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cient Sculpture and Painting," and represents Sir Geoffrey Louterell (of Irnham, co. Lincoln,) on horseback, receiving his arms from two ladies, who are clothed in surcoats bearing the arms of Sutton and of Scrope of Masham. Mr. Rokewode's memoir included a copy of Sir Geoffrey Louterell's will, made in 1345; which, together with other genealogical details, showed that the miniature was intended to represent that person, and Agnes (Sutton) his wife, and either Beatrix or Constantia, one of their daughters-in-law, Sir Andrew Louterell and Geoffrey his brother having both married a daughter of Sir Geoffrey Scrope. Agnes died in 1340, and the Manuscript therefore must have been executed at some period shortly before that date. We are happy to add that Mr. Rokewode has selected various subjects from the illuminations, of which very accurate fac-simile engravings have been made by Mr. Storm, and six plates will shortly be issued as a portion of the Vetusta Monumenta :-Plate I. will represent various subjects of Chivalry, including a jouste d'amour or tournament of ladies, and a siege of the chasteau d'amour; another is a very magnificent state waggon, or omnibus, showing the way in which the ladies of the court formerly travelled, in the style and pace of the old York fly-waggons. Plate II. contains the various preparations for the Louterell feast, and its celebration. Plates III. and IV. Domestic Scenes and Husbandry. Plates V. and VI. Sports and Pastimes.
Sir Samuel R. Meyrick, K.H. F.S.A. exhibited a carving in ivory, belonging to the Doucean Museum, exhibiting bas-reliefs of the same romances as the chateau d'amour, &c. above mentioned. The siege is carried on with showers of roses, in lieų of other missiles; and all the devices of war are imitated, but with no more formidable weapon.
June 13. Mr. Gurney in the chair. Henry Long, esq. exhibited some frag. ments of ancient pottery from the site of a large manufactory in Holt forest, near the road from Farnham to Petersfield. Mr. Long considered that they were certainly of an earlier date than the Norman conquest, but doubted whether they were Roman or Saxon.
The Rev. E. Edwards presented two unpublished prints of the chancel of St. Margaret's church at Lynn; and mentioned that the piece of plate belonging to the unrivalled sepulchral brass of Robert Braunche, the loss of which is lamented by Stothard and by Mr. Way in the new edition of Carter's Ancient Sculpture and Painting, has been recently restored. Mr. Edwards suggested that the crowned figure GENT. MAG. VOL. XII.
at the peacock feast represented in this brass, was intended for King Edward the Third, who visited his mother Queen Isabella at Rising Castle about the time of the mayoralty of Braunche.
Mr. Gage Rokewode, Director, presented to the Society two beautiful framed drawings, by J. Stephanoff, 1827 and 8, of a painting of St. Peter, formerly on Sebert's shrine in Westminster Abbey, and of portions of painted architecture connected with the same.
John Rickman, esq. Assistant Clerk of the House of Commons, communicated an essay containing some important arguments on the antiquity of Abury and Stonehenge, tending to show that their æra cannot reasonably be carried back to a period antecedent to the Christian æra. After tracing the Roman road from Dover and Canterbury through Noviomagus and London to the West of England, he noticed that Silbury is situated immediately upon that road, and that the avenues of Abury extend up to it, whilst their course is referable to the radius of a Roman mile. From these and other circumstances he argued that Abury and Silbury are not anterior to the road, nor can we well conceive how such gigantic works could be accomplished, until Roman civilisation had furnished such a system of providing and storing food as would supply the concourse of a vast multitude of people. Mr. Rickman further remarked that the temple of Abury is completely of the form of a Roman amphitheatre; which would accommodate about 48,000 spectators, or half the number contained in the Flavian amphitheatre, or Coliseum, at Rome. Again, the stones of Stonehenge have exhibited, when their tenons and mortices have been first exposed, the workings of a well-directed steel point, beyond the workman-· ship of barbarous nations. It is not mentioned by Cæsar or Ptolemy, and its historical notices commence in the fifth century. On the whole, Mr. Rickman is induced to conclude that the era of Abury is the third century, and that of Stonehenge the fourth, or before the departure of the Romans from Britain; and that both are examples of the general practice of the Roman conquerors to tolerate the worship of their subjugated provinces, at the same time associating them with their own superstitions and favourite public games.
