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Until the termination of the meeting, the precise balance could not be ascertained; but the permanent property of the Society consists of 5,500l. in the 31. per cent. consols, and a stock of books valued at 1,0947. 10s.
For hourly meteorological ob
servations at two stations in
Do. subterranean temperature
For preparing forms to tabu-
343 3 6
400 0 0
50 12 4
30 0 0
Observations of Whewell's ane-
The Dean of Ely (the Rev. G. Peacock) To continue observations on read an account of the application made to Government, by a deputation from the Association, for the erection of Magnetic Observatories, and the sending out the Antarctic Expedition. He then took occasion to dwell very strongly on the unabated zeal of Sir J. Herschel in favour of the interests of the Association. He also reported, that her Majesty's Government had established a depository for the collection and preservation of mining records, and had connected with it a museum of Economic Geology; and he further stated, that the application to have the coal districts copied from the maps of the Ordnance Survey, and engraved on a much larger scale, had been favourably entertained, and was supported by Col. Colby. He noticed, that the Philosophical Societies of Manchester and the West Riding of Yorkshire had petitioned Parliament on the subject, and recommended a scale of six inches to a mile; but he added, that the Council advised the Association not to press for too hasty a decision.
Thanks were voted to the inhabitants of Birmingham, for their kind reception; to the Philosophical and other Societies; to the directors of the Grand Junction, and the Liverpool and Manchester Railways, for the facilities they had afforded to the Committees appointed to conduct railway inquiries.
The grants of money suggested by the Committee of Recommendations were then read seriatim, and passed without opposition. They were,
Section A.-Mathematics and Physics. For the reduction of meteorological observations made by and under the direction of Sir J. Herschel
Osler's do. 30 0
Hourly meteorological obser
vations at ditto
40 0 0
60 0 0
Total to Section A £1810 17 4
Section B.-Chemistry. For the analysis of atmospheric air £24 Experiments on the action of seawater on wrought and cast iron Ditto-effect of boiling water on orDitto-specific gravity of gases ganic and inorganic bodies For the continuation of Professor Schönbein's experiments on the connection between chemical and electrical phenomena
Total Section B £141
*The grants to which asterisks are prefixed are merely continuation grants.
It was stated, that, from the liberality evinced by Her Majesty's Government and the Hon. East India Company, this grant was not likely to be claimed, but that the Committee wished to retain the power of ordering the instruments, to save time and prevent delays.
-Professor Miller, his researches on crystallography-Professor Powell, his experiments on radiant heat-And that the various gentlemen at home and abroad engaged in the investigation of electromagnetism and electro-chemistry, should communicate the result of their researches and experiments to the Association.
Section B.-It was recommended, that Dr. Clark should be invited to publish his paper, without abridgment, on the Limits within which the Equivalent Weights of Elementary Bodies have been ascertained.
Section C.-It was recommended, that application should be made to the Trustees of the British Museum, to have the Shells in that Institution so arranged as to illustrate the diversities of size, growth, &c., and to facilitate comparison of the actually existing shells with fossil remains and impressions on rocks.-That a Committee be appointed to continue the arrangements for the collection and preservation of mining records.
THE ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION.
Her Majesty's ships Erebus and Terror have just left Chatham, under the command of Capt. James Clark Ross and Comm. F. R. M. Crosier, on an expedition to the Antarctic Pole.
The Erebus and Terror were both bomb vessels. They seem to be twin ships, alike in build, in colours, in masts, and rigging, and, indeed, in every external appearance. An inexperienced eye could not tell the one from the other. The Erebus is about 370 tons; the Terror 340. In each the full complement of officers and men is 64-128 in all.* Nothing that the art of the shipwright could accomplish has been omitted to fit them for their perilous undertaking. Both externally and internally the wales are doubled with eight-inch oak plank, and the bottom with plank of three inches; the ceilings of the holds are doubled with two thicknesses of 1 inch African teak, crossing each other at right angles; the bulkheads in the holds are built in like manner, and made watertight; so that, should the bottom be stove in at any part by the sheets of ice, the safety of the ships will not be endan
*Erebus.-Captain, J. C. Ross. Lieutenants-E. T. Bird, J. F. L. Wood, J. Sibbald. Master, H. Mapleton. Surgeon, R. M'Cormick. Purser, T. R. Hallett. Assistant Surgeon, J. D. Hooker.
