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assistants were trying experiments, the young people were left to themselves; and this situation was the more dangerous, because, having been in some degree prematurely brought forward, they were in a state of moral excitement which required to be directed, and which study and order alone could regulate. How many young men have lost their most precious years in the institute of Pestalozzi! They were supposed to be prepared for theUniversities, but when they came to be examined it was found that they knew nothing. They must then begin their education over again, or remain ignorant; the greater number chose the latter alternative, and failed in the great end of their existence, the perfecting of their intellectual being. It is not possible to cite one pupil of Pestalozzi among the higher classes, who has distinguished himself in any career whatever; and yet, what instructor can be more disinterested or more paternal? But then no man was ever less formed for being in fashion. If he had been permitted to go on as he began, much good would have been done, and much evil avoided. Fashion may stimulate superficial and factitious talents, but with the virtues and the sciences she has nothing in common.

Pestalozzi is completely the child of nature: he does not understand the subtleties and the distinctions of society, but as he lives amongst civilized people who follow those customs which have been established and consecrated by opinion, his ignorance produces dangerous consequences *. An institute for females was also established at Yverdun. It was conducted by the daughter-in-law of Pestalozzi; that is to say, she took charge of the management of the house; the lessons were all given by the young instructors from the men's institute, who were chiefly chosen from amongst the poor of Stanz, and consequently were of very low birth. The young women, on the contrary, were of the best families of Germany, Switzerland, of VVirtemberg, and of Swabia. The habit of meeting every day, the perfect liberty, the intimacy which Pestalozzi encouraged, and which he in his simplicity mistook for brotherly regard; all this was the cause of many romantic adventures, which might have been soon lawfully terminated if Pestalozzi had had the management of them. But the parents of the young people were of a very different opinion, and made use of all their authority to prevent such ill-assorted marriages. Elopements and clandestine unions were the consequences of these connexions; many respectable families were thrown into trouble and confusion, and the young victims of

* Pestalozzi, in his method of instruction, employs geometry and arithmetic to devclope the analytical faculties. Thus the child understands nothing but what he sees, and this method can be applied only to the elements of instruction. It is for this reason that we have said that Pestalozzi occupied himself only in the rapid-devclopement of the early faculties. M. de Fellcnbcrg follows the same system as far as it is applicable, but he changes his method in proportion as the child grows, and its mind expands. The method of Pestalozzi is founded on entirely opposite principles to those of Bell and Lancaster. It has more resemblance to the system of Mr. Owen of Lanark. Like him, Pestalozzi rejects emulation, rewards, every thing in short that he calls rain glory. The method of Bell and Lancaster is dogmatic. Those who know most, teach the more ignorant, not by unfolding the mind, but by communicating what they have in like manner learnt themselves from others. Pestalozzi will have every one be his own master, his own instructor. The method of Bell and Lancaster tends to communicate mechanical notions of things; that of Pestalozzi to conduct man to the knowledge of causes.

In the institute of Pestalozzi the pupils are taught reading, writing, arithmetic, the element* of music and drawing, geography, universal history, Latin, Greek, negligence and improvidence long and bitterly lamented their irreparable imprudence. Pestalozzi could not remain ignorant of the event* that were passing around him; but it was impossible to persuade him that he had occasioned them. He accused the distinctions and prejudices of society as having alone caused these disorders. As soon as the abuses which existed in the institute were publicly known, the establishment began to fall into decay. The instructors disputed greedily amongst themselves for the spoils of Pestalozzi; under pretence of his being old and of his requiring repose, they took from him by degrees the management of affairs; and one of his first assistants whom he had snatched from misery and obscurity, supplanted him entirely, though always acting in his name: this man is now at the head of the few pupils who still remain.

