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Taylor has prefixed a very excellent introduction to the present volume.

Lectures on the Evidences of Revealed Religion. By Ministers of the Established Church at Glasgow. 1838.-These essays do great credit to the learning and talents of the different writers engaged in them, whose names are given in the contents. The essays treat of the most important subjects connected with Christianity; and the best arguments and most profound reasonings of former writers are here condensed and presented in the strongest light, while the authors themselves may also claim the merit of originality, so far as the subjects will admit of novelty. We think an index of the arguments and authors referred to would form an useful addition to the volume.

A Collection of the principal Liturgies (By T. Brett, LL.D. &c.) used in the celebration of the Holy Eucharist.―This book contains the different ancient Liturgies, to the number of nine, translated, and some of the old missals; with dissertations on them, showing considerable learning and acquaintance with the subject. The book itself is of much interest and curiosity, but with parts of the preface we do not agree.

Sermons. By Henry Melville, A.M.Those who have been present when Mr. Melville has delivered his discussions from his pulpit, must acknowledge the attention with which they are heard, and the effect which they appear to produce. If something is to be attributed to the affection entertained for the preacher by his audience, and something to the zealous and energetic manner in which the discourses are delivered, yet, undoubtedly, the main cause of Mr. Melville's continued and even growing popularity must be found in the form of argument, the eloquent illustrations, and sound inferences that are to be found in the discourses themselves. Men are to be addressed in any and every way which can hold out an expectation of its being effectual; sometimes by addressing the reason, and convincing the understanding, and sometimes by acting on the conscience and awakening the feelings of the heart. Nor does it seem to be of any consequence which way the arrows of argument take their flight; for he whose reason is convinced of the truth of Christianity will soon feel his bosom warmed and softened by its benign influence; and he who has been awaked by the eloquent addresses of the preacher, and alarmed with his threatenings, and

thus brought to a sense and feeling of the merciful dealings of God with man, and the duties consequent on it, will take delight in tracing the ways of the Almighty, solving any difficulties that may arise, and confirming the impression made on his sensibility, by the cooler approbation of his judgment. Mr. Melville, though he excels perhaps in an awakening and forcible address to the mind, yet supports and strengthens that by a very full acquaintance with the subjects under discussion, and by a very able use of the best arguments that can be adduced in their favour; in short, his copious and flowing eloquence is always based on knowledge and argu

ment. There are some excellent discourses and passages of discourses in the volume before us; as "The combined Agency of the Father and Son," and the "Preparation of Grace to Trial;" and some also, the subjects of which enable Mr. Melville to expand the full sails of his glowing and picturesque style, as that on "Protestantism and Popery," and the one called "Heaven." The "Resurrection of the dry Bones" is also a discourse in which a forcible appeal is made to our hearts; and the discourse on the "Death of Moses" is one of the finest in the volume.

Sermons preached at the Temple Church, &c. By Rev. J. T. Smith.-We have read these sermons with attention, and can, without hesitation, pronounce them most worthy of the pulpit where they were preached, and of the well-known reputation of the author; indeed some of them, as those on faith and justification, and on the expiatory sacrifice of Christ, may be considered as valuable essays on their respective subjects. These discourses are composed evidently with that care and research which proves the author's respect to the learned congregation to whom they were addressed. There are also in the volume many passages of a masculine and stirring eloquence, as in the conclusion of the sermon on the Love of the World, and in that on Sufferings being a proof of Divine Goodness. To the clergy we should say that they will find some of the most important subjects connected with our religious faith treated of in this volume with such discretion and

sobriety and soundness, that it will be hardly a matter of choice whether it would not be advisable to adopt the line of argument pointed out by the author, and accommodate it by more familiar illustration, and more common usage of speech, to their own less enlightened congregations.


THE DAGUERROTYPE. We have given as full an account as our space would allow of the progress of the Photegenic art, both in France and England. In our Feb. number,* p. 185, is an abstract of M. Arago's first memoir, read before the Academy of Sciences at Paris, on the invention of M. Daguerre. Since that period the invention has been purchased by the French Government; a yearly pension of 6000 francs having been settled on M. Daguerre, and another of 4000 francs on M. Niepce, the son of the gentleman (deceased) by whose experiments the invention was originally suggested. On the 19th Aug. M. Arago at length divulged the secret in a very crowded meeting of the Académie des Sciences. The process is as follows: a plate of copper thinly coated with silver is washed with a solution of nitric acid, for the purpose of cleansing its surface, and especially to remove the minute traces of copper, which the layer of silver may contain. This washing must be done with the greatest care, attention, and regularity. M. Daguerre has observed, that better, results are obtained from copper plated with silver, than from pure silver; whence it may be surmised, that electricity may be concerned in the action.

