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with they were clothed was equally present to their minds. The various alternations of violet, scarlet, black, and taffety, in their robes were most scrupulously arranged by order of the full court of Common Council*, even to the very trimmings and furrings of their worships' robes. The exact costume for each feast and holiday is prescribed; and the same goodly aldermen condescended to define, with equal precision, the apparel of the 'Prentices. Their gowns were “ blew,” their bands narrow and falling, their hose close, and made of cloth, their hair closely cut, their caps flat and round. This head gear was also worn by the journeymen, and it was from it that the appellation Roundheads originated. That appellation the Cavaliers deemed one of contumely; but the Citie's Advocate represents that " in itself, considered as a geometrical figure, the circle is more worthy than the square, according to that ground in the mathematicks— figurarum sphærica est optima,' and in hieroglyphicks is a symbol of eternitie and perfection, and an image of the world's rotunditie !"

The Lord Mayor and Aldermen, on one occasion, issued Instructions for the Apprentices, which shew how wide was the extension of the religious enthusiasm of the time. They actually recommended particular chapters and texts of Scripture for the meditation and perusal of the young men; they urged them also to be punctual and constant in private devotion, to read diligently the articles of their indentures and to observe them, particularizing with true business-like sagacity a speedy despatch of errands and an immediate return to duty, and withal gentleness and lowliness of speech. Another curious feature of the times appears in the multiplicity of quotations, Greek, Latin, and English, with which is filled the “Just and Modest Vindication of the many thousand loyal Apprentices, that presented an humble Address to the Lord Mayor." The gemmen quote largely from Plautus, Euripides, Aurelius Antoninus, &c., and they evince their acquaintance with classical pursuits by bandying the term Zoilus Rex.

The “Citie's Advocate” is not, however, the only assertor of the dignity of Apprenticeship: it has also a bard whose theme is “ the honour of London Apprentices in times forepast, present, and modern.” There is a short prose

prolegomenon, setting forth the unanimous correspondency of that innumerable company the London 'Prentices, and how worthy it is of observation that whereas from all shires and countries of the kingdom of England and dominion of Wales, the sons of knights, esquires, gentlemen, and yeomen, come up to a trade, occupation, mystery, or profession, and that, however diverse in nativity or degree, there is among them such a supernatural sympathy, that if any real or supposed wrong or violence be offered one of them, they all engage in the rescue, and most commonly without enquiring the justice or cause of the quarrill, crying out “ Knock him down-he wrongs a 'Prentice.” We fear the following lines will not raise the “ Smithfield Muses” in the estimation of our readers:

• Wherever London 'Prentices in force combined,

The adverse party must go down the wind :

* Vide Order of my Lord Mayor for the meeting of the Common Council, and their wearing their apparel throughout the whole year.

At home, abroad; in Europe, Asia, and
Hot Africa, America ; by land,
Or sea; no action worth regard

Was done, but London 'Prentices in it shared." A great deal has been said of the viciousness of modern cockney taste, but it must be admitted, that the “ City Swans” have somewhat improved in their notes. We must make another extract

The rayse of London 'Prentices did shine

Among the infidels in Palestine:
The London 'Prentices proved men of men;
And in particular fifteen of them,
Before the walls of old Jerusalem,
Slew and took prisoners eight-and-forty Turkes,
Boldly adventuring into their workes.
Two of these Infidels were great Bashawes,
Who came to overtop the Christian lawes.
These fifteen London 'Prentices, stout blades,
Named in the margent with their several trades,
Were knighted in the field, and their bright fame

Shown on faire London city whence they came." In the margent (margin) these doughty heroes are enumerated; among them appears a namesake of Sir Ven's, Wm. Vincent, fishmonger, in lack of a better we may write him down the great progenitor of pretty Mistresse Margaret's lover. This achievement of the fifteen is narrated at length by Sir Walter Raleigh in his History of the World, and is, no doubt, entitled to as much credence as the recitals in his account of his first voyage to Guiana, of the riches of the city of El Dorado or Manao, two days' journey in length, and shining with gold and silver ! We cannot omit the following account of the institution of the honourable company mentioned in it:

“ Jonu Hall, a taylor near to Leaden Hall,

Apprentice of a mind heroicall !
Having an itching humour for the wars,
He from his inasier ran to follow Mars ;
And at the field of Crecy he did slay
With his own hand and sword eighteen that day,
And prisoner took Count Saysous, for which thing'
He instantly was knighted by the King.
King Edward, for Hall's sake and exaltation,
Did make the Taylors first a corporation :
Then let malicious fooles this story scan,
And blush to say a Taylor is no man.
The author of these lines himself is free