Terror.-Captain, F. R. Crosier. Lieutenants-A. M'Murdo, J. H. Kay. Master, P. P. Cotter. Surgeon, J. Robertson. Assistant Surgeon, D. Lyall. First Clerk, Mowbray.
gered. The weather deck is also doubled with three-inch fir plank, with fearnought, dipped in tallow, laid between them. spare rudder, which could be shipped immediately in case of accident to the other, is safely stowed amidships. Each vessel is provided with eight boats, two of them whalers, and framed to encounter rough seas and weather in separate expeditions, to explore passages and lands where the ships cannot penetrate. Immense ice-saws are ranged along the lower deck, some of them thirty or more feet long, and looking like the jaws of sharks, competent to cut through any besetting adversity. Six guns are borne in each, viz. four six-pounders and two salute-guns. The apparatus for keeping the vessels at an equable temperature is admirable, and consists of a square iron tube, above a foot in diameter, running all round the sides, and distributing a comfortable warmth to every berth. The ventilation is not less attended to. There are also stoves in the captains' cabins and the gun-rooms; and the cooking conveniences are as ample and as fit for every purpose as they could be on shore. There is a large kettle to dissolve ice into fresh water; another for dressing salt meat, another for fish, another for fresh meat, and ovens for baking. They are victualled with fresh provisions for three years; and pemmacan and other prepared meats, in cases, are stowed away in the least possible compass.
The provision of scientific instruments, under the superintendence of the Royal Society, is very complete; and double sets, to supply the loss of any which may be broken, or rendered useless, seem almost to furnish the commander's cabin. In this respect the Admiralty has been most liberal; and many chronometers are carried out, from all the most celebrated makers. The phenomena of terrestrial magnetism will be independently observed throughout the voyage; and also in connection with the new observatories about to be established at Saint Helena, the Cape, Van Diemen's Land, &c. The declination, inclination, and intensity of the magnet will thus form tables of the utmost importance towards solving this great problem. The declination instrument, the horizontal and the vertical force magnetometers, are constructed under the direction of Professor Lloyd, of Dublin; and there are, besides, dip-circles, transits with azimuth circles, and chronometers of the most approved construction. There are also pendulums for ascertaining the true figure of the earth, thermometers for determining the
temperature of the sea at given depths; other blackened thermometers to measure the atmospheric temperature at different latitudes; photometric sensitive paper for experiments on light; barometers to be observed during storms, white squalls, &c.; glasses for sideral observations(par-, ticularly on the variable stars a Hydræ and 7 Argus); drawing utensils; repositories for geological, botanical, and natural history specimens; actinometers for finding the forces of solar and terrestrial radiation; hygrometers, Osler's anemometers, rain guages, electrometers, skeleton registers of every needful kind; and, in short, such means to employ, and so much to be done, that there will be no great leisure for our enterprising countrymen when all these instruments are put in requisition, and their results are regularly chronicled for the information of the world.
The earlier proceedings of the voyage will lead them to St. Helena, where Lieut. Eardley Wilmot, of the Royal Engineers, who goes out in the Erebus, will be left in charge of the new observatory. Next, at the Cape, will be landed for the like purpose another officer. The vessels then make their way across the ocean, touching at and examining Kerguelen's Land, Amsterdam, and other Islands, hitherto imperfectly described, in that vast expanse of water. Arrived at Van Diemen's Land, the instruments, &c. for the observatory will be sent ashore, and, whilst it is erecting they will cruise to various points where the scientific pursuits of the expedition are most likely to be advanced. On their return they will start de novo in a direct southern course, between 120 degrees and 160 degrees east longitude towards the Antarctic Pole; and it is a singular and fortunate thing that in this direction, during the present season, a ship of Mr. Enderby's has discovered land on both sides, in about 65 and 68 degrees of south latitude. These shores have been named Sabrina Land, seen March 1839, and Belleny Isle, seen Feb. 1839; and between them, as well as upon them, the efforts of the Erebus and Terror will, in the first instance, be employed. They will afterwards circumnavigate the Pole, and try, in every quarter, to reach the highest point, whether near Enderby's Land, discovered in 1832, or by Captain Wedell's furthest reach, about 73 degrees, in 1823. It is between Sabrina Land and Belleny Isle, to the northward, in about latitude 65 degrees, and east longitude 150 degrees, that it is expected the South Magnetic Pole will be found. Strange if he who discovered
Literary and Scientific Intelligence.
either that of the North, or so near an approach to it, as Capt. James Ross did, should also ascertain this long-sought phenomenon.-Literary Gazette.