June 20. Mr. Gurney in the chair.
John Disney, esq. of the Hyde, co. Essex, was elected Fellow of the Society. C. R. Smith, esq. F.S.A. exhibited a fibula, or brooch, found in April last, in an excavation in Thames-street, at the foot of Dowgate-hill, London. The cir
cular enamelled work in the centre is of a very peculiar description: the outlines of the features of a portrait, and those of the mantle and tunic on the bust (together with the nimbus or crown round the head) are executed in gold, into which enamel appears to have been worked when in a fluid or soft state. The colours of the enamel are yellow, blue, purple, red, and white. This work is surrounded by a rich filagree border of gold, beautifully worked, in which are inserted, at equal distances, four large pearls. Nothing has hitherto been found that can be compared to this jewel; the gold-work interwoven with the enamel is new to every one. The general character and design, and ornamental gold work seems Byzantine, and somewhat assimilates to the style of art of the time of Charlemagne, so that perhaps we shall not be far wrong at present in assigning its date to the ninth or tenth century.
The next paper was "A portion of the catalogue of the monastery of Ramsey, from the original preserved in the Cottonian Collection of Rolls; with a few remarks on other early English Monastic libraries," by James Orchard Halliwell, esq. F.R.S., and S.A. The author added many particulars to those Mr. Hunter has published on this subject, and in particular a mention of a very curious catalogue of the monastery of Syon, in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. The extracts he gave from the Cotton roll were very interesting, and strikingly illustrative of
the usual contents of such libraries.
J. B. Nichols, esq. F.S.A. communicated accounts of the curious and singularly beautiful series of monumental effigies of the family of De la Beche, in the church of Aldworth, Berkshire, illustrated by drawings by Mr. Thomas Hollis. They are in all nine in number; and appear to have been mostly carved early in the reign of Edward III. at which time the church was enlarged for their reception; though the costume of some is of an earlier style, and may, consequently, have been copied from former statues; whilst
one, in particular, which, if perfect, would represent a man seven and a half feet in height, seems both from that circumstance, and from the unique character of his armour and attitude (that of the antique Ilyssus) to have been intended for the heroic ancestor of the race. Mr. Hollis also exhibited drawings of four of the earliest and finest sepulchral effigies and brasses (not published by Stothard); viz. 1. Sir H. Sandwich at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, Sandwich; 2. Sir J. D'Abernon, at Stoke D'Abernon, Surrey; 3. An Effigy at Ash next Wingham, Kent;
and 4. A Septvans, or Harfleet, at Chartham, Kent.
This meeting was the last of the session; and the Society adjourned to November.
THE ANTIQUITIES OF FRANCE.
Mr. URBAN, The Comité Historique des Arts et Monumens has sent to all its correspondents a list of questions to which it requires answers to be returned, relating to the antiquities of the district in which each correspondent resides; and if the return be made with any thing like the same alacrity and in the same numbers as the circulars thus dispersed throughout France, in a few months a complete catalogue of all the antiquities of the country will be in the possession of the Committee. Subjoined will be found an exact translation of these questions, which in the original are printed on a sheet, with sufficient space left against each question for the answer to be entered opposite to it; and to these is added an abstract of one of the first returns that have been made,--on the antiquities of Corsica. Believing that a similar set of questions might be modified and adapted to the antiquities of the British islands, and circulated on the authority of any competent body-and none more fit than the Antiquarian Society,-I hasten to communicate them to you, and have no doubt but that the hint will be found an useful one, especially by a public so alive to the value of antiquities as that of our own country. A set of questions such as these, addressed to the clergyman of every parish in England, could not fail of bringing in a vast number of interesting returns; and if they were disseminated amongst the local antiquarian and scientific or literary societies of Great Britain, would organize a system of inquiry that could not fail to be productive of the best results.
