles, that the driving sands may pass under them, otherwise they would be buried. The inhabitants derive their subsistence from the prosecution of the fisheries, and are dependent on Boston and on the towns in the vicinity for every vegetable production. · Population in 1820, 1,225.
New Bedford is 52 miles south of Boston, on the estuarv of a small river which flows into Buzzard's bay. It has a safe and comniodious harbor. The inhabitants are extensively engaged in the whale fishery. In 1818 more than 20 vessels were employed in the whale fishery and many more in the Cod fishery, coasting trade, and foreign trade. The whole amount of shipping, in 1818, was 23,712 tons. Population, in 1820, 3,949. Taunton is a pleasant and flourishing town on the west side of Taunton river, 36 miles south of Boston. Population, in 1920, 4,520.
Worcester, the capital of Worcester county, is a pleasant and flourishing town 40 miles west of Boston. Population in 1820, 2,962. In 1819 a handsome and commodious building was erected here for the reception of the library and cabinet of the American Antiquarian society. The library consists of nearly 6,000 volum-s, many of them rare and valuable works, and the cabinet is respectable.
Springfield stands on the east bank of Connecticut river, 87 miles west of Bo-ton. It has several flourishing manufacturing establishments, and carries on an extensive inland trade. Population, in 1820, 3,914. The principal 'ärmory of the United States is in this town. The sitnation of the aripory is remarkilbly pleasant and healthy, being a perfectly level elevated plat, about half a mile east of the village. The buildings are arranged
on a large square, and consist of one brick edifice 204 feet by 32, 2 stories high, occupied by lock titers, stockers and finishers; a brick forging shop, 150 feet by 32 ; a brick building 60 feet by 32, 2 stories high, the second story forming a large and spacious hall devoted to religious worship; a brick building 100 feet by 40, and 2 stories high,used as a depository of arins ; and numerous smaller stores and shops. — The water works are situated on Mill river, about 1 mile south of the armory, and comprise 5 workshops, 28 forges, 10 trip-hammers and 18 water wheels, exhibiting the greatest assemblage of mills, and other water. works, to be found in the state. In the whole establishment are employed from 240 to 250 workmen, who complete, on an ap. erage, about 45 muskets daily, and the number may be increased to almost any extent. From 1795 to December 1817 128,559 muskets were made here.
Narthaınpton is situated in the midst of a beautiful country, on the west bank of Connecticut river, 18 miles north of Springfield. It contained in 1820, 2,854 in babitants. The prospect from Mount Holyoke in the immediate vicinity is one of the fin. est and most extensive in New-England.
The principal towns in Berkshire county are Stockbridge and Lenox on the Hooestennuc; Pittsfield. 12 miles north of Stockbridge, and Williamstown, the seat of Williams' college, in the N. W. corner of the state.
Education.) Massachusetts is highly distinguished for her literary institutions. There is a University at Cambridge, a college at Williamstown, a collegiate institution at Amherst, and a Theological seminary at Andover; besides numerous flourishing academies.
Harvard college, now the University in Cambridge, 3 miles W. N. W. of Boston, is the oldest and most wealthy literary instiIntion in the United States. It was founded in 1638, in less than 20 years after the first settlement of New-England. Its officers in 1821 were a president, 20 professors, 5 tutors, a proctor and a regeot. The Library is the largest in America, containing 25,000 volumes. The pbilosophical and chemical apparatus are complete. There is a valuable cabinet of minerals belonging to the university; an excellent anatomical museum ; and a botanic garden ,containing 8. acres, and furoished with an extensive collection of trees, shrubs and plants, both native and foreign.
The college buildings consist of the University hall, which is w elegant stone edifice containing the chapel, dining halls and lectore rooms; Harvard hall, containing the library, philosophical apparatus, museum, &c. 4 spacious brick edifices, containing rooms for students; and several other buildings. for the accommodation of the president, professors and students. An astroDomical observatory is about to be erected on an expensive scale.
A law school, a medical school, and a theological seminary form part of the University. . The whole nuinber of students in 1821 was 374; of whom 29 were theological students, 13 law
stadents 53 medical students, and 277 undergraduates. The whole number who completed their education here from the establishment of the institution to the year 1821 was 4,622, a greater number than at any other college in the country.
Williams' college in Williamstown was incorporated in 1793. Its ofhcers in 1821 were a president. 2 professors and 2 tutors. It has a respectable library, a valuable philosophical and cheri cal apparatus and at present about 50 students. The income of the charity funds is sufficient to pay the term bills of 25 students, and half of this is alike applicable to all indigent young men of merit, whether designed for the Christian ministry or not. The expenses of living at Williamstown are very moderate. Good board may be had for a dollar a week, and the best wood is sold for one dollar fifty cents a cord.
The Collegiate institution at Amherst, near Northampton, was established in 1821. It has a president, 3 professors, one tutor and 59 students. The library belonging to the institution contains 900 volumes, and the society libraries have about 400 more. The charity funds are large, and the expense of living very moderate.
The Pheological seminary at Andover, 20 miles porth of Boston, was founded in 1808 and has been richly endowed entirely by private bounty. The whole amount of what has been contributed for permanent use in this seminary, including the permanent funds, library and public buildings, is more than three hundred and fifty thousand dollars, and this has been contributed álmost entirely from six families. In 1822 the officers were 4 professors and the number of students was 132. The whole number who have completed their education here is 312. The library contains about 5,000 volumes. The buildings are on a lofy eminence and command an extensive prospect. They consist to an elegaut brick edifice, containing the chapel, library and lecuref rooms; 2 spacious brick edifices, containing rooms for the acctommodation of 128 students; and houses for each of the professors and the steward. A majority of the students are supported in whole or in part by charity.
