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meet him in the street, plodding along with an umbrella under his arm, without one particle of pride, of spleen or discontent in his whole composition, void of offence, with almost rustic simplicity and honesty of appearance; a man that makes friends at first sight, and could hardly make enemies, if he would; and whose only fault is that he cannot say nay to power, or subject himself to an unkind word or look from any he may deem higher than himself. He is a thorough-bred Tory. Others boggle or are at fault in their career, or give back at a pinch; they split into different factions, have other objects to distract them; their private friendships or antipathies stand in their way: but he has never flinched, never gone back, never missed his way; he is an outand-outer in this respect; his allegiance has been without flaw, like "one entire and perfect chrysolite;" his implicit understanding is a kind of taffeta-lining to the Crown, his servility has assumed an air of the most determined independence, and he has "read his history in the Prince's eyes!" There has been no stretch of power attempted in his time that he has not seconded: no existing abuse, so absurd, of which he has not opposed the removal. He has gone the whole-length of the most unpopular designs of every minister. When the heavy artillery of interest, power, and prejudice is brought into the field, the paper-pellets of the brain go for nothing. His labyrinth of nice, lady-like doubts explodes like a mine of gunpowder. The Chancellor may weigh and falter—the courtier is decided, the politician is firm, and riveted to his place in the cabinet. On all the great questions that have divided the cabinet or public opinion, or agitated the public mind, the Chancellor has been found uniformly and without a single exception on the side of prerogative and power, and against every proposal for the advancement of freedom. He was a strenuous supporter of the wars and coalitions against the principles of liberty abroad; he has been equally zealous in urging or defending every act and infringement of the Constitution for abridging it at home: he at the same time opposes every amelioration of the penal laws, on the alleged ground of his abhorrence of even the shadow of innovation: he has studiously set himself against Catholic emancipation; he laboured hard in his vocation to prevent the abolition of the Slave-trade; he was Attorneygeneral in the trials for High Treason in 1794; and the other day, in giving his opinion on the Queen's.trial, shed tears and protested his innocence before God! This was natural and to be expected; but on all occasions he is to be found at his post, true to the side of prejudice, topower, to the will of others, and to his own interest. In the whole of his public career, and with all his goodness of disposition, he has not shewn "so small a drop of pity as a wren's eye." He seems to be on his guard against every thing liberal, as his weak side. Others relax in their obsequiousness, either from satiety or disgust, or a hankering after popularity, or a wish to be thought above narrow prejudices. But the Chancellor alone is fixed and immoveable. Is it want of understanding or of principle? No; it is want of imagination, a phlegmatic habit, an excess of false complaisance and good-nature. Humanity and justice are no better than vague terms to him: he acts upon his immediate feelings and least irksome impulses. The King's hand is velvet to the touch: the Woolsack is a seat oT honour and profit. That is all he knows about the matter. As to abstract metaphysical calculations, the ox that stands staring at the corner of the street troubles his head as much about them as he does ; yet this last is a very good kind of animal, with no harm or spite in him, unless he is goaded on to mischief, and then it is necessary to keep out of his way, or warn others against him
Thou shin'st the giddy throng to wound,
The weak, the vain, the false, abound—
SPECIMENS OF A T1MBUCTOO ANTHOLOCV.
"Nor ought a Genius less than his that writ
At the very moment when repeated and painful failures seemed to have extinguished the last hope of ever penetrating toTimbuctoo, when the staunchest friends of African civilization and the extension of British commerce feel themselves bound to discourage the temerity of the fresh victims who are willing to sacrifice themselves in an enterprise of so hopeless and desperate a nature, accident has made us acquainted with an individual who has passed several months in the capital of this hitherto unexplored country, upon whose authority we mean to gratify the curiosity of our readers with a very brief and hasty notice of its manners and literature. In order that they may duly appreciate the authenticity of our narrative, we think it right to state the name of our informant, Capt. Jonathan Washington Muggs, a citizen of Georgia in the United States, whose vessel, the Black-eyed Lass, as some of our readers may perhaps recollect, was surrounded and nearly crushed a few years ago by the terrible sea-serpent, until several shot from a twelvepounder, judiciously directed into the monster's left eye, induced him to uncoil himself and dart through the waters in search of a Collyrium. Mr. Muggs, it seems, is the son of a Timbuctoo slave by an American residing on the banks of the Turtle River in Georgia; and as his father was almost constantly at sea, his mother instructed him in her native tongue, a fortunate circumstance to which himself and the British public are equally indebted, the former for the preservation of his life, the latter for the invaluable information we are now about to communicate.
Capt. Muggs was bound from Charleston to Liverpool with a cargo of cotton, when in a violent storm from the South-west, which continued for several days, his vessel was driven ashore and wrecked on the coast of Africa, not far from the Island of Goree, and the whole of the crew were instantly made prisoners by the savage Mandingoes. Such as were able-bodied and capable of working were sold as slaves; two sick sailors, and an old American author, who happened to be on board as a passenger, being deemed inapplicable to any useful purpose, were confined and treated with the utmost politeness until the feast of the great idol Mumbo-Jumbo, when a hope was expressed, that in return for such hospitality, they would comply with the immemorial usages of the country, and suffer themselves to be quietly killed and eaten. The author stoutly pleaded his privilege of being cut up by none but reviewers, but they knocked down him and his argument by one blow, and his remains afforded a higher treat to the public of Mandingo, and appeared better adapted to the taste of the people, than those of any literary individual upon record. As to Capt. Muggs, who swore by the magician Obi, that he was born at Timbuctoo, had been made a prisoner in his youth, and degraded into his present mulatto colour by a long residence abroad—averments which he substantiated by a woolly head and a song in the language of the country,—they gave him a sort of passport, and left him at liberty to explore his way to the asserted place of his birth in the best manner he could. His adventures in this perilous enterprise are preparing for the press in four Tolumes quarto, all written by himself on the leaf of the chickachoo tree, and we can only gratify public curiosity by anticipating a very few of the more remarkable facts.