I have only to add, that I have every reason to believe that the Comité Histo.. rique des Arts et Monumens will be highly flattered if any British antiquaries will have the kindness to send them replies (in English or French) to these questions,arranged in the same categorical form,— upon any districts that may be of peculiar interest, and especially on Gaelic, Romano-Britannic, Saxon, Danish, or Norman remains. Yours, &c.
H. LONGUEVILLE JONES, Corresponding Member of the Comité Historique des Arts et Monumens. Quastions addressed by the Comité Historique des Arts et Monumens to its Correspondents; the answers to be made with precision and returned to the Committee.
§ I. Gaelic Monuments. I. Do there exist in the (commune of A..) any stones or rocks consecrated by popular superstition?
2. Are these rocks adherent to the soil, or planted in the earth by the hand of man?
3. Are these rocks of the same nature as the stones of the country? and, if not, from what place and from what distance is it to be supposed that they have been brought?
4. What name do they bear in the district?
5. What is their number?
6. What are their height, breadth, and thickness?
7. Are these rocks arranged in a circle? 8. Are they poised in equilibrio?
9. Are they grouped two and two, joined by a third, placed on them transversely so as to form either a kind of table, or else a covered alley?
10. Have any designs been remarked on these stones?
11. Have any excavations of research been made near them?
12. What has been found?
13. Are there are tumuli or barrows existing, formed by the hand of man? 14. Have they been examined? 15. What has been found?
16. Are there any trees or fountains consecrated by superstitious practices? 17. At what distance from the church? 18. Are there any caves, and have any graves been found in them? 19. Are there any traditions attached to them?
20. Have any kind of wedges or hatchets in polished stone or metal been found?
§ II. Roman Monuments.
1. Are there to be found in the (commune of A..) any fragments of an ancient road passing in the district for a Roman road, or bearing the names either of "Cæsar's Way," or "Chaussée de Brunehaut," or any other denomination conveying the idea of its ancient importance, and of an origin more or less remote ?
2. What is the direction of this road? How far can it be traced? What portion of the (commune) does it traverse?
3. What name is given to it in the district?
4. What traditions are connected with its construction?
5. What are the names of the hamlets, farms, or localities traversed by it?
6. Has there been found along these roads, particularly under crosses or amidst the foundations of any religious edifice, columns nearly similar to the mile-stones
of high roads, and bearing an inscription? What can be read of this inscription?
7. Are there any regular elevations or undulations of land or earth forming an inclosure, and known under the denomination of Roman camps or Cæsar's camps? 8. If a road exists does it terminate at one of these inclosures?
9. Is there any spot to which the tradition of an ancient battle-field is attached? Is this tradition supported by any authentic facts; by a significative appellation; by any vestiges of entrenchments, or by arms, bones, graves, or other objects that have been discovered?
10. Are there found in the fields at ploughing time fragments of reddish pottery, tiles, or bricks, whole or in bits, of very fine clay and of great hardness?
11. Are any medals or coins found;any fragments of arms, buckles, pins in bronze with or without springs, rings, short thick clumsy keys, glass objects, little cubes of clay, red, black, white, or yellow, fit for forming mosaics; little figures of men or animals in bronze or baked clay?
12. Are there to be observed, either on the surface of the ground or after excavations have been made, fragments of ancient walls, very thick, coated with small square stones, forming a regular system of work, and intersected at various distances by layers of large flat bricks?
13. What is the form of these buildings? Are they in a straight line, or do they follow a circular or semi-circular direction?
14. Are fragments of marble found,inscriptions, coins, statues, shafts of columns, capitals, pieces of sculpture, either in stone or in bronze?
15. Have there been found, in places not now consecrated to purposes of wor ship, coffins in stone, plaister, or baked earth; placed singly or in groupes? What is their direction and the nature of the stone? What has been found within? Do they bear ornaments, figures, or inscriptions? Do they appear to have been already examined?
§ III. Monuments of the Middle Ages. 1. Does the (commune of A..) possess one or more churches?