ROYAL INSTITUTE OF BRITISH
Aprile. H. E. Kendall, esq. in the chair. Mr. Donaldson, Sec. read a description of the Breakwater at Plymouth, by Sir John Rennie, which has since been published in the Civil Engineer and Architect's Journal for May. Mr. Smith of Birmingham attended to explain several samples of locks and other furniture. Mr. C. G. Richardson delivered the second of his lectures on Geology as connected with Architecture.
April 22. The President, Earl de Grey, took the chair, and delivered the prizes already noticed in our numbers for March, p. 296, and April, p. 415. Among the presents received were a terra-cotta figure of Inigo Jones, by Ruysbeck, and an original bust of James Wyatt, architect, by Rossi, both from Sir Jeffrey Wyatville. A paper was read by Ambrose Paynter, esq. Fellow, on the parallel styles and periods of Gothic Architecture in England
May 9. This was the Annual General Meeting, at which the following Council was elected for 1839-40: President, Earl de Grey; Vice-Presidents, Messrs. Basevi, Blore, and Burton; Hon. Secretaries, Messrs. Fowler and Poynter; ordinary Members, Messrs. Bellamy, Cundy, Chawner, Ferrey, Mocatta, Salvin, and Shaw; Hon. Secretary of Foreign Correspondence, Mr. T. L. Donaldson. From the Report of the Council it appeared that during the year six new Fellows had been elected, one Honorary Member (Mr. Wilkinson, distinguished by his valuable researches in Egypt), seven Honorary and Corresponding Members, and sixteen Associates, increasing the Society to one hundred and fifty-two contributing and fifty-two honorary members, besides eight students.
May 27. Edw. Blore, esq. V.P. in the chair. A communication was read from Messrs. Smith, of Darnick, on a failure of the Falshope bridge.
June 10. George Basevi, esq. jun. V.P. Read, a paper by Mr. Donaldson on the Church of Notre Dame du Port, at Clermont Auvergne.
June 23. David Mocatta, esq. in the chair. Read, a paper by the Rev. Richard Burgess on the form and parts of Ancient Christian Temples, commonly called Ba silicas.
At these meetings Mr. Richardson delivered his fourth, fifth, and concluding lectures.
July 8. Decimus Burton, esq. V P. A paper was read descriptive of a bridge of wood erected over the river Aln, in Alnwick Park, Northumberland, by Mr. William Barnfather, accompanied by a model, and communicated by his Grace the Duke of Northumberland, Hon. Fellow. The principle of construction applied is that of raising bulks of timber to a curve by means of iron wedges, and which, although made known some time since, has not been applied to any other practical purpose but that of trussing beams. The last erected by Mr. Barnfather is a carriage bridge, of one hundred feet span.
Robert Addams, esq. delivered the first of a series of three lectures on Acoustics.
July 22. At this meeting, the last of the season, the Earl de Grey, President, took the chair. A letter was read from Mr. Harcourt, descriptive of his artificial granite; and Mr. Addams delivered his third lecture on Acoustics (the second having been read on the previous Monday).
A very handsome silver candelabrum was presented by the President, in the name of his professional brethren, to Thomas Leverton Donaldson, esq. the late Honorary Secretary, as an acknowledgment of his very zealous and efficient services in establishing the Institute, and promoting its welfare during the five years he has held that office.
GEOGRAPHY OF ASIA MINOR.
In 1833 a scientific expedition was sent out by the French government to Asia Minor, for the purpose of thoroughly exploring that comparatively unknown region. After a stay of four years in the East, during which time the Sultan had not ceased to extend his protection to the travellers, and to afford them every facility, the expedition returned, bringing home, according to the report drawn up by the French Institute, a collection of materials surpassing, in novelty and extent, all previous researches. An account of the expedition has commenced to be published, and will be completed in fifty folio livraisons of plates, and three vols. 4to. of text. The whole is under the superintendence of M. Charles Texier, who was at the head of the expedition. From the details of the prospectus, the work promises to be one of the most interesting of modern times.
ROMAN ALTAR AT STANHOPE, Co.
