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he accompanied into France, and, sojourning at the University of Thoulouse, he became professor of Divinity there, and was afterwards consecrated Bishop of the diocese of Aire, in Gascony. From that see he was promoted, in 1391, to the archbishopric of Dublin, and in the following year was made Chancellor of Ireland. In 1394 he contributed to the entertainment of Richard the Second when the king kept his Christmas in Dublin; and shortly after he was one of the Ambassadors sent to negociate the King's marriage with Isabel of France. Like some Englishmen of later times, Waldeby seems to have regarded a residence in Ireland as an expatriation, and in 1395 he was contented to resign his archiepiscopal dignity for the subordinate see of Chichester.
However, in the following year, he not only recovered his former grade, but had the satisfaction of resuming it in the province of his own nativity.
He survived little more than ten months, dying on the 6th Jan. 1397-8, when his body was buried in Westminster Abbey. His sepulchral effigy on brass plate is one of the few remaining in that edifice: it is a fine work of art, and has been three times engraved, by Cole, in Dart's Westminster Abbey; by Basire, in Drake's York; but more accurately in Mr. G. P. Harding's Antiquities in Westminster Abbey, 4to., 1825. The epitaph, of which the latter part only remains, is supplied in full, through Weever, from a MS. in Sir Robert Cotton's library: it is a compendious sketch, both of Waldeby's history and his character :
Hic fuit expertus in quovis jure Robertus
There were originally three shields of arms upon the slab of which the central one remains, being the favourite achievement of King Richard the Second,* viz. an impalement of the presumed arms of King Edward the Confessor, with the quarterly coat of France and England: but the two lateral shields have been long since removed. The seal we now publish is therefore valuable as showing what the arms of Archbishop Waldeby were. None of his seals for the sees of Dublin, Chichester, or York have hitherto come into the large collection formed by Mr. Doubleday, of Little Russellstreet; otherwise his personal arms might also be expected to be found upon them, as is the case with the seals of his contemporary Archbishop Arundel.
The dexter side of the shield is occupied with an archiepiscopal pall surmounting a crosier; and these appear to have been the usual armorial insignia of the Archbishops of York, down to the period of the Reformamation. The same insignia, it is well known, continue to be borne by the Archbishops of Canterbury, at the present day; and also by the Archbishops of Armagh and Dublin. On what account the pall was relinquished by the Archbishops of York, unless it was for the sake of distinction from Canterbury, is perhaps not recorded; but it occurs so late as on the seal of Archbishop Edward Lee, consecrated in 1531. On all the monuments of Archbishops subsequent to the Reformation, the arms now used of a crown and crosss-keys occur.†
two brothers, and perhaps their history also; for it is sometimes stated that John was elected (though not confirmed) Archbishop of York.-See Tanner, Bibliotheca Britannica; and Stevens, Monasticon, ii. 219.
*Frequently displayed by his adherents as on the seal of Archbishop Arundel (Archæologia, vol. XXVI, pl. xxx.); on a carving in the hall of Croydon Palace (Pugin's Specimens), and on the grave-stone of Sir Simon Felbriggs, his standard-bearer (Cotman's Norfolk Brasses); and in many other examples.
† On the first, that of Archbishop Sandys, the cross-keys appear without the crown, according to Drake's print, p. 457, but that print is perhaps not to be depended upon.
The latter had long before been given as the arms of the Church of York; and in that capacity we find it alone (that is, not impaled) on the seal before us. The cross-keys of course refer to St. Peter, to whom York minster is dedicated and so does the crown, or tiara; for one mode of representing St. Peter was in the costume of the popes, and the crown, as engraved on the seal, is of the form of the papal crown, or tiara. After the Reformation this was altered to a royal crown, and in that form it has appeared on the monument of Archbishop Piers, who died in 1594, and so downwards to the coachpanels of his Grace the present Archbishop.
It is remarkable that another seal was engraved for a distant place, exactly correspondent in pattern to that before us. We refer to the seal of the College founded at Maidstone by William Courtenay, Archbishop of Canterbury one side of which is of the same size, has the same ornamental tracery, and a shield of the same size, bearing the pall of the see of Canterbury impaled with the personal arms of the Archbishop. Maidstone College was founded in 1395.
Each of the matrices of our seal is furnished with four lateral rings; through which pins were passed, which had the effect of making the two impressions perfectly parallel and correspondent. These rings rendered any other handle unnecessary. The matrices are still preserved in or near Durham, but we have lost the name of their present possessor.