2. Are there any isolated chapels, and subterranean chapels or crypts?
3. What are the dimensions of each church? The lengths internally? The width ditto?
4. Is it in the form of a cross?
5. Is the choir terminated externally, in a rectangular or semicircular manner? Is it surrounded by chapels? Do some of these chapels form a semi-circular projec tion, and vaulted outside of the wall?
6. Of what materials is it constructed? Are any parts of it observed to be in small squared stones (commonly tufa), or are there at various intervals layers of large flat bricks?
7. In the inside are there pillars or columns? How many ranges of them are there?
8. Are the pillars square, cylindrical, or composed of a bundle of columns?
9. Are these pillars or columns ornamented with sculptured capitals?
10. What do the sculptures of these capitals represent? Is it men or animals, or pearls in strings, or embroidered work, or foliage? Can the plants be made out to which the foliage belongs?
11. Are the bases of the columns flat or raised? Are they sculptured? Are there a kind of claws or feet at their angles?
12. Are there any statues in stone, either inside or outside the church, and especially under the doorways?
13. In the interior, are there, either against the walls or above the altars, little statues in wood or alabaster, painted or gilt, placed one over the other, and representing scenes of sacred history?
14. What is the form of the windows? Are they terminated rectangularly; with a circular or with a pointed arch? (ogive.) 15. How many times does their height exceed their width?
16. Are they supported laterally by columns ?
17. Are they divided internally by stone separations? These separations, are they perpendicular, curved, or circular?
18. The windows-are they in white or in coloured glass? Are figures to be distinguished on them? What is the size of these figures? The colours, are they light or dark? Is the flesh of the figures represented by the white glass, or by a tint more or less brown? Do the figures come out upon a dark blue ground, or on a ground of landscape and architecture? On the glass are there any inscriptions (légendes-labels bearing characters) to be distinguished, either in Latin or in French? Can they be read and copied? Is there no date to be found in these inscriptions?
19. If the walls and pillars are covered with lime or white wash, cannot their coating be got off in some places, and are not traces of ancient paintings to be found on the stone?
20. Are the vaultings of the church circular or pointed; in wood or in stone? Are they painted or merely whitened? Do the edges of the vaulting project? Are their ribs angular or rounded? Are they terminated at their points of junction by + Shafts.
circular key-stones (rosaces) more or less sculptured, or by pendent sculptured stones (culs de lampe)?
21. Is there merely a ceiling instead of vaulting? Are the beams visible? Are they painted, sculptured, or perfectly plain?
22. Are the stalls of the choir or the pulpit sculptured; in wood or in stone?
23. Are there to be found in the church great flags of stone or marble serving for the pavement, and on which are traced figures of men or women, ecclesiastics, or knights? Is the inscription which ought to surround these figures legible? Can it be copied ?
24. Do there exist in the church any other kind of tombs, with or without statues, with or without inscriptions?
25. Are the doorways of the church rectangular, circular, or pointed? Are they supported by one or several ranges of columns? Are there any statues between the columns? What do the capitals of these columns represent? Have the doorways only one opening, or is there a pillar dividing them in the middle? Is there a bas-relief above the opening or openings? What does it represent? Of what size are the figures?
26. Is the church entered immediately, or is there a porch within or without the portal.+
27. Is the roof of the church flat or pointed; covered with tiles, slates, or lead; surrounded with open-worked stone battlements (galeries)?
28. What is the form of the cornice or capping? Is it supported by little square stones representing the ends of beams, and terminated by figures of men and animals, commonly monstrosities, or by small arches, or by a kind of consoles or modilions (corbels)? Is it accompanied by trefoils or quatrefoils, hollowed out? Does the cornice or capping consist of mouldings, or of a running ornament with foliage?
29. Are the walls sustained by buttresses? Are these buttresses adherent to the wall? Are they detached from it, and do they support it by means of flying buttresses? Are they plain or ornamented with sculpture?
