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series of geographical changes were brought about as have occurred since the entombment of this elephantine quadruped. The fresh-water gravel which encloses it, is decidedly of much more modern origin than the drift or boulder clay of the same region."—Man. Geol., p. 138.
No demonstration could be more absolute than is presented by these facts that a large share of the present races of animals are derived from those that are fossilized, and had their origin, therefore, in the same creative fiat. There is no maxim more fundamental and indisputable in zoology than that all animals of the same species had a common parentage, or are to be traced to the same creation. To reject that axiom, would be to reject the tie that connects effects with their causes, and render it nugatory to reason on the subject. The supposition, therefore, that the fossilized races were wholly exterminated antecedently to the six days' creation, and that the present living races had an independent origin at that epoch, is shown to be erroneous. Those geologists who hold that the present races were called into being at that date, must, if they adhere to the maxims of zoology, admit that those that are entombed in the tertiary deposits had their origin also at the same era.
But the proof does not stop here. There is ample evidence that there never was an absolute break in the descent of certain classes of marine animals, from the date of the first that were fossilized down to the races that now inhabit the seas. For those in the tertiary strata of the genera and species that are now living, were contemporaneous with others now extinct that are fossilized in the strata of an earlier date; and they in their first periods were contemporaneous with other genera and species that were fossilized at a still earlier date, and these last were coeval with still other genera and species that appear in a still lower series of rocks; and so on to the lowest strata that contain fossil shells. An unbroken chain of coexisting genera and species can be made out from the date of the first to the races of the present hour.
"We find certain families of organic remains pervading strata of every age, under nearly the same generic forms which they present among existing organizations; e. g. the nautilus, echinus, terebratula, and various forms of corals; and among plants, the ferns, lycopodiacese, and palms. Other families, both of animals and vegetables, are limited to particular formations, there being certain points where entire groups ceased to exist, and were replaced by others of a different character."—Dr. Buckland's Bridg. Treat., p. 100.
"By selecting genera and families, we may show through what ranges of strata, that is to say, through what geological periods, they existed, and at what periods they were the most numerous. Thus Trilobites existed during the primary and carboniferous epochs, but are never known in the more recent strata, nor do they exist at present; Product* pass through the primary and carboniferous epochs, and end in the saliferous; Spiriferae pass through all these epochs, and end in the oolites; Ammonites pass through all these periods, and end in the chalk ; Terebratute* existed through all these periods, and also through the tertiary system, and are still in being. On the other hand, certain tribes began to exist at later periods, as the Belemites, many genera of Echini, &c, and ended their race before the dawn of the tertiary period."—Phillips's Guide, p. 75.
There are similar proofs also of the continuance of certain classes of vegetables from the period of the earliest strata to the present time.
"From the data hitherto obtained, tne most eminent botanists consider that the Floras of the ancient world constitute three distinct epochs or eras.
"The first comprehends the earliest strata in which traces of vegetation appear, and includes the carboniferous. The plants of this epoch, as we have already shown, consist of fuci and other cellular tribes ; ferns of various kinds in great
* Thus of Terebratulae there were—
In the Primary fossiliferous strata . . .30 genera.
abundance; coniferous trees related to species of warm climates ; of palms and other monocotyledons, gigantic lycopodia, and trees (Sigillaria) in great abundance, whose precise relations to known forms are not accurately determined. In this Flora the tree ferns predominate, constituting nearly two-thirds of the whole known species; and the general type of the vegetation is analogous to that of the islands and archipelagoes of intertropical climates.
"The second epoch extends from the New Red or Saliferous strata to the Chalk inclusive, and is characterized by the appearance of many species of Cycadeae, Zamise, and other Coniferae, while the proportion of ferns is much less than in the preceding period; and the lycopodiaceous tribes, Calamites, &c, of the carboniferous strata are absent. A Flora of this nature is analogous to that of the coasts and maritime districts of New Holland and the Cape of Good Hope.
"The third epoch is that of the tertiary, in which dicotyledonous tribes appear in great numbers, the Cycadese are very rare, the ferns in diminished numbers, and the Conifers more numerous. Palms and other intertropicals are found associated with the existing European forest trees, as the elm, ash, willow, poplar, &c, presenting, in short, the general features of our continental Flora."—Mantell's Medals of Creation, vol. i., pp. 200, 201.
These facts thus completely confute the assumption that an extermination of the vegetables and animals took place between the fossilization of those that are imbedded in the strata and those that were called into life at the epoch of the six days' creation. The chain of coexistence is shown, by the discoveries geologists have already made, to have extended without an interval from the first to the last; and the proofs of the uninterruptedness of the line will be augmented at every step in the progress of the science. The examinations have hitherto been confined to comparatively a few sites, chiefly in Europe. When they shall have been made on a greater scale there, and extended to western, northern, and eastern Asia, Africa, North and South America, and the islands of the Facific and Indian oceans, the evidences of the unbroken continuance of vegetable and animal life through the whole series of the strata to the present hour, will undoubtedly accumulate to an indisputableness and vastness that must for ever set aside the fancy of their extermination at any point in the succession.
And finally, their theory is equally inconsistent with the history of the deluge. The sacred writer relates that "the waters prevailed exceedingly upon the earth, and all the high hills that were under the whole heaven were covered. Fifteen cubits and upward did the water prevail; and the mountains were covered." And as a consequence, "all flesh died that moved upon the earth, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of beast, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth, and every man. All in whose nostrils was the breath of life, of all that