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Nelson's History Charts. England and France, Covering Twenty Centuries. With Notes and Instructions for Use. Prepared by F. J. WEAVER. (IS. 6d. Nelson.)

The charts show the centuries divided into decades, and the reigns of kings, leaving detailed dates, names, and events to be inserted by the pupil. Mr. Weaver's notes and instructions are admirable.

A History of Europe. Period 1789-1920. By Prof. Sir R. LODGE and D. B. HORN. (7s. 6d. Murray.)

This volume consists of two sections, both of which have been published before. Their union, however, makes an exceedingly useful and attractive text-book of recent European history. Of the eleven chapters in the book, the first seven come from that standard work, Sir Richard Lodge's "Modern Europe"; the last four, covering the half-century 1871-1920, are from the capable pen of Mr. D. B. Horn of the University of Edinburgh. The one serious defect of the volume is the lack of both footnotes and bibliography.

Nelson. By Sir G. ASTON. (6d. Benn.)

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A History of Russia. By PRINCE D. S. MIRSKY. (6d. Benn.) A History of China. By Prof. W. E. SOOTHILL. (6d. Benn.) These three booklets, each of eighty pages, well maintain the standard of Messrs. Benn's "Sixpenny Library in which they appear. Each provides in an admirable manner an encyclopaedic survey of its subject, written with grace and with masterly authority. We sincerely hope that in due time some of these notable monographs will be re-issued on larger and thicker paper and with cloth covers. They are worthy of a permanent place on the shelves of a library.

Revolution and Reaction in Modern France. By G. L. DICKINSON. Second Edition. (7s. 6d. net. Allen & Unwin.) Thirty-five years have elapsed since Mr. Lowes Dickinson published the first edition of this work. It at once attained a wide popularity as a brilliantly-written and illuminating sketch of French history from 1789 to 1871. It has long been out of print and almost unobtainable. A new edition is very welcome, even though the author has not felt able to undertake the considerable task of revising the work in the light of recent research. The main divergence from the first edition is to be found in the last chapter, which has been amended and supplemented.

International Civics: The Community of Nations. By Prof. P. B.

POTTER and R. L. WEST. (7s. net. New York: Macmillan.) Supporters of the League of Nations will welcome this convenient handbook. It does three things: first, it describes the existing community of nations; secondly, it discusses the problem of the maintenance of international justice and peace; thirdly, it considers the question of the development of future international government. It contains much interesting information in surprisingly small compass, and it presents some excellent illustrations.

A Book of French Conversation.

HUGH. (2s. 6d. Pitman.)

Outlines of British Social History. By E. H. DANCE. (38. Longmans.)

This is a well-planned and well-written survey of British social history. In twenty-eight compact chapters, excellently illustrated, accompanied by extracts from sources, and followed by test questions, Mr. Dance depicts the way of life of our ancestors from pre-historic times to the end of the nineteenth century. This little volume should prove to be an invaluable companion to the ordinary text-book of English history. On History: a Study of Present Tendencies. By A. L. ROWSE. (2s. 6d. net. Kegan Paul.)

This is a curious little book, clever, interesting, brilliant in parts, provocative, yet crude and immature. It needs reconsideration, recasting, rewriting, and above all, clarifying. The author pleads mainly for three things, viz., first, the abandonment of the present excessive insistence upon research in history, and the concentration of attention upon the co-ordination of the results of the prodigious researches of recent years; secondly, the return to the lofty literary standards of the older historians, and the departure from the arid deserts of the modern scientific presentation of history; thirdly, the acceptance of the Marxian principle of the economic interpretation of history, and the reconstruction of history on that principle.

Historical Atlas. By Prof. W. R. SHEPHERD. Sixth Edition. (18s. net. University of London Press.)

Prof. Shepherd's Historial Atlas is well-known as one of the best of the more expensive collections of maps illustrative of political and social change. The present edition-the sixthdoes not materially differ from any one of its three predecessors. A few new maps depicting post-war developments are much to be desired.