30. Is the church surmounted by one or more towers? On what part of the edifice are these towers placed? What is their form; round, square, or octagonal? Do they contain a staircase? Are they terminated by a platform, or by a roof, or a spire? Is this roof or spire constructed
The French words are here kept, the portail being the doorway.
sions ? tures?
33. If any isolated chapels exist, are they near to any fountain (spring) frequented by the sick? Do people go thither in pilgrimage? Do these pilgrimages take place on the eve of the saint's-day or on the saint's-day itself? What local customs or peculiar ceremonials are observed there? What kind of invalids go there?
34. Is there any ancient castle in the (commune of A..)? Is it fortified? Is it in ruins or in good condition, inhabited or deserted?
35. If it is fortified, are the towers round or square, truncated above, or crowned with battlements? Is it surrounded by fosses; with or without machicolations?
Is there a donjon-keep? Are there any
36. What are the shape and dimensions of the windows; are they plain or decorated?
37. In the interior, are the chimneyplaces large? Are they ornamented with sculptures in stone, marble, or wood? Are the ceilings and wainscotings painted or sculptured? Are traces of ancient armorial bearings to be seen on the walls? Who were the proprietors before 1789 (the commencement of the great revolution)? the old men of the district know of any tradition relative to the castle?
38. Does any other house exist in the district ornamented with painting, sculpture, or decorations in wood or stone?
39. Is any thing known, either in the castle or the church, or anywhere else, of any pictures, tapestries, ancient carved furniture, title-deeds, or archives, medals, family portraits, altar-ornaments, or, in short, any other objects belonging to an epoch more or less remote ?
The following gentlemen have been named corresponding members for England:-Messrs. Gally Knight, M.P.; Heywood Hawkins, M. P.; Professor Whewell, Cambridge; John Gage Rokewode, esq. Lincoln's-inn; John Britton, London; Welby Pugin, Professor of Christian Antiquities in St. Mary's College, Oscott; Rickman, Liverpool; H. Longueville Jones, Magdalene College, Cambridge.
SEPULCHRE AT ROME.
A sepulchral chamber was found about the end of April in a vineyard, belonging to Count Lozzano near the Porta Pia. The chamber consisted of a square Tiburtine stone edifice, each side about 12 feet in length. It contained three sarcophagi of white marble, standing undisturbed in their original positions, and with basrelievos. One to the right of the entrance represented females darting serpents at a young man, with a figure dead at his feet, apparently the story of Orestes persecuted by the Furies. On the cover, or lid, was sculptured a sacrifice before the portico of a temple. The flame on the altar had been painted red. On examining the figures minutely it was found they had all been painted, evident traces of colouring being still left on the draperies.
The sarcophagus on the left, having on the lid figures of Apollo and Diana with their bows bent, and on the sides several figures dead and dying, was concluded to represent the destruction of the Niobe family. On the third sarcophagus, which was opposite the door, were figures of children bearing festoons of flowers, fruits, &c.; and between each festoon a head of Medusa. The fruit, flowers, genii, &c. had been all painted. The sarcophagi were half filled with human bones. In one were counted five skulls, with the bones of the skeletons, thus clearly showing that several persons had been deposited in the same sarcophagus, and contrary to the received opinion of each sarcophagus being restricted to one person.
Not far from this chamber an edifice was excavated, which appeared to be the remains of a villa, there being traces of several rooms, one larger than the others. The floor was mosaic, and the walls had been painted in the same style as those of the houses at Pompeii. This may have been the villa of some Roman family, with the sepulchral chamber attached for a family vault.
ROMAN ANTIQUITIES NEAR FROME.
In our number for last October, p. 435, is an account of the discovery of a Roman villa at Whatley, near Frome, Somersetshire. In making some further excavations, a small part of a wall has been laid open; it is covered with paintings on fine plaster, similar to that discovered by Mr. Lysons some years since, at Colesbourn, in Gloucestershire. The pattern is rudely executed, but the colours are distinguishable. There have also been found some coins of the Emperors Claudius and Constantine, a curious bronze spoon, a small bronze animal resembling a goat or sheep, a large