At Clindy, a little hamlet near Yverdun, Pestalozzi has established an institute for young women destined for the class of servants. They receive an education consistent with their situation in life, and which renders them capable of fulfilling their duties as enlightened Christians. We know some pupils of this institute, young Englishwomen, who do honour to Pestalozzi, and who prove, in spite of his numerous detractors, that he succeeds in the education of the poor. In this instance, notwithstanding his more general views, he does not aim at producing an equality which cannot exist without overturning society; he knows that there must be labourers, servants, and workmen of every kind; but always just and good, he would not condemn to ignorance this numerous and respectable class of persons, or deprive them of the rights and advantages of every intellectual being. He gives them an education suitable to them, and applies himself to the developement of their faculties in order that they may participate in the progress of the moral world. In this manner he ennobles every class without destroying the distinctions between them. Pestalozzi is perhaps the only philanthropist of this age, who has really made the happiness of the poor his object; but he has been misunderstood, and has never had justice done him. He has been praised to excess for qualities which he did not possess, and when the enthusiasm which he had excited was passed away, he was blamed in the most cruel manner, while the orphans of Stanz were forgotten. His faults were the work of others, who drew him in to commit them by deceiving him and taking advantage of his readiness to think well of every one. That he is weak, we do not pretend to deny; but he is good and charitable, and these virtues surely may redeem a multitude

French, German ami English- According to Pestalozzi's plan, natural history and natural philosophy should also be taught; but the means were wanting, and these studies hare been abandoned There are two institutes established at Yverdun on the model of that of Pestalozzi (that is to say, the most useful parts of bis method hare been adopted), one for females, under the direction of Madame Niederer, the other for boys under Mr. Niederer, who was formerly one of Pestalozzi's teachers. At Coire in the Grisons, at Appenzel, at Basle, and at Arau, there are institutes on the same plan. In Germany the most celebrated schools are at Nuremberg and at Wisbaden. The elementary schools in Prussia and in Bavaria have adopted much of the system of Pestalozzi. In London, the Philological School in King-street, Bryanston-squnre, has adopted Pestalozzi's method of teaching in its application to the study of languages, arithmetic, geometry, and geography.

The following is a list of the elementary works which are used in the Institute of Pertalozzi. Les elemens de l'enseignement du rapport des formes gcometriquea et du rapport clcs nombres, par Schmidt. Les elemens de Geographic, par Henning. t.e» Viciikin du Defscin, par Rnmsaucr. Les elemens Ai la Musique, par Feiffcr.

of faults. Pestalozzi does not possess the grand engine of the fashionable philanthropist. He has no elocution, he does not know how to make speeches; he confounds different languages together, and speaks them all ill. He writes however most agreeably in German, and has published a book, (as he expresses himself) "for the people," entitled Leonard and Gertrude.* Some parts of this book are written in a style of almost nob'e simplicity. There are no romantic adventures, no brilliant incidents. The reader is conducted from cottage to cottage, and is made a spectator of real life. It is very desirable that Leonard and Gertrude should be translated into English, and circulated among the lower classes.


Tbe Culdees were the primitive clergy of Scotland, and apparently her only clergy from the sixth to the eleventh century. They were of Irish origin, and their monastery on the island of lona or lkolmill, was the seminary of Christianity in North Britain. Presbyterian writers have wished to prove them to have been a sort of Presbyters, strangers to the Roman church and Episcopacy. It seems to be established that they were not enemies to Episcopacy;—but that they were not slavishly subjected to Rome like the clergy of later periods, appears by their resisting the Papal ordonnances respecting the celibacy of religious men, on which account tbey were ultimately displaced by the Scottish sovereigns to make way for more Popish canons.

Star of the morn and eve,

Reullura shone like thee,

And well for her might Aodh grieve,

The dark-attired Culdee.

Peace to their shades! the pure Culdees

Were Albyn's earliest priests of God,

Ere yet an island of her seas

By foot of Saxon monk was trode,

Long ere her churchmen by bigotry

Were barr'd from holy wedlock's tie.

Twas then that Aodh, famed afar,

In lona preach'd the word with power,

And Reullura, beauty's star,

Was the partner of his bower.

But, Aodh, the roof lies low.

And the thistle-down waves bleaching.

And the bat flits to and fro

Where the Gael once heard thy preaching}

And fall'n is each column'd aisle

Where the chiefs and the people knelt.

'Twas near that temple's goodly pile

That honour'd of men they dwelt.

For Aodh was wise in the sacred law,

And bright Reullura's eyes oft saw

The veil of fate uplifted.

Alas, with what visions of awe

Her soul in that hour was gifted—

* The first edition of" Leonard and Gertrude" appeared in 1781.