Archon or The Future of Government. By H. FYFE. (2s. 6d. net. Kegan Paul.)

A History of Russia. By Prince D. S. MIRSKY. A History of China. By Prof. W. E. SOOTHILL. (6d. each. Benn.) Caledonia or The Future of the Scots. By G. M. THOMSON. Albyn or Scotland and the Future. By C. M. GRIEVE. (2s. 6d. each net Kegan Paul.)

A Short History of Great Britain Since 1714. By R. B. MOWAT. (3s. 6d. net. Oxford University Press.)

The Revolution to Waterloo. By T. BEVAN. (2s. 6d. net. Sampson Low.)


A Social History of England. By Dr. F. BRADSHAW.
Edition. (6s. University Tutorial Press.)
Local Government for Beginners. By MARGARET I. COLE. (Cloth,
2s. Paper, Is. Longmans.)

A History of India. By Dr. E. THOMPSON. (6d. Benn.)
The Civilization of Japan.

By Prof. J. I. BRYAN. (2s. net.

Williams & Norgate.) Burgundy, Past and Present. By EVELYN M. HATCH. (Ss. 6d. net. Methuen.)



As the authors of this book point out, the oral test in French at the First Public Examination requires and deserves systematic preparation. One form which this may take is the reading, memorizing, and acting of short episodes in dramatic form, such as the "Episodes en action"’ by Mr. Stuart Walters, which is widely used for the purpose. The authors have written close on fifty scenes of everyday life, which are bright, easy to act, and calculated to give a command of idiomatic conversational French.

Die Kopierpresse: Kaufmannsgeschichten. Von F. MÜLLERPARTENKIRCHEN. (Leipzig: Staackmann Verlag.) Here is matter to entice even the most apathetic. In a series of stories and sketches, amusing and yet wholly serious, the student is taken through all the pitfalls that lie in wait for the young man embarking on a business career. We see the apprentice endeavouring to obtain the training that is his due, and the young junior clerk coping more or less successfully with sudden perplexity. No young man can read with indifference these tales of difficulties such as he himself might meet with any hour-may even have faced already. And, reading them, he learns not only the language of modern business practice, but also the inwardness of commercial phenomena, and learns it all with laughter and sympathy. Take, for instance, the tale

of a lad who inherited from an aunt a single share in a sawmill company, and decided to attend the Annual General Meeting. On arrival he is mistaken for a traveller in lubricating oils and told to clear out as they are stocked up for the next seven years. Finding out that he represents only one share, the Secretary tries to ignore him, but he is fresh from a course in Company Law and turns the tables by moving a vote of censure on the management for forward buying of oil-a commodity with a fluctuating market. The Secretary is obliged to minute this motion, and the Board begins to regard the young shareholder with apprehension. But his next proposal is a general rise in emoluments, after which he takes his leave amid approval and invitations to lunch. The youth who reads this story masters more than mere German terms and phraseology, he learns besides all the rights and limitations of shareholders.

And when he closes the book he will have learnt that, although this queer world of ours is not free from tragedy, loyalty, courage and humour will carry a man through everything.

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and well compiled exercises on grammar and vocabulary. Both questions and exercises serve to extend the learner's stock of words in an interesting fashion; and it may safely be said that any one working through this book will derive much benefit, and be able to write free compositions more accurately and more idiomatically.

La Bastille: Légendes et Histoire.

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By F. FUNCK-BRENTANO. Abridged and Edited by K. T. GEMMELL. Edition. (2s. 3d. Harrap.) From M. Funck-Brentano's Légendes et Archives de la Bastille" Mr. Gemmell has drawn the materials for this interesting reader. It describes La Vie à la Bastille," gives an account of famous and notorious men who have been imprisoned there, including the man in the iron mask, and relates in detail the events of the 14th of July. The notes (in English)_testify to the diligence and competence of the editor. There are English sentences, based on the text, for translation into French and some subjects for free composition. A French-English vocabulary completes the book.