Every one who has read Herodotus is aware that an expedition was fitted out by Necho, King of Egypt, of whom mention is made in the Second Book of Kings. The Phenician mariners employed in this daring enterprise, completely circumnavigated Africa, but were discredited upon their return, because they stated they had seen the setting sun on their right hand; an assertion which our present knowledge of astronomy enables us to confirm. In the Journal of Hanno, the Carthaginian, preserved for so long a time in the Temple of Saturn, mention is made of several marvellous circumstances observed by that enterprising voyager, which have been hitherto considered fabulous, although the researches of Capt. Muggs upon the same coast, establish in every respect the perfect fidelity of his relation. Thus we are told that Hanno caught two women entirely covered with hair, whose skins he carried to Carthage, which has generally been interpreted to mean two specimens of the ouran-outang; but Capt. Muggs, while tracing up to the sources of the Senegal River, encountered a whole tribe of these people, whom he at first took for an immense flock of baboons, until they accosted him very courteously in a language which proved to be a dialect of the Timbuctoo. They are described as a very civilized and cleanly race, regularly using the curry-comb every morning; a fact which strongly tends to support Swift's relation of the Houyhnhnms. When it is recollected what ridicule was first thrown upon this story, as altogether improbable; and what taunts and doubts were launched at Bruce's narrative of Abyssinia, although every one of his statements has been subsequently verified, we hold it our duty to hurl defiance beforehand at that ignorant scepticism which might feel disposed to cavil at the Journal of Capt. Muggs, merely because it contains facts that may startle the narrow intellects of Europe.
Hanno talks of having discovered a whole country in a state of ignition, with rivers of fire running into the sea; and Capt. Muggs has no doubt whatever, that at certain seasons of the year, the entire surface of the land may be in the fiery condition described by the Carthaginian, since he himself, in the neighbourhood of Baromaya, came to a deep valley surrounded by mountains of lead ore. Such was the intensity of the heat in this confined spot, that the rays of the sun, by perpetually melting the ore, had formed a metallic lake of considerable extent in the valley, which was kept in constant fusion by new supplies. When the surface was gently agitated by the wind, an almost blinding brilliancy was cast by the ripple of its waves; but by moonlight its softened radiance is described as inconceivably beautiful and enchanting. Of course it is much resorted to by the boys of the surrounding district for the purpose of supplying themselves with dumps, a game which, to use the school slang, is in all the year round; and as the natives are obliged to keep the heat out of their houses with glass, a number of glaziers are settled upon the spot, that they may obtain a material so indispensable in their trade. The lake is sadly infested with Salamanders, and considerable ingenuity is manifested in the mode of catching them. A pan of red-hot coals being provided, a small portion is thrown upon the bank as a bait, which the animal eagerly devours, when he is lured away from his molten element by fresh coals tossed to him every now and then, and not unfrequently caught in his mouth before they touch the ground. In this manner he is decoyed to a net at some distance, where he is secured; the great art consisting in so casting the coals as that they shall not bum and destroy the net. Once caught, the creature is popped into a baker's oven, where it lives comfortably enough while the fire is blazing, but is apt to be chilled to death in the night. Capt. Muggs wished to have ascertained the temperature of this singular valley, but from the violence of the heat, the quicksilver burst out at the top of his thermometer, and spirted up a considerable height into the air.
Leaving this interesting neighbourhood, our traveller proceeded eastward, over a desert and uninhabited tract, until he came to the banks of a great river, flowing from West to East, along which he wandered for several days in search of a ford. In one of these excursions he observed an ancient pyramidal stone, almost buried in the sand; and upon clearing away the soil to a depth of five feet, a rude inscription became visible, of which the following is a faithful transcript. HIC . NIGER . EST . HVNC . TV. ROMANE . CAVETO. which there can be no doubt must have been carved by those Nasamones mentioned by Herodotus, as having penetrated from Cyrene into the very centre of Africa, where they were made prisoners by men of a diminutive stature, and carried to a city washed by a great river flowing from West to East, and abounding in crocodiles. Pliny expressly says this river was the Niger, and the inscription was indisputably set up to record that fact, and warn future Romans against bathing in it on account of the crocodiles. Cavils have been raised on account of the gender of the pronoun, which it is contended should have been either neuter or feminine to agree with the common Roman terms for a river; but if we suppose the river God to have been understood, a very common practice with the ancients, the difficulty will instantly vanish.
Being now resolved to settle the long-contested point as to the termination of this river, he followed its banks eastward, for several hundred miles, subsisting upon fish, until he reached an immense level desert in the very heart of Africa, over the burning surface of which the waters spread themselves in a thin sheet, something like our artificial salt-pans, where they were either absorbed into the sand or speedily evaporated by the intense heat of the sun. This will appear the less marvellous when it is recollected that there is no other way of accounting for the consumption of water in the Mediterranean, into which the tide perpetually flows from the Straits of Gibraltar, than by a similar process of evaporation. Retracing his steps, our adventurous traveller found his way back to the inscribed stone, feeling confident that the city to which the Nasamones were carried, as mentioned by Herodotus, must have been Timbuctoo, and that he should discover it somewhere in the neighbourhood of the memorial they had left.
Crossing the river accordingly upon a float constructed of the leaves of the chickachoo-tree, and following the sinuosities of the opposite coast, he had the inexpressible delight, after three days' journey, of looking down from a small eminence upon this celebrated and long