After this preliminary preparation, the metallic plate is exposed, in a well-closed box, to the action of the vapour of iodine, with certain precautions. A small quantity of iodine is placed at the bottom of the box, with a thin gauze between it and the plate, as it were, to sift the vapour, and to diffuse it equally. It is also necessary to surround the plate with a small metallic frame, to prevent the vapour of iodine from condensing in larger quantities round the margin than in the centre; the whole success of the operation depending on the perfect uniformity of the layer of ioduret of silver thus formed. The exact time to withdraw the sheet of plated copper from the vapour, is indicated by the plate assuming a yellow colour. M. Dumas, who has endeavoured to ascertain the thickness of this deposit, states that it cannot be more than the millionth part of a millimètre. The plate thus prepared is placed in the dark chamber of the camera obscura, and preserved with great care from the faintest action of light. It is, in fact, so sensitive, that exposure for a tenth of a second is more than sufficient to make impression on it,

At the bottom of the dark chamber,

* In page 185, near the foot of the first column, erase the words, "and will multiply impressions as an engraving." GENT, MAG, VOL. XII.

which M. Daguerre has reduced to small dimensions, is a plate of ground glass, which advances or recedes until the image of the object to be represented is perfectly clear and distinct. When this is gained, the prepared plate is substituted for the ground glass, and receives the impression of the object. The effect is produced in a very short time. When the metallic plate is withdrawn, the impression is hardly to be seen, the action of a second vapour being necessary to bring it out distinctly: the vapour of mercury is employed for this purpose. It is remarkable, that the metallic plate, to be properly acted upon by the mercurial vapour, must be placed at a certain angle. To this end, it is enclosed in a third box, at the bottom of which is placed a small dish filled with mercury. If the picture is to be viewed in a vertical position, as is usually the case with engravings, it must receive the vapour of mercury at an angle of about 45°. If, on the contrary, it is to be viewed at that angle, the plate must be arranged in the box in a horizontal position. The volatilization of the mercury must be assisted by a temperature of 60° of Reaumur (or 167° of Fahrenheit).

After these three operations, for the completion of the process, the plate must be plunged into a solution of hypo-sulphite of soda. This solution acts most strongly on the parts which have been uninfluenced by light; the reverse of the mercurial vapour, which attacks exclusively that portion which has been acted on by the rays of light. From this it might perhaps be imagined, that the lights are formed by the amalgamation of the silver with mercury, and the shadows by the sulphuret of silver formed by the hypo-sulphite. M. Arago, however, formally declared the positive inability of the combined wisdom of physical, chemical, and optical science, to offer any theory of these delicate and complicated operations, which might be even tolerably rational and satisfactory. The picture now produced is washed in distilled water, to give it that stability which is necessary to its bearing exposure to light without undergoing any further change. The art of fixing the colours of objects has not hitherto been accomplished; and another important desideratum is, the means of rendering the picture unalterable by friction. The substance of the pictures executed by the Daguerrotype is, in fact, so little solid-is so slightly deposited on the surface of the metallic plate, that the least friction destroys it, like a drawing in chalk: and at present, it is necessary to cover it with glass.

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June 22. A very numerous meeting of the general committee appointed to make the necessary arrangements for erecting the Nelson Testimonial, was held at the Thatched House; when the Duke of Wellington was called to the chair. The ballot lasted from a little after one till four, when Mr. Railton was declared to be the successful competitor, there being a majority of votes in his favour. The model selected was No. 65 in the list, and consists of a fluted Corinthian column surmounted by a statue of Nelson, (as before noticed in our April number, p. 409.) It appears by Mr. Railton's estimate that this column will cost 30,000l. He calculates the masonry at 16,0007. and the sculpture at 14,000l. The Lords of the Treasury and the Commissioners of Woods and Forests have assigned Trafalgar-square to the committee as the site, and the place selected is now inclosed on the south boundary of the square, in the centre of the space from the National Gallery to Charing-cross. Mr. Railton has reported favourably of the founda.


The statue has been assigned to Mr. Baily, and the four lions at the corners of the plinth, to Mr. Lough, but it is feared that the narrow state of the funds will render the postponement of the latter commission necessary. It is intended to give the bas-reliefs on the face of the plinth to other sculptors; but these, like the lions, must depend on the funds. At the meeting of the 22nd June they amounted to about 18,000l. but remittances are still expected from India; and it cannot be supposed that a great work, already so favourably supported, can be allowed to languish for want of money.


It has been decided than this Monument should be an equestrian statue, the execution of which has been confided to Mr. Matthew Wyatt; and it has been determined that it shall be placed on the archway at the entrance of the Green Park.



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The First Examination for the degree of Bachelor of Medicine at this university was held during the week, commencing on the 1st of July. On that occasion 26 candidates presented them. selves; and of these the following were declared to have passed that examination :

First Division-Philip B. Ayres, University College; Wm. Marten Cooke, Webb-street School; Richard Hindle, University of Edinburgh; Thomas Lewis, University College; Fred. William Mackenzie, University College; Oliver Mauger, Westminster Hospital School; Richard Quain, University College; Edward Smith, Birmingham School of Medicine; John Taylor, University College.