Selected and Edited by Prof.

A First Book of French Poetry. R. L. G. RITCHIE. (Is. 9d. Nelson.) Prof. Ritchie, the general editor of Nelson's admirable "Modern Studies" series, has edited this volume himself, and--as was to be expected-he has done it admirably. His brief introduction on prosody, poetic diction, and poetic thought is well written and to the point. Each poem is followed by notes that explain difficulties and by questions, some of which deal with the subject matter while others refer to points of grammar or vocabulary. The last section consists of eight songs with music. also a full vocabulary.

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version became necessary, and has been prepared by Sr. Elías. The book contains a brief and hardly adequate section on pronunciation and forty-four lessons which consist, as a rule, of words and phrases to be memorized, a reading exercise, and a conversation, with the Spanish and English throughout in parallel columns. Many aspects of daily life are represented, and there is reference also to North and South America. The book cannot fail to be of real service to the student of Spanish.

Le Légataire Universel. By J. F. REGNARD. Edited by Prof. O. H. FYNES-CLINTON. (3s. 6d. net. Manchester University Press. London: Longmans.)

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French Literature. By M. BARING. (6d. Benn.)
Henry Bordeaux. Quatre Contes Empruntés au Carnet d'un
Stagiaire" et à" Jeanne Michelin." With Notes by E. J. A.
GROVES. (IS. Blackie.)

An Anthology of Seventeenth Century French Literature. Com-
piled by Members of the Department of Modern Languages,
Princeton University, P. A. CHAPMAN, L. CONS, S. L.
LEVENGOOD, and W. U. VREELAND. (17s. 6d. net. Princeton
University Press. London: Oxford University Press.)
Inductive Turkish Lessons. By F. F. GOODSELL. (5s. net. ELLIOT

Matriculation French Essays. By H. J. CHAYTOR and Dr. W. G. HARTOG. Third Edition. (2s. 3d. University Tutorial


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Das Oxforder Buch Deutscher Dichtung: vom 12ten bis zum 20sten Jahrhundert. Herausgegeben von Prof. H. G. FIEDLER. (8s. 6d. net. India paper, Is. net. Oxford University Press.) French Prose of To-Day. Selected and Edited by the Compilers of French Poems of To-Day." (3s. 6d. Sidgwick & Jackson.) Das Fräulein Von Scuderi. Von E. T. A HOFFMANN. Edited by W. R. P. RIDGWAY and M. HANNAY. (9d. Methuen.) Manuel de Phonétique Française: Théorie-Exercices-Lectures. By Prof. G. BONNARD. (Fr. 4. Lausanne Librairie Payot.) Comparative Idiom: An Introduction to the Study of Modern Languages. By R. J. HAYES. (3s. 6d. net. Dublin: Hodges & Figgis.)


Neo-Hegelianism. By Prof. H. HALDAR. (25s. net. Cranton.) The discussion of the theories of fourteen famous representatives of British Neo-Hegelianism becomes in reality a full and accurate history of the movement, and as such supplies a felt need of students of philosophy.

The Groundwork of Psychology. By Prof. G. F. STOUT. Revised by Dr. R. H. THOULESS. Second Edition. (5s. 6d. University Tutorial Press.)

Prof. Stout's most useful little text book has been revised and brought up to date by Dr. Thouless, who has rewritten the sections dealing with topics on which recent work has thrown fresh light. The chapters on Attention, Interest, and Instinct (including a section on the Measurement of Intelligence) are all new, and there are considerable alterations in the treatment of Body and Mind, and the Perception of External Objects. This revision has replaced the book in its old position as one of the most useful introductions to the subject.