The complete works of Pestalozzi were printed at Tubingen; eight volumes have already been published, hut it must be remarked that this edition of his works has been edited and much altered by Schmidt, who at present presides over the ruins of his Institute.

t Reullura, in Gaelic, signifies " beautiful star."

When pale in the temple and faint,

With Aodh she stood alone

By the statue of an aged Saint!

Fair sculptured was the stone.

It bore a crucifix;

Fame said it once had graced

A Christian temple, which the Picts

In the Britons' land laid waste:

The Pictish men, by St. Columb taught,

Had hither the holy relic brought.

Reullura eyed the statue's face,

And cried,'" It is, he shall come,

"Even he in this very place,

"To avenge my martyrdom.

'' For, woe to the Gael people!

"Ulvfagre is on the mam,

"And lona shall look from tower and steeple

"On the coming ships of the Dane;

"And, dames and daughters, shall all your locks

"With the ruffian's grasp entwine?

"No! some shall have shelter in cayes and rocks,

"And the deep sea shall be miue.

"Baffled by me shall the spoiler return,

"And here shall his torch m the temple burn,

"Until that holy man shall plough

"The waves from Innisfail.

"His sail is on the deep e'en now,

"And swells to the southern gale."

"Ah 1 knowest thou not, my bride,"

The holy Aodh said,

"That the Saint whose form we stand beside

Has for ages slept with the dead."

"He liveth, he liveth," she said again,

"For the span of his life tenfold extends

"Beyond the wonted years of men.

"He sits by the graves of well-loved friends

"That died ere thy grandsire's grandsire's birth;

"The oak is decay'd wiih old age on earth,

"Whose acorn-seed had been planted by him;

"And his parents remember the day of dread

"When the sun on the cross look'd dim,

"And the graves gave up their dead.

•• Yet preaching from clime to clime,

"He hath roam'd the earth for ages,

"And hither he shall come in time

"When the wrath of the heathen rages,

"In time a remnant from the sword—

"Ah 1 but a remnant to deliver;

"Yet, blest be the name of the Lord!

"His martyrs shall go into bliss for ever.

"Lochlin*, appall'd, shall put up her slrecl,

"Aud thou shalt embark on the bounding keel;

"Safe shall thou pass through Lochlin's ships,

"With the Saint and a remnant of the Gael,

"And the Lord will instruct thy lips

"To preach m Innisfail."t

.• Denmark, t lrelar.J.

The sun, now about to set,

Was burning o'er Tiriee,

And no gathering cry rose yet

O'er the isles of Albyn's sea,

Whilst Reullura saw far rowers dip

Their oars beneath the sun,

And the phantom of many a Danish ship.

Where ship there yet was none.

And the shield of alarm* was dumb,

Nor did there warning till midnight conic,

When watch-fires burst from arioss the main

From Ronaand Uist and Skey,

To tell that the ships of the Dane

And the red-hairM slayers were nigh.

Our islesmen arose from slumbers,

And buckled on their arms;

Jlut few, alas! were their numbers

To Lochlin's mailed swarms.

And the blade of the bloody Norse

Has fill'd the shores of the Gael

With many a floating corse,

And with many a woman's wail.

They have lighted the islands with ruin's lurch.

And the holy men of lona's church

In the temple of God lay slain;

All but Aodh, the last Culdee,

But bound with many an iron chain,

Bound in that church was he.

And where is Aodh's bride?

Rocks of the ocean flood!

Plunged she not from your heights in pride,

And mock'd the men of blood?

Then Ulvfagre and his bands

In the temple lighted their banquet up.

And the prmt of their blood-red hand*

Was left on the altar cup.

'I'was then that the Norseman to Aodh said,

"Tell where thy church's treasure's laid,

Or I '11 hew thee limb from limb."

As he spoke the bell struck three,

And every torch grew dim

That lighted their revelry.

But the torches again burnt bright,

And brighter than before,

When an aged man of majestic height

Enter'd the temple door.

Hush'd was the revellers' sound,

They were struck as mute as the dead,

And their hearts were appall'd by the very sound

Of his footstep's measured tread.

Nor word was spoken by one beholder,

When he flung his white robe back on his shoulder.

And stretching his arms—as eath

Unriveted Aodh's bands,

A s if the gyves had been a wreath

Of willows in his hands.

* Striking the sbield was an aucicnl mode ef conrocatisn to war the Gael.

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