Second Division-Henry Girdlestone, University of Edinburgh; Benjamin Hobson, University College; Henry Lang, Sydenham College; Charles R. Nicoll, Aldersgate School; Prior Purvis, St. Thomas's and Webb-street Schools; John Storrar, University College; John Tomes, King's College.

The Second Examination for the same degree was held during the week, commencing on the 15th July; on which occasion 10 of the same candidates presented themselves; and of these nine were declared to have passed this examination, and consequently to be entitled to the degree.

The following is a complete list of the medical examiners of this university :

In Anatomy and Physiology-*Francis Kiernan, Esq. F.R.S.; R. B. Todd, M.D., F.R.S. In Physiology and Comparative Anatomy-* P. M. Roget, M.D., Sec. R.Š.

In Chemistry-J. F. Daniell, Esq. F.R.S.
In Botany-*Rev. J. S. Henslow.

In Materia Medica and Pharmacy-Jonathan Pereira, Esq. F.R.S.

In Surgery-*Sir Stephen Hammick, Bart., -*John Bacot, Esq.

In Midwifery-*Charles Locock, M.D. In Medicine*Archibald Billing, M.D., Alexander Tweedie, M.D., F.R.S.

The examinations in Forensic Medicine are conducted by the examiners in Chemistry, Materia Medica, and Pharmacy and Midwifery, conjointly.

Those marked thus are Members of the Senate of the University.


An agricultural meeting, on a scale of unprecedented magnitude, took place at Oxford, in the third week of July. It was the first assemblage of the English Agricultural Society, which has been established by Earl Spencer and other influential friends of agriculture for the advance of the science in this country, and the encouragement of its honest and ingenious professors. Very extensive preparations had been made for the reception and accommodation of company, not only in Oxford but in the neighbouring towns of Abingdon and Woodstock, and the adjoining villages. Several of the colleges invited their principal tenants, and vast numbers took advantage of this exercise of liberality, and filled the various apartments usually occupied by the younger members of the University; whilst hundreds of the most noble and influential personages of the land partook of the hospitality of their friends, and were scattered through the various collegiate establishments, or lodged at private houses. During the week the town was fuller than on any previous occasion known. Every avenue was crowded with vehicles of every description, every inn and almost every house filled with company.

On the morning of Tuesday, July 16, by 8 o'clock, all the pens were occupied, and immediately after, the judges proceeded to inspect the stock and award the prizes. The first object of public attention was a trial of implements in a ploughed field adjoining the show-yard; but there was only an exhibition of a subsoil plough, a modification of an old principle, which, however, succeeded well in loosening and raising up the soil to a depth of nearly two feet. This, which was intended to form a valuable depart

ment of the society's operations, may be pronounced a present failure. The afternoon meeting, at the Town-hall, was very well attended, Earl Spencer, the President for the year, being in the chair, supported by the Duke of Richmond, and many other noblemen and gentlemen of distinction.

The President opened the business of the meeting by announcing that the prize essays would be read, and commenced by reading one from Colonel Le Couteur, of Jersey, containing an account of the most approved varieties of wheat hitherto introduced into England, for which a prize of 20 sovereigns, or a piece of plate to that value, had been awarded. The first description referred to, was that of the hoary white, or velveteen, a species formerly existing in Kent, where it appears to be now lost. This was described as one of the most profitable, leaving a balance to the cultivator of 15l. 6s. 9d. per acre. The next variety described was the Jersey Dantzic, which is, however, known in different parts of the country under several names. It is not so hardy as the former species, though it succeeds well in any part of this kingdom, except the north of Scotland. The straw is use.. ful for bonnet-making. The estimated profit per acre is 121. 148. 6d. The third description named was the Whittington, the grain of which was light, firm, and plump, and afforded a straw generally six feet and not unfrequently seven feet in height. This variety is hardy and very productive, but the straw is too long to be used for thatching or for any practical purpose. The fourth variety was the Talavera Bellevue, which is hardy and prolific, appearing above the ground in 25 days, and ripening much earlier than any other description of wheat. Numerous experiments were adduced with respect to other varieties, and the paper excited considerable interest.

Mr. Handley, M.P. next read his paper on the comparative advantages of wheel and swing ploughs, for which a prize of 101. or a piece of plate of equal value, had been awarded.

The third prize essay, which was read by Earl Spencer, was from Mr. Richard Hopper, of Nottingham, being the best account of the advantages of drawing turnips from the land, and consuming them in houses or yards, and to which a prize of 107. was awarded. Mr. Handley next read a communication from Mr. Mr. Childers, M.P. on the advantages of shed-feeding for sheep; and Earl Spencer read some interesting physiological observations on the breeding of cows, de

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