The Mind. By Various Authors. A Series of Lectures Delivered in King's College, London, During the Lent Term, 1927. Edited by Dr. R. J. S. McDOWALL. (8s. 6d. net. Longmans.) This book brings to one's mind (if one may so speak) the old saying, "What is matter? Never mind. What is mind? No matter." Ten learned folk, representing respectively, biology, physiology, psychology, psychotherapy, physics, philosophy, education, aesthetic, anthropology, and sociology, have here let themselves go freely on the subject of mind-the psychologist counting for no more than the physiologist or the physicist. We should expect that different readers will start with different chapters, and that not a high proportion will read all. total effect of the book is interesting, if not illuminating. Many of our readers will naturally turn first to the lecture in which the mind is considered from the point of view of the study of education. We hope they will agree with the lecturer that the study of education is not merely a branch of applied psychology. Problems in Psychopathology. By Dr. T. W. MITCHELL. (9s. net. Kegan Paul.)


This book contains the substance of a course of lectures given to the British Institute of Philosophical Studies. Dr. Mitchell


took psycho-analysis as the main theme of the lectures, because, he says, it is the dominating influence in all the work on medical psychology that is being done in the country at the present time; moreover as the greater part of the published opposition and criticism is founded on ignorance, he was glad to have the opportunity of explaining the truth about Freudianism. The book is concerned with theory rather than practice and is agreeably free from case-histories.

Social Psychology Interpreted. By Prof. J. W. SPROWLS. (18s. net. London: Baillière, Tindall & Cox. Baltimore, U.S.A. : Williams & Wilkins.)

A useful text-book for students of social psychology. The author gives a clear historical summary of the leading theoretical problems in this field, and as far as is possible in the present state of knowledge, attempts to reduce socio-psychological facts to orderly principles. He illustrates his points by discussion of concrete cases, i.e. special social situations. The list of supplementary readings "which follows each chapter adds considerably to the value of the book.

(1) On Being a Girl. By JESSIE E. GIBSON. (бs. 6d. net. New York: Macmillan.)

(2) Methods with Adolescents. By R. W. PRINGLE. (7s. 6d. net. Heath.)


Both these books show that the American secondary school has grown far away from its inception as an intellectual institution, and is definitely dealing with the feelings and activities as well as the memory and reason of the pupils. Miss Gibson has for many years been the "student adviser' in a large high school in the far West, where she has year by year conducted discussion-classes on personal and social problems with all new girls. The subject matter for such discussions she organizes in three divisions: first, the girl's relation to her community; second, her relation to her family and friends; third, her own personality and its self-expression. Extremely practical suggestions are given for dealing with a wide range of subjects, and the book can be heartily recommended to leaders of girls' clubs and teachers of girls in continuation schools. Mr. Pringle's book deals with the teaching of the subjects of the secondary school

curriculum, but always from the point of view of the psychology of adolescence. Almost every chapter emphasizes the importance of self-activity, problem-solving, and vital experience, and though there is little that will be new to most trained English teachers, the treatment is stimulating as well as sound.

The Control of the Mind: A Handbook of Applied Psychology for the Ordinary Man. By Dr. R. H. THOULESS. (5s. Hodder & Stoughton.)


Why, asks the author of this book, do people go to lectures which claim to tell them how to overcome their limitations"? Why, we may add, do they take correspondence courses which claim to show them how to concentrate fiercely and to remember infallibly? No doubt because they feel that they are not as mentally efficient as they might be. In this book Dr. Thouless comes to their rescue, with the advantage that he is a man of science, and the very opposite of a charlatan. He gives good counsel about forming and breaking habits, controlling emotions, sublimating instincts, destroying the inferiority complex, and so on. The book is a sound example of applied psychology, simply written and free from technicalities.

The Neurotic Personality. By Dr. R. G. GORDON. (10s. 6d. net. Kegan Paul.)