The legend on both sides is the same, though somewhat differently constructed. At length it is to be read: "" Sigillum Roberti Eboracensis Archiepiscopi Angliæ Primatis et domini Hextildesham."
The lordship of Hextildesham, or Hexham, in Northumberland, belonged to the Archbishops of York from the reign of Henry the First to that of Queen Elizabeth, when Archbishop Holgate exchanged it for some abbey lands with the Crown. The Archbishops of York enjoyed in this manor very large and exclusive privileges, and a palatine jurisdiction, independant of the officers of the Crown. This circumstance accounts for so magnificent a seal being provided for this lordship. We can only conjecture the cause of the matrices having been preserved, instead of being broken up as was customary* on the day of the archbishop's funeral; but it may be imagined that, as Archbishop de Waldely survived for so short a time his promotion to the see of York, this seal might be never actually brought into official use, and may not have been delivered to the custody of his chancellor previously to his decease.† J. G. N.
MR. URBAN, Ampton, Aug. 10.
HAVING lately seen the transcript of a curious and ancient epistle (the genuine authenticity of which cannot be doubted, from the source by which it was derived), I beg leave to offer a copy of the same for insertion in your depository of literary curiosities; presuming it will throw a gleam of light on details of early domestic life, and gratify the taste of those of your readers who are interested in the transactions of former ages.
THE DUKE of Norff'. Right trustie and entirely beloved Cozin, Wee greet you heartily well,—
You of your very faithfull good cosin. age, true heart and tendernesse to vs, shewed at all seasons to our honnor and your great charge, vnrewarded after yo'
* See several instances in the Durham Wills, published by the Surtees Society. Whilst on the subject of ancient seals, we shall take the opportunity to notice a manufactory of fabricated matrices which, we understand, has some time been carried
We recently saw two specimens in a shop window in the neighbourhood of Covent Garden. They were casts in brass of seals which we well knew, duly soiled with dirt and verdigrease; but having handles, apparently taken from modern bronze inkstands, &c. which completely exposed their character to the experienced eye. There can be no objection to the perpetuation of ancient seals in so durable a material; but the actual value of such casts is as many shillings as pounds are demanded. These hints may tend to place the unwary virtuoso on his guard, as we have reason to believe some remarks we formerly gave on fabricated Anglo-Saxon coins attracted the attention of the numismatic collectors. EDIT.
deserte, Natheless ye may hold for vndoughted it is established in our heartie remembrance, intendinge hereafter by one meane or other to acquitt vs soe both to you and yors, as wth God's mercie ye shall hold yo' proued truth and tendernes to vs warde right well bee sett. And, Cosin, howbeit as wee vnderstand nowe that there hath bin shewed you great occasion of displeasure by vnfittinge language, Wee promitt you it shall not bee vnredressed in short space and should haue been erre this time and wee had knowne it, Moreouer we late haue you in knowledge That as on monday next cominge my wife shall take her chamber And here shalbe my Lady my mooder, wth divers Worspll. Wherefore cosin wee specially pray you That it will like you to bee here and our Right entire cosin yor wife to beare companie for the season to our great honno comfort and pleasure And that it like you to ease vs of as much of your plate as you may goodly forbeare wth, yee shall safely haue againe wth you and two peeces mor That we haue of yo". here But in noe wise that you faile to come as wee specially trust you And that you will giue faith and credence to the Bearer hereof And our Lord p'serue you in his mercifull keepinge.
Written in or Castle of Framlingh'm the Ninteenth day of Nouember.
To our right trustie and entirely beloved Cosin Sir William Calthorp, knight.
It will have been perceived that the year is deficient to the date of this document; but it appears nearly conclusive from a passage in a letter from Sir John Paston, knt. to his brother John Paston, esq., dated between the 8th and 9th of November, 12th Edw. IV, 1472, that it was written in the same month and year. alluded to is as follows::
"And wheer ye goo to my Laydy off Norffolk, and wyll be theer att the takyng off hyr Chambre, I praye God spede yow, and Our Ladye hyr, to hyr plesur, wt as easye labor to overkom that she is abowt, as evyr had any Lady or Gentyllwoman saff Owr Lady heerselffe; and soo
I hope she shall to hyr greet joye, an l all owres; and I prey God it maye be lyke hyr in worship, wytt, gentylnesse, and every thynge, excepte the verry verry thynge."-See the Paston Letters edited by Sir John Fenn, vol. ii, p. 118.