Phillips' academy, also io Andover, is the most flourishing academy in the state. It was founded in 1778 by the Hon. Samvel Phillips, Esq. of Andover, and his brother, the Hon. John Phillips L. L. D. of Exeter. Its officers are a principal, 3 assist ants, a teacher of sacred music and a writing master. The num. ber of students in 1822 was 130, all of whom were pursuing the study of the learned languages. The institution is accommodated with a large and commodious brick building, 80 feet by 40, erected in 1818, on a .range with the buildings of the Theological seminary. This academy and the Theological seminary are upder the same Board of Trustees.
Population. The population, in 1790, was 378,787 ; in 1800, 422,845 ; in 1810, 472,010 and in 1820, 523,287. It bas on an average 72 persons to a square mile, and is the most thickly settled state in the Union.
Religion.] The Congregationalists are much more numerous than any other denomination of Christians. In 1817 they had 366 congregations; the Baptists, 91 ; Friends, 32 ; Episcopalians, 14 ; Universalists, 11; Presbyterians, 8. There are also a few Methodists and Roman Catholics.
Government. The Legislative power is vested in a General court, consisting of a Senate and House of Representatives, both chosen annually by the people. The Senate consists of 40 members, chosen by districts. The Representatives are chosen by towns; each town having 150 rateable polls sends one Representative, and another for every additional 225 polls. The execotive power is vested in a Governor, Lieut. Governor and a Council of 9 members. The two first are chosen by the people anppally. The Council is chosen by the Legislature out of the 40 returned as Senators; and if they decline, from the mass of the people. The judicial power is rested in a Supreme court and several inferior courts, and the judges hold tbeir offices during good behavior.
Roads. The state is intersected in almost every direction by excellent turnpikes which centre in the capital. The turnpike from Boston to Newburyport, 33 miles, cost $400,000; and that from Boston to Salem, 13 miles, more than $200,000. The road from Boston to Providence, 40 miles, aod from Boston to Worces ter, 37 miles, are of the same expensive construction.
Manufactures. Massachusetts is the third state in the Union in amount of manufactures. The value in 1810 was estimated at $21,895,528. The principal articles are cotton goods, boots and shoes, ardent spirits, leather, cordage, wrought and cast iron, nails, straw bonnets, window glass and other glass ware.
Fisheries.] Massachusetts is more extensively engaged io the fisheries than any other state in the Union. In many populous towns on the sea-coast, a large proportion of the inhabitants derire their subsistence entirely from this employment. The cod fishery is prosecuted to a great extent from Marblehead, and the wbale fishery from Nantucket and New-Bedford.
Commerce.] The principal exports are fish, beef, lumber, pork, ardent spirits, whale oil and various manufactores. The principal market for the western part of the state is New-York ; for the country near Connecticut river, Hartford ; for the towns Dear Rhode-Island, Providence ; for the rest of the state, Boston, Salem and Newburyport. Boston is also the market for large sections of Vermont and New-Hampshire. lo amount of shipping Massacbusetts is the first state in the Union. In 1815, before Maine was separated, the number of tons was 452,273, which was about one third of the whole shipping of the United States.
Islands.) Plum island, which extends along the coast from Newburyport in a southerly direction, to Ipswich, is nine miles long and one broad, and is separated from the main land by a Darrow sound, over wbich a bridge bas been built. The island consists principally of sand blown into heaps, and crowned with bashes bearing the beach plum. lo summer, when plums are
ripe, it is a favorite resort for parties of pleasure. On the north end of the island are two light-houses, and several houses bave been erected by the Humane society, and furnished with conveniences for the relief of distressed marioers.
Nantucket island lies south of the peninsula of cape Cod, near 41° 20' N. lat. and 70° W. lon. It is 15 miles long and contains about 50 square miles. The climate is mild compared with that of the adjacent continent. The soil is light and sandy, but in some parts is rich and productive, particularly in bay. It was formerly well wooded; but there is not now a single tree of native growth. The land is chiefly held in common by the inhabitants. All the cows, amounting to about 500 feed together in one herd; all the sheep, 14,000, in one parture. The inhabitants are principally robust, enterprising seamen, extensively engaged in the whale fishery, and they have the reputation of being the inost skilful and adventurous seamen in the world. They suffered severely both in the revolutionary and late war, a large portion of their shipping having been captured by the British. Since the peace, however, the whale fishery has revived, and there are now about 100 ships employed in this business. There are 30 spermaceti works on the island, employing a capital of $600,000. Nantucket, the only town, is on the north side of the island. Its harbor is completely safe from all winds, being almost land-lockeil, the points at its entrance approaching within a mile of each other. It contains 2 banks ; 2 insurance companies ; and 5 houses of public worship, 2 for Priends, 2 for Congregationalists, and one for Methodists. Population, in 1820, 7,266.
Martha's Vineyard lies west of Nantucket. It is 20 miles long, and fruin 2 to 10 broad. Edgartown, the chief town, contains 1,374 inhabitants. There is a spacious harbor on the north side of the island, called Holines' hole, to which vessels bound to the eastward frequently resort, and wait for a wind to enable them to double cape Cod. The Elizabeth islands are small islands, ex-. tending in a row, about 18 miles in length, along the south side of Buzzard's bay.
Situation and Extent.] Rhode Island is bounded N. and E. by Massachusetts ; S. by the Atlantic; and W. by Connecticut. It extends from 41° 17' to 42° N. lat, and from 71° 6' to 71° 52 W. lon. It is 49 miles long from north to south, and on its northern boundary 29 broad. The area is estimated at 1,580 square miles.
Divisions.] The state is divided into five counties and 31 lowos.