The neurotic patient existed, of course, before the Great War, but it is during the last dozen years or so that many books have appeared dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of a malady which, though very real, never obtains so much understanding and sympathy as obvious physical disease. Most of the books advocate a special kind of treatment, such as suggestion, hypnotism, psychoanalysis, psychological analysis, endocrine administration, and so on. Dr. Gordon rejects none of these, but again he pins his faith to none of them in particular. He believes that the physician should be acquainted with all methods that have been found successful, and should apply them according

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The EIGHTEENTH ANNUAL EXHIBITION of ELECTRICAL, OPTICAL, and other PHYSICAL APPARATUS is to be held by the PHYSICAL SOCIETY and the OPTICAL SOCIETY on January 10, 11, and 12, 1928, at the Imperial College of Science and Technology, South Kensington. As in previous years, the Exhibition will include the Trade Section, comprising the exhibits of manufacturing firms; and the Research and Experimental Section, initiated in 1926, will again be included. In the latter Section the Groups are: (a) Exhibits illustrating the results of recent physical research and improvements in laboratory practice. (b) Effective lecture experiments. (c) Repetitions of historical experiments.


Later Greek Religion. By E. BEVAN. (5s. net. Dent.)

The development of religious thought in the period which this book covers- from the third century B.C. to the third century A.D.—is one of very great interest, not only for comparison with the earlier religious thought of the Greeks, but for the many points of contact with, and influence on, Christianity. The surviving material is chiefly that of educated and philosophic thought-the section on popular religion is very slight -so that throughout these centuries it is the working of the amor dei intellectualis which we witness: the aspirations of the educated upper classes to find some way of salvation in a disintegrating world. The material from which to select is large, very often not easy of access and all the more welcome to the classical scholar who may be confined by the necessity of teaching to the earlier classical authors. Dr. Bevan has observed a just measure in the space which he allows to the various schools of thought. The selections from Aristides are particularly interesting, but we think Dio's thoughts about the Zeus at Olympia deserve inclusion. It is a pity that an index of the authors and passages quoted has not been added. Readers who possess this volume and Mr. Cornford's on early Greek religion in this series have now the means of following the movement of the Greek mind in a most important subject.

A Modern Handbook to the Old Testament. By R. B. HENDERSON. (3s. 6d. Christophers.)


Mr. Henderson's handbook is fresh and stimulating, planned on rather unconventional lines. The foreword has been written by his old teacher, Prof. Kennett, to whom the author expresses warm indebtedness. In the course of the book he deals among other matters with Hebrew idiom," trying to bring home to the English reader the different point of view implicit in Hebrew speech. Other chapters are devoted to the Pentateuch, From the Exodus to the Revolution of Jehu, The Times of the Five Greater Prophets, The Exile and the Return, The Greek Period, The Approach to the New Testament and Ideas of God in the Old Testament. According to the author P (i.e., 'the Priestly Code') had been promulgated by Ezra by 432 B.C., and the Samaritan temple on Mount Gorizim had been erected by The author does not seem to realize the difficulties inherent in this combination. When the Samaritans broke with the Jewish community in Jerusalem, their sympathizers in

420 B.C.

Jerusalem carried over a complete Pentateuchal text which had undergone a long redactional history! The dates given by Mr. Henderson do not allow sufficient time for this. Josephus' date is far more probable and possible.

Can these Bones Live? Modern Christianity, Social Life, and the English Church. By the Rev. J. W. Boden. (4s. 6d. net. Constable.)

Mr. Worsley Boden writes with a refreshing breeziness which is not unattractive. With no pretensions to profound learning he discusses many problems of religion and church life, especially in their relation to modern movements of thought. He ardently desires to see religion brought into vital contact with modern life. The chapters in his book are devoted to such themes as Difficulties of Belief and Doctrine, Christianity and National Politics, The Social Revolution, Marriage and Divorce, The Hope of the Future. One can read Mr. Boden's pages with interest even while differing from some of his conclusions.

A Study of Church History to the End of the Thirteenth Century. By Dr. G. W. BUTTERWORTH. (2s. 6d. net. Student Christian Movement.)