Also in the letter of John Paston to
his brother Sir John, replying to the preceding, and printed in the fifth volume, p. 38.
"I have teryd her (tarried here) at Framlyngham thys seven nyght, for [my] lady took not hyr Chambyr till yesterday. Adew. Wretyn on Seynt Katyrin evyn.' [Nov. 24; the feast of St. Katharine being the 25th Nov.]
Should this conjecture be correct, of which I entertain no doubt, your readers scarcely need be told, that the writer was John Mowbray, the last of that name and family who enjoyed the dignity of Duke of Norfolk. His wife, just about to take her chamber* for the second time, was Elizabeth, eldest daughter of John Talbot, first Earl of Shrewsbury, by Margaret, his second wife, eldest daughter and coheir of Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick; and the lady, his mother, who was expected, was Eleanor, only daughter of William Bourchier, Earl of Ewe, in Normandy, and now Duchess dowager of Norfolk.
Sir William Calthorpe, knight, the personage to whom this letter is addressed, was the only son of Sir John Calthorpe, knight, by Amy his wife, sole daughter and heir of Sir John Wythe, knight, lord of Smalburgh and Worstede in Norfolk, and Hepworth in Suffolk. He was born about the year 1409, and on the death of Sir William Calthorpe, his grandfather, in 1420, he inherited the paternal estate; Sir John his father having died during the life-time of his grandfather. Sir William served the office of High Sheriff for Norfolk and Suffolk the twentieth of Henry VI, and on the 28th of June, the following year, held his court at Calthorp in Norfolk, when
*There appear to have been some ceremonies anciently used when the Lady took her Chamber. It is stated, that when the Queen of Henry the Seventh took her Chamber "the Erles of Shrewsbury and of Kente hyld the Towelles, whan the Quene toke her Rightes; and the Torches ware holden by Knightes. Whan she was comen into hir great Chambre, she stode undre hir Cloth of Estate: then there was ordeyned a Voide of Espices and swet Wyne; that doone, my Lorde, the Quene's Chamberlain, in very goode wordes desired, in the Quene's name, the pepul there present to pray God to sende hir the goode houre: and so she departed to hir inner Chambre."-Strutt, vol. iii. p. 157, from a MS. in the Cotton Library.
he manumitted Thomas Gybbs his villain; and bare then, as appears by his seal, Calthorpe and Bacon quarterly, and for his crest, a boar's head between two naked boys armed with clubs.
In the twenty-fifth of the same reign, he purchased the ancient seat of the Erpingham's, situated in the parish of St. Martin at the Plain, in the city of Norwich, of the executors of Joan Lady Bardolph, and that mansion he made his occasional city residence.
He became locum tenens and commissary-general to the most noble and potent William de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk and Earl of Pembroke, high chamberlain of England, Ireland, and Aquitain, during the minority of Henry Holland, Duke of Exeter and Lord Admiral; and in the 36th of the same reign he again served the office of sheriff, and was knighted at the coronation of King Edward the Fourth, 1461.
In the 8th of that reign he writes himself of Ludham, in Norfolk, and that year he again filled the office of sheriff; he also served, for the fourth time, in the eighteenth year of the same reign, and that year was steward of the household to Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York and Norfolk, and second son of Edward IV, who married Anne, sole daughter and heiress of the above John Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk.
Sir William Calthorp was twice married. By his first lady, Elizabeth, daughter of Reginald Grey, Lord Grey of Ruthyn, who died in 1437, he had issue two sons, John and William, and two daughters, Amy and Elizabeth. He married secondly, Elizabeth, eldest daughter and co-heir of Sir Miles Stapleton, of Ingham in Norfolk, knight, by Catharine, his second wife, daughter of Sir Thomas Delapole, knight, by whom he also had issue two sons Francis and Edward, and as many daughters; Elizabeth, the eldest, married Francis Haselden of Little Chesterford, in Essex, esquire, and Anne, the youngest, was the wife of Sir Robert Drury of Hawsted in Suffolk, knight, privy councillor to King Henry the Seventh.
From the male issue of these
matches, several distinct branches are derived of this honourable and knightly family. Sir William Calthorpe died in 1494, and was buried by his first lady, in the Whitefriars' church at Norwich; his will was proved Nov. 27, in that year, and inquisitions were awarded in Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, Hertfordshire, &c.