Of the Merchant Taylors' company!” We fear these “ specimens of British poetry” may not prove as agreeable to our readers, as they no doubt were to the literati of the City when they were written : they do indeed evince a very despicable taste; and afford good ground of congratulation upon the improvement in quality, as well as the increase in quantity of books and literature : Vast as the latter is, es not nevertheless exceed the former. The titles of the pamphlets which issued from the press in the days of the great civil convulsion are not less curious or characteristic of the national taste than the matter of them:—“A pair of Spectacles for the City.”—“A Case for the City Spectacles." -“ A Looking-glass for the Well Affected." _"A Candle for the blind Citizens to see by.""An Eye-salve for the Citizen of London.”—“A City dog in a Saint's doublet." Such are the singular names of some few of the publications which have come down to us.

The abolition of the Romish holidays and festivals was severely felt by the working classes, in depriving them of the usual stated returns of rest and amusement; and (11 June 1647) the apprentices addressed a petition to the parliament, praying that the riots and impieties of former times might not deprive them of that part of their liberties, lawful recreations, for the needful refreshment of their spirits, (without which, as they gravely concluded, “ Life itself is not pleasant, but an intollerable burthen,”) and humbly desiring “ that, with shops shut and all work forborne, they might be indulged with a cessation of labour, which must doubtless in the fruition double the diligence and fidelity of the youth.” The chosen favourite of the Nine, the “ Attic Warbler," from whom we have already extracted, we fear too largely, announces the result of this application in the following melodious strains :

“ And London prentices shall honoured be

With what belongs to them in each degree ;
l' th’interim, as an earnest that with love
The parliament doth of their zeal approve,
Once in a month for honest recreation

A day's allowed—thus service is rewarded." This concession was made by the direction of a committee of twelve of the first statesmen and great functionaries of the day. The second Tuesday in every month was the time fixed. Among the circumstances which evince the superior importance of the City at this period of our history we ought not to fail to notice, that it was in the Grocers' Hall, the Merchant Taylors' Hall, &c. that Committees of the House were used to sit. But now our senators know their way to no part of the City except Threadneedle Street. The Governors and Directors of the Bank are more regarded than the Lord Mayor himself and the whole court of aldermen; and we will be bound to say, that the lords of the treasury make more account of the denizens of Change Alley and the Jewish fraternity of stock-brokers, than of the whole honourable company of apprentices : and we are quite happy that it is so. The virtues of a barbarian age, and the fine qualities that display themselves in times of violence and disorder, make excellent materiel for romances and holiday reading; but it is, after all, pleasant to be able to walk along the streets without any apprehension of the apprentices and their clubs. There is perhaps nothing in the Fortunes of Nigel better done than the description of the solicitation of passengers by the apprentices and shopmen: the cleverness and liveliness of Jin Vin's ad. dresses presents a strong contrast to the tame, subdued, “ Do you want any thing, Sir?” with which individuals are still occasionally greeted in passing through certain alleys of the metropolis. After reading this part of the work we resolved to see the thing itself; and under the guidance of an experienced friend adventured a passage through a narrow alley which leads out of Drury Lane, and is well known to notable housewives as a choice mart. As we went along, we beheld on each side great store of cabinets, tables, chairs, &c.; but except a low

VOL. V. NO, XX.

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murmur from one woman, who did not raise her eyes, as she uttered it, from some needle-work on which she was employed, and certainly a most benignant and encouraging smile, with "Some excellent furniture, Sir," from another vender, we did not receive any notice, or recognize any type of the good old usage. It is, we think, after all, in the unexampled skill and address with which the author of Waverley embodies the manners of Auld lang Syne-it is in his antiquarian lore, and the magic with which he creates personages, acting, thinking, moving, and apparelled as of yore-that the true secret of his fascination lies.

S. M. T.

NAPOLEON IN EXILE.*

There is but one opinion, we believe, about this publication, namely, that it is a very interesting one. Placed, as the author was, so near Bonaparte, in so many trying and secluded moments of his existence, when even the proudest of human spirits was likely to unbend itself to confidence and familiarity with one on whose kindness he was, in some degree, dependant, in such circumstances and with such a subject it was hardly possible for a man of ordinary capacity to compose an uninteresting diary. Among the sources therefore which the future historian will consult for the means of fully and minutely developing Napoleon's character, it is not conceivable that the present work will be overlooked. There is no doubt that Mr. O'Meara writes with a palpable and strong attachment to the fallen hero, and we will not assume that he is utterly free from either prejudices or inaccuracies. But where shall the materials that are to serve for a life of Napoleon be found that shall be wholly beyond the suspicion of passion or partiality ? Mr. O'Meara is the willing and sympathetic reporter of Napoleon's bitterest complaints against those whom he considered as the imposers of unnecessary and vexatious additions to the sufferings of his exile. Of these Sir Hudson Lowe is particularly impeached.