We cordially commend Dr. Butterworth's Study of Church History." It covers a good deal of ground in the space of 168 pages. It must have been no easy task to survey the history from the rise of the Christian movement to the end of the thirteenth century. The author has succeeded in doing this without being jejune. Readers and students needing an introductory manual which takes a broad survey could not do better than start with Dr. Butterworth's little book, which is admirably adapted also for class purposes.


Christianity in the Roman World: Its Rise and Progress to the Fall of the Western Empire. By D. ARMYTAGE. (5s. Bell. The author explains that this volume is not a Church history in the ordinary sense. It has been written as the result of a suggestion that it would be useful . . . if a book could be written which would 'Christianize the appropriate chapters in Gibbon.' Some of the author's chapter titles will show how he has tried to carry out his task: "The Preparation of the World for Christianity," Rome and the Religions of the Empire," "Christian Life," "Who is Christ? "The Rise of

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the Papacy and the Coming of the Goth." Some chronological tables and a map of the Roman Empire complete a very readable volume.

Early Christians of Rome: Their Words and Pictures. By G. M. BEVAN. (Cloth, 4s. Paper, 2s. 6d. S.P.C.K.)

This instructive and attractive volume deserves to be widely known. From early pagan and Christian monuments at Rome it illustrates the environment of early Christianity in the city. The book contains a mass of useful information of an archæological kind, and will prove invaluable to the visitor at Rome. It is scholarly, abundantly well illustrated, and remarkably cheap.

The Epistle of St. James and Judaic Christianity. By Dr. G. H. RENDALL. (75. 6d. net. Cambridge University Press.)


It need hardly be said that Dr. Rendall's study of the Epistle of St. James is a work of high scholarship and an important contribution. Its value, however, is somewhat marred by defective acquaintance with the purely Jewish sources. Thus on page 59 he despairs of throwing any light on the phrase translated and setteth on fire the wheel of nature (iii. 6) and is obviously unaware of the existence of the full discussion and illustration of the passage from Rabbinic sources by Prof. G. Kittell in his recent book. It is unfortunate also to regard Josephus (page 61) as giving "the best popular account of contemporary Pharisaism."

How to Teach the New Testament. By F. J. RAE. (6s. net. Hodder & Stoughton.)

This volume gives a series of lessons (sixty-six in number) covering the material contained in the New Testament from the birth of Jesus to the end of St. Paul's life. Each lesson is divided into three parts; the third contains the application. A useful collection of material.

The World-Wide Call. By the Rev. H. P. THOMPSON. (Cloth. 4s. net. Paper, 2s. 6d. net. Student Christian Movement.) At the present time a good deal of interest is being taken in the missionary work of the Church; and the Missionary Council


of the Church of England have issued a series of reports dealing with the World-Call." Mr. Thompson's volume contains a useful survey of the field, dealing as it does with Japan, China, India, the Moslem World, Africa, and our own people overseas. Many readers will be glad to know of this little book.

The Papacy. By A. L. MAYCOCK. The Religions of the World.
By the Rev. C. C. MARTINDALE. (6d. each. Benn.)
The Gospel According to St. Matthew. Edited by B. T. D. SMITH.
With Introduction and Notes. (6s. Cambridge University

Problems in Living. By MAY K. COWLES. (3s. 9d. net. University of Chicago Press. London: Cambridge University Press.)

The Early Days of Our Lord. The Mighty Works of Jesus Christ. (IS. 9d. each.) The Words of Jesus Christ. The Triumph of Christ Jesus. (2s. each.) By EDITH HISCOCKS. (Religious Tract Society.)

A Bondman of the Lord: The Life and Letters of St. Paul. By H. S. C. E. (Cloth Boards, 4s. 6d. net. Limp Cloth 2s. 6d S.P.C.K.)