Lady Elizabeth survived him, and became the wife of Sir John Fortescue, Lord Chief Justice of England, on whose death she re-married to Sir Edward Howard, Lord High Admiral, and brother of Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk. She died in the last year of the reign of Henry the Seventh, Yours, &c. A. P.
MR. URBAN, July 5. IT has often occurred to me, whilst taking a review of the present state of Anglo-Saxon literature, to endeavour, by means of inquiries in the Gentleman's Magazine, to ascertain if the Anglo-Saxon language was ever extinct in England. A few days ago, whilst looking over Hearne's Glossary to Robert of Gloucester's Chronicle, I met with a “letter concerning a book printed at Tavistock in Devonshire," written by Hearne to John Bagford, who was then making collections (now in the Harleian Library) for a History of Printing.
The allusion is to "The Boke of Comfort, called in Latyn Boecius de Consolatione Philosophie, enprented in the exempt Monastery of Tavestok, in Denshyre. By me Dan Thomas Rychard, Monke of the sayd Monastery, to the instant desyre of the ryght worshypful esquyer Mayster Robert Langdon, Anno Domini MDXXV." On this work Hearne, who apparently had examined it, has the following conjecture:
"I am of opinion that Robert Langdon mov'd him to print this Book not only out of a pious Design, but also for the advancing the Saxon Tongue, which was taught in this Abbey as well as in some other places of this Kingdom with success; and there were Lectures read in it constantly here, which continued some time after the Reformation. Now this Translation of Boëtius having variety of words agreeing with the Saxon, it might be reckoned by Mr. Langdon a very proper book for attaining to the knowledge of the
Several authorities may be cited respecting the founding a Saxon lecture in the monastery of Tavistock. The first which I shall adduce is Camden in the Britannia (in Devonshire), who distinctly states that Saxon Lectures were read in Tavistock Monastery till or near to the time of its dissolution. In L'Isle's Saxon Monuments, Preface to the edition of 1623, allusion is made to it in the following words:-"Thanks be to God that he that conquered the land could not so conquer the language, but that in Memory of our Fathers it hath been preserved in common Lectures," &c. Kennet, in his life of Somner, apparently following Camden, says, In the Abbey of Tavistock, which had a Saxon founder about 691, there were solemn lectures in the Saxon tongue even to the time of our fathers, that the knowledge of it might not fail, as it has since well nigh done." In a
Archbishop was not alone in the wish to promote the revival of the Saxon tongue, although from his elevated position the merit of much that others The labours of Nowell, and Josceline, did was, probably, attributed to him. and Lambarde, must not be forgotten: the former of whom, so early as 1557, compiled a Saxon vocabulary, said to be deposited in the Bodleian Library; so that his knowledge of the language, we may suppose, had been acquired before this period. Of Josceline but little is known; some particulars of his life and labours are given in the History of Lambeth Palace, and a portion of his collections is deposited in the Cotton Library.
There is, perhaps, no part of England in which so many Anglo-Saxon words are to be met with in general use, as amongst the common people of the counties of Devon and Somerset.
For the purpose of illustration I subjoin a few words selected at random ; the first column has the Anglo-Saxon form; the second the western dialect; the third is modern English.
sketch of the progress of Anglo-Saxon hælm, healm helm
Without multiplying quotations on the subject, although it may be doubted whether any Saxon books were printed before the Saxon Homilies in 1567, by John Daye, yet it appears reasonable to conclude that a Saxon lecture was publicly read in the monastery of Tavistock till its dissolution, which a few years only preceded what has been called the revival of Saxon literature by Archbishop Parker about the year 1566. But the
Without a knowledge of the strong aspiration of the h, by natives of the west, it is, perhaps, not so evident; but with that knowledge it will appear plainly that their pronunciation of words which retain the Anglo-Saxon form, approaches very nearly to that which is elucidated by the rules given by philologers for our guidance in the Anglo-Saxon. With this in view, the accenting of hroc in any other way than by lengthening the open sound of o as in croak seems to be improper. The retention too of the Anglo-Saxon pronoun ic, in the various forms of ic, ich, iche, 'ch, &c. as well as the singular and plural dative, thissum, of the Anglo-Saxon pronoun thes, may_be noticed as deserving of attention. But