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universe. When it is believed, as in the Middle Ages, that the earth is the great central object of the whole created world, around which the sun and moon alike revolve, and the stars are but inconsiderable lights destined to garnish its firmament,man becomes the centre of all things, and every startling phenomenon has some bearing upon his acts; the eclipse, the comet, the meteor, the tempest, are all intended for him.

The existence of the antipodes, or persons inhabiting the opposite side of the globe, and consequently having the soles of their feet directly opposed to ours, was disproved by quoting St. Paul,—that all men are made to live upon the face of the earth,' from which it clearly follows that they do not live upon more faces than one, or upon the back. If we examine a little farther, we are told that the earth is fixed firmly upon its foundations, from which we may at least infer that it is not suspended in the air. In the sixteenth century, for asserting that the earth mores, Copernicus will be censured, and Galileo will be imprisoned.

It was taught as a firmly established principle that water has no gravity in or on water, since it is in proprio loco, in its own place; — that air has no gravity on water, since it is above water, which is its proper place; — that earth in water tends downward, since its place is below water; — that water rises in a pump or syphon, because nature abhors a vacuum.

Peter Lombard quotes our Anglo-Saxon Bede that the waters above the firmament are the solid crystalline heavens in which the stars are fixed, 'for crystal, which is so hard and transparent, is made of water'; and mentions also the opinion of St. Augustine, that the waters above the heavens are in a state of vapor, in

minute drops:

'II, then, water can, as we see in clouds, be so minutely divided that it may be thus Fupported as vapor on air, which is naturally lighter than water; why may we not believe that it floats above that lighter celestial element in still minuter drops and still lighter vapors? But in whatever manner the waters are there, we do not doubt that they are there,'

Philosophy.-The long and barren period which intervened between Proclus of the fifth century, in whom the speculative activity of ancient Greece disappeared, and Bacon of the sixteenth, in whom it was reformed and fertilized, was characterized, as a whole, by indistinctness of ideas, bias to authority, and

impatience of dissent. Poverty of thought disposed men to lean upon an intellectual superior,- Plato, Aristotle, or the Fathers; to read nature through books; to talk of what great geniuses had said; to study the opinions of others as the only mode of forming their own; to criticise, to interpret, to imitate, to dispute. The subtlety which found in certain accredited writings all the truth it desired, forbade others to find, there or elsewhere, any other truths. The slave became a tyrant.

The Christian Fathers made philosophy the handmaid of religion. The whole philosophic effort was to mediate between the dogmas of faith and the demands of reason, with church doctrine as the criterion or standard. The method was three-fold: 1. That of the Fathers, built on Scripture, modified by the principles of the Grecian schools. 2. Conjointly with Scripture, the use of the Fathers themselves. 3. The application of the Aristotelian dialectics.' Philosophy thus subservient to the Christian articles of belief was called Scholasticism, a name derived from the cloister schools opened by Charlemagne for the pursuit of speculative studies, which in those days were prosecuted only by the clergy, they alone having leisure or inclination for such work. The teachers of the seven liberal arts, as afterwards all who occupied themselves with the sciences, and especially with philosophy, following the tradition and example of the schools, were called Scholastics. Scholasticism, therefore, may be defined as the reproduction of ancient philosophy under the control of ecclesiastical doctrine, with an accommodation, in cases of discrepancy between them, of the former to the latter. Its leading representatives till the fourteenth century are Erigena, with whom it begins, born and educated in Ireland; Roscelin and Abelard, of France; Peter Lombard and Thomas Aquinas, of Italy; Anselm, of Normandy; Alexander Hales, “the Irrefragable,' and Duns Scotus, 'the Subtle Doctor,' of England.

The views of Erigena, (800-877) are decidedly Platonic. God, the creating and uncreated being, alone has essential subsistence. He is the essence of all things, the beginning and the end of all. Among created natures are some which themselves create, Ideas, or the archetypes of things, the first causes of individual existences. These are contained in the Divine Wisdom, or Word

1 That branch of logic which teaches the rules and modes of reasoning.





- the Son; and the influence of the Holy Ghost, or Divine Love, causes them to develop into the forms of the eternal world. More than a thousand years before, Plato had said:

Now, Idea is, as regards God, a mental operation by him (the notions of God, eternal and perfect in themselves); as regards us, the first things perceptible by mind; as regards Matter, a standard; but as regards the world, perceptible by sense, a pattern; but as considered with reference to itself, an existence.' The creation from nothing is out of God's own essence — an unfolding. Our life is His life in us. As the substance of all things in shape and time, He descends to us, not alone in the act of incarnation, but in all created existence. As out of Him all things are evolved, so into Him all things will ultimately return,-a conception not in harmony with the doctrinal system of the Church. True philosophy and true religion are one. But true religion is not identical with dogmatism. On the contrary, in case of a collision between authority and reason, let reason be given the preference.