The Old Testament Chronologically Arranged. By the Rev. J. C. V. DURELL. Part I. To the Fall of Samaria, 722 B.C. Prayers for a One-Year-Old. By J. S. HOYLAND. (2s. 6d. net. Heffer.)

Protestantism. By the Rev. Dr. W. R. INGE. (6d. Benn.)

MARGARET MOWBRAY MEMORIAL.-The Old Girls of the Winchester School for Girls-(now renamed St. Swithun's)—are founding a School Scholarship in memory of their late Headmistress, Miss Margaret Mowbray. Probably many beside Old Girls will be glad of the opportunity to show their appreciation of a great headmistress. As the council of the school has already founded a scholarship in her memory to send a pupil to the university, the Old Girls propose that their scholarship shall enable a girl-whose circumstances would otherwise make it impossible to enter the school at about the age of 12, and to finish her school career there. Subscriptions should be sent to Miss Muriel Moberly, 11a Christchurch Road, Winchester.


Science To-Day: a Brief Study of Some of the Problems and Theories of To-Day's Chemistry and Physics. By P. J. LANCELOT SMITH and S. J. DALE. (5s. net. Blackie.) The last quarter of a century has seen such revolutionary changes and advances in chemical and physical knowledge that it is all to the good that suitable works should be made available with a view to presenting these modern problems in a form suitable for the non-specialist boys of upper forms. Such was the intention of the authors of the above book, and we feel they have carried it out adequately. It seems a pity, from some points of view, that the quantum theory and the problem of relativity should have no place in the book, but on the other hand there are good reasons for their omission. The explanations are clearly offered, and the historical and experimental bias given to the book considerably adds to its value.

The Chemical Elements and their Compounds: an Introduction to
the Study of Inorganic Chemistry from Modern Standpoints.
By Dr. J. A. V. BUTLER. (6s. Macmillan.)
Teachers who have to prepare candidates for Higher Certificate
or University Scholarship examinations may have found some
difficulty in discovering a text-book in which recent work on the
structure of the atom and related topics is treated sufficiently
fully and at the same time in such a way as to be comprehensible
by students of this age. They may be confidently recommended
to Dr. Butler's book, where, in a compass of less than 200 pages,
the essence of the matter is expounded in a logical and lucid
manner well within the limits of intelligence of the average
certificate candidate. Dr. Butler's account is equally suitable
for elementary students at the Universities, for whom, indeed, it
was originally intended.

The Etruscans. By D. RANDALL-MACIVER. (бs. net.


Like the Aryans, the Etruscans have recently emerged from a period of obscurity to become again a subject of scientific debate. Increased understanding of the archaeology of the Mediterranean and the Near East has brought fresh light to bear upon the early civilizations and peoples of Italy with the

result that the Etruscan evidence previously available has been re-interpreted and to it much has been added by later investigation. Dr. Randall-MacIver in this account of Etruscan culture has passed over the literary evidence and deals only with the archaeological data, except that he has discussed the story of the Etruscan migration from Lydia as told by Herodotus. In accepting this account of their origin he is able to reconcile it with the archaeological evidence with which the derivation suggested by Dionysius of Halicarnassus cannot be made to agree. This evidence, as interpreted by the author, suggests that the influence of Greek culture on the Etruscans has been over-estimated, and that at least in the Early period the dominant strain is Near Eastern. Dr. Randall-MacIver's book is popular in the best sense of the word. It will serve to give his readers a clear idea of the nature of the great influence which Etruria exercised on Rome in culture and religion, and at the same time help to explain the part played by Tuscany in Italian history and in the development of art and literature. For, as he points out in his introductory chapter, it is often forgotten that the Tuscans of the Renaissance were the direct descendants of ancient Etruria.

Here's Health to You! A Physiology for Boys and Girls, with Special Reference to Alcohol. By MARGARET BAKER. (Paper cover, Is. 6d. ; cloth boards, 2s. The Author, Beacon Field, Weston Road, Runcorn, Cheshire. London Agent: James, Ivy Lane, Paternoster Row.)