Utter strangers as we are to that officer's personal character, except through this channel, and abhorring, as we do, the idea of condemning any accused individual without a full and patient hearing of all that can be said in his behalf, we abstain from rashly deciding on the governor's conduct. We cannot help acknowledging that Mr. O'Meara records restrictions on Napoleon which, to our humble apprehension, appear to have been unnecessary;—such as debarring him from the perusal of certain newspapers,

and some other traits of his treatment: but in a general view of Sir Hudson's conduct, we hold it but common charity to keep in view that his responsibility was awfully anxious, and that the British Cabinet enjoined him a most rigorous and severe system of restraint upon his prisoner. The charge of inhumanity, if it be applicable, we apprehend must go much higher than Sir Hudson Lowe.

Viewing the whole circumstances in which Mr. O'Meara writes, we thus receive his statement as an ex parte statement; yet, as well-wishers to the investigation of truth, we receive it with deep and earnest curio

Napoleon in Exile; or, a Voice from St. Helena. The Opinions and Reflections of Napoleon on the most important Events of his Life and Government, in his own Words. By Barry E. O'Meara, Esq. his late Surgeon. 2 vols. 8vo. 1822.

sity. It is right that the British Public should know whatever ean be learnt about a personage, in whose ultimate treatment their national honour was concerned.

In the real and credible picture of human affairs, there is no theme more calculated to excite reflection than the life and destiny of Napoleon: : a man who for nineteen years chained the history of Europe to his biography. It is true that there have been men absurd enough to doubt even of his abilities; but the world has never yet agreed, without some exception, in confessing the talents of great and formidable personages. The pious author of the " Night Thoughts” forgot to render even the Devil his due, when, at the end of one of his cantos, he denominated him a dunce. Generally speaking, however, Napoleon's transcendant genius has been unquestioned. There has been more dispute about hiš moral intentions and personal worth. Whilst some have believed that it was possible for England at least to have kept at peace with him; to have checked, without extirpating, his power; and to have allowed him to wield it as an useful counterpoise to the tyrannical governments of the Continent: others have regarded him as a malignant spirit, born only for the unhappiness of mankind, and therefore condemned to die on the rock of his imprisonment as justly as any of the Genii in the Arabian Nights was plunged in a sealed-up jar to the bottom of the ocean. In trying to judge between such conflicting opinions, the impartial mind naturally watches with anxiety for every glimpse of his character that can be more or less authenticated from his deportment in adversity, from the explanations of his past actions and intentions detailed in conversation, and from the expression of speculative opinions that indicate the greatness or the prejudices of his mind. As to his personal character, no hatred that we have ever cherished against his ambition, and no dislike to be ranked among his blind and bigoted admirers, shall deter us from acknowledging the impression produced by Mr. O'Meara's anecdotes to be decidedly in his favour. They attest the sobriety of his habits, the manly fortitude of his mind in setting about literary pursuits, under circumstances that would have crushed an ordinary spirit to despair, and the dignified tranquillity and cheerfulness, and even the occasional playfulness of his manner, as when he indulged Mr. Bulcombe's children in joining their game at blind-man's buff. Let it be said that he grew sullen, truculent, and even abusive to the governor ; but let it also be recollected that he was suffering what he at least regarded as a breach of human hospitality, under a burning climate, and when his mortal agonies were making their approach.

Every thing relative to the domestic details of his life at St. Helena must be interesting to the curiosity; but there are many amusing sketches of this kind in the book before us which our limits prevent us from giving even in abridgment, and we shall not consume their scanty space in apologies. His habits at Longwood are thus described:

“ Napoleon's hours of rising were uncertain, much depending upon the quantum of rest he had enjoyed during the night. He was in general abad sleeper, and frequently got up at three or four o'clock, in which case he read or wrote until six or seven; at which time, when the weather was fine, he sometimes went out to ride, attended by some of his generals, or laid down again to rest for a couple of hours. When he retired to bed, he could not sleep unless the most perfect state of darkness was obtained, by the closure of

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