Plato taught Realism, the doctrine that universals - species, genera, or types — have a real existence apart from individual objects. Aristotle, on the contrary, taught Nominalism, the doctrine that only individuals exist in reality, - that abstract ideas are nothing but abstractions, general names, not general things. Of the Scholastic Nominalists, Roscelin, a little before 1100, was the first distinguished advocate. It was soon evident that he was in antagonism with the dogma of the Trinity. If, said his opponents, only individuals really exist, then the three persons of the Trinity are three individuals, or three Gods,—that, or else they have no existence. He admits the fatal heresy, is summoned before a Council, and there forced publicly to recant; escapes to England, and perishes in exile; but the seed sown fructifies, and Nominalism afterwards becomes the reigning doctrine.

Roscelin was opposed by Anselm (1033-1109). His motto was, Credo, ut intelligam. Knowledge must rest on faith, and submission to the Church must be unconditional. Goodness, truth, virtue, etc., possess real existence, independent of individual beings, not merely immanent in them. On this realistic basis he founds a proof of the divine existence, with which his fame is chiefly connected. The argument is an attempt to prove the existence of God from the very idea which we have of Him—the

summum bonum, or greatest object that can be conceived. This conception exists in the intellect of all who have the idea of God, - in the intellect of the atheist as well. But the greatest cannot be in the mind only, for then something still greater would be conceivable which should exist not only in the mind but in external reality. Hence the greatest must exist at the same time, both subjectively and objectively. God, therefore, is not merely conceived by us,—He also really exists.

One of Roscelin's pupils was the youthful Abelard (1079– 1142), whose unfortunate love-relations, more than his eloquence or subtlety, rendered his name immortal. Posterity feels interested in him because Eloise loved him; and when the gates of the convent close forever on her, the warm interest in him disappears. His position in dialectics, while intermediate between untenable extremes, is not far removed from strict Nominalism. His chief distinction is regular and systematic application of dialectics to theology. Without being the first to rationalize dogmatics, he went farther in a way which had already been opened up, and may thus be said to have given to Scholasticism its peculiar and permanent form. Asserting the supremacy of reason, he represents the insurgent spirit of those times. Writes St. Bernard to the pope: Transgreditur fines quos posuerunt patres nostri — he goes beyond the limits set by our ancestors !'- an offense in all ages, in all nations. The revolutionist further 'transgresses' by the composition of Sic et Non, in which he sets forth the contradictory statements of the Fathers, designed, as he distinctly informs us, to train the mind to vigorous and healthy doubt, in fulfilment of the injunction, “Seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you.' Doubt begins. Disputation waxes stronger. In every city of Europe, logic plays around every subject, the most profound and sacred, like lambent flame. The struggle thus begun has not yet ended.

Abelard's pupil — Peter Lombard, who died in 1164 — prepared a manual of theology called The Book of Sentences, which became, and for centuries continued, the basis of theological instruction and a guide for the dialectical treatment of theological problems.

Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274) brought Scholasticism to its highest stage of development, by the utmost accommodation of

the Aristotelian doctrines to those of ecclesiastical orthodoxy. With him, as with Aristotle, knowledge — and preëminently knowledge of God - is the supreme end of life. The Divine existence is demonstrable only a posteriori, namely, from the contemplation of the world as the work of God. The order of the world presupposes an Orderer. There must be a First Mover or a First Cause, since the chain of effects and causes cannot be infinite. God exists as a pure, immaterial form. Before His creative fiat, time was not. The soul of man is immortal, because it is immaterial. It is immaterial because it thinks the universal; whereas, if it were a form inseparable from matter, like the soul of a brute, it could think only the individual. Pure form can neither destroy itself, nor, through the destruction of a material substratum, be destroyed. Yet the human soul does not exist before the body. Nor is its knowledge the mere recollection of ideas beheld in a preëxistent state, as Plato assumed.

While the earlier scholastics had known only the Logic of Aristotle, Alexander Hales (died 1245) first used his entire philosophy, including the metaphysics, as the auxiliary of Christian theology.

A distinguished opponent of Thomas Aquinas and his system was Duns Scotus, who in 1308 died at Cologne, whither he had been sent to take part in a debate, His strength, like that of Kant, lay in the acute and negative criticism of others rather than in the establishment of his own position. Trained in mathematical studies, he knew what was meant by proving, and could therefore recognize in most of the pretended proofs their invalidity. Without denying the truth of the theorems themselves, he rejects much of the reasoning employed to prove the being of God and the immortality of the soul, and bases the evidence on our moral nature, Revelation alone renders them certain. Arguments should be viewed with distrust. The domain of reason he would further contract; that of faith, still more extende The world is but a mean, by the right use of which the only end of its existence — the salvation of mankind - is attained. This is practical, ---- at least in desire, as of one whose eyes are fixed on sin, black death, and the Judgment, not daring to embark on the great journey with unsafe guides.

The heavy instrument supplied to these disputants by Aris

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