The sub-title sufficiently describes the scope and object of this book. Intended for juveniles, the physiology is very elementary but adequate. The pages are enlivened by a number of clever and amusing stories-parables we might almost call them-well calculated to drive home in the minds of children the evil effects of alcohol. Schools which are acting on the suggestions made in the cause of temperance by the Teachers' National Committee may safely adopt this book in their junior classes. Common British Wild Flowers Easily Named. By T. E. WALTHAM. (3s. 6d. net. Oxford University Press.)

One hundred and seventy-eight plants are here figured. They are grouped, first according to colour, secondly according to

their Natural Orders. The scientific name of each is given, and also the popular in English, French, and German. Height, habit, and habitat are stated, and occasionally official uses. The diagnostic characters, however, of the Orders are not stated, nor is the structure of the flowers either described or shown in the figures. Moreover a large number of very common flowers are omitted. Hence we doubt if those who wish to find out the names of wild flowers will derive satisfaction from turning over these pages.

Huxley Memorial Lecture, 1927. Logic and Law in Biology. By Dr. P. CHALMERS MITCHELL. (IS. net. Macmillan.)

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In this eloquent appreciation Dr. Chalmers Mitchell reminds us that a scientific law merely sums up observations. He shows that where biology has kept within Huxley's logically precise methods, it has advanced knowledge, and has narrowed the field in which unknown principles of causation can be applied; but that where it has strayed from these methods it has been fertile only in vain words which delusively conceal ignorance. Dalliers with vitalistic conceptions should read and inwardly digest this clarifying address.

In Search of our Ancestors: An Attempt to Retrace Man's Origin and Development from Later Ages Back to their Beginnings. BY MARY E. BOYLE. (10s. 6d. net. Harrap.)

Miss Boyle's pursuit of our ancestors begins with the Iron Age and follows them through the Bronze Age, the Copper and Stone Ages, and so to their origin in the primeval ancestor ape-man and beyond to the earliest forms of life in the Tertiary, Secondary, and Primary Epochs. An enormous amount of detailed information has been brought within the compass of what is only a very moderate-sized book, and the author's treatment of the subject matter is a model of conciseness. There is no better account, within an equal compass, of the culture of the Iron Age, a particularly difficult period. The illustrations are well chosen, especially the very beautiful coloured palaeolithic cave-paintings. The Abbé Breuil contributes an introduction in which inter alia he defines evolution as a "method of discovery," an interesting point of view in relation to recent discussion.

An Introduction to Structural Botany. By Dr. D. H. SCOTT and F. T. BROOKS. Part I. Flowering Plants. Eleventh Edition. (5s. Black.)

That a book of this type has reached its eleventh edition is eloquent testimony to its worth and the appreciation entertained of it by teachers and students. The writer of this notice has used this book continuously since its first appearance in 1894 with successive generations of specialists in biology during their second and third years of specialization, and can testify to the thoroughness and lucidity with which the three selected typesWallflower, White Lily, and Spruce Fir-are treated. In the descriptive, morphological portions, a good many minor changes have been effected in this last edition. Among these we direct attention to the inclusion of E. A. Saunders' interpretation of the pistils of Wallflower and White Lily. To the morphologically-minded student, even when of school age only, the former of these has always presented considerable difficulties; Miss Saunders' view of the matter seems, however, to offer a satisfactory solution of the problem. Perhaps the somewhat similar problem in relation to the corolla and androecium, of a Cruciferous plant is beyond the scope of such a work as this; nevertheless we have more than once been confronted with questions regarding this conundrum by intelligent boys who have grasped the alternation principle" in typical floral structure. The chief changes, however, are in Chapter III, “ Outlines of Physiology." Mr. Brooks has added considerably to the somewhat restricted original account, inserting experimental details which can readily be supplemented by the experiments themselves in the laboratory, conducted either by the teacher or