MR. URBAN,—I beg to forward, for the amusement of your antiquarian readers, some account of a Roman In
scription noticed in your Magazine just ninety years since in the present month. Very little notice has been taken of it. The altar that bears it, is still at the Rectoryhouse, Stanhope, and quite legible, as may be seen from the following copy of it communicated to me by the Rev. W. N. Darnell, D.D. Rector of that Parish. There is also a copy of the inscription by Dr Taylor, in the Philosophical Transactions, No. 486, p. 173; and Gough says, that Mr. Drake communicated it to the Society of Antiquaries in 1751, with some variations of no consequence. From the immence quantities of the tusks and the bones of boars about the Roman stations, on and near the barriers of Hadrian, it is plain that they had been exceedingly abundant in the Roman age.
1 SILVANO INVICTO SACRUM 2C.
TETIVS VETVRIVS MACIA NVS
PRAE ALAE SEBOSIAN NAE OB APRVM EXIMIAE $FORMAE CAP
Sebosiana," which was in Britain in Trajan's time, and is mentioned on the Malpas rescript, in A.D. 104, Sebosiana seems to have the same meaning as Augusta, which was an honorary title of above twenty legions, scattered over different parts of the world. Hence oreiρa σeẞasτη, in the Acts of the Apostles, is rightly rendered, "Cohors Augusta" in Latin, and "Augustan band," in English.
Wild boars often grew to very great size ; and hunting them has immemorially been considered both a noble and a very dangerous sport. The only observation however, that I can find respecting this altar is the following, in Hutchinson's Durham : It was found about 80 years ago, on "' in the parish of Bollihope common, Stanhope and then he asks-"Is it possible a boar was such excellent game, that an altar should be raised in commemoration of the conquest? It is more probable, and more just to the character of a leader of Roman cavalry, to presume some enemy of greater consequence was typified by the figure of a boar. In all the Scotch excursions, we find that figure cut on the monuments to distinguish the northern
TVM QVEM MVLTI ANTECESS people, and the situation of the altar en
7ORES EIVS PRAEDARI NON POTVERVNT VS L M -Silvano invicto sacrum Caius Tetius Veturius Macianus, præfectus alæ Sebosiannæ, ob aprum eximiæ formæ captum quem multi antecessores ejus prædari non potuerunt voto suscepto libenter posuit.
Sylvanus was a god of the Italians, and venerated under various attributes, as august, celestial, the guardian of the household gods, pantheus, the mighty, the bestower of health, the forest god, and many more. Inscriptions to him are common. Several have been found in Britain, one at Burdoswald on the Wall, "to the holy god Silvanus, by the hunters of Banna," or Bewcastle; a second at Lanchester, near Durham, and a third in a square earthen fort called Greencastle, on Dunfell in Westmorland; both these two simply, "Deo Silvano;" besides others noticed in Horsley and Gough's Camden. One on the same page with this in Orell, is "Silvano silvestris sacrum. 22
Orell omits the N in Sebosiannæ at the end of line 3: the sculptor, indeed, seems to have made it by mistake. The ale were cavalry attached to the legions on the right and left, like wings to a bird: and this "ala Sebosiana" was probably the same as the "Ala secunda Gallorum
courages the idea." But, unhappily for this attempt at illustration, the wild boar, according to Festus, held the fifth rank among the Roman ensigns; and all the Roman monuments found in Britain, and bearing a wild boar, were erected by the twentieth legion, which bore on its banner that symbol of resolute valour. Horsley indeed quotes a line of Martial—
"Nuda Caledonio sic pectora præbuit urso," to support his conjecture that the boar on sculptures in Britain was the emblem of Caledonia: but is there any reason to suspect that Martial was so ignorant of the difference between a boar and a bear, that he should use ursus for aper? as a refutation that boar hunting, in the Roman age, was an ignoble employment, every schoolboy remembers, that the “Venator teneræ conjugis immemor" delighted in the severest weather to chase the stag, and drive the Marsian boar into his nets. Then, who has not heard of the conquest of the tremendous boar of Erymanthus, by Hercules ?-of the celebrated chase of Calydon, in which Ancoeus, the son of Lycurgus, perished; and the glory of killing the boar was reserved for Melea
ger? and of the “ συὸς μέγα χρήμα the " aper eximiæ magnitudinis," as Gesner renders the words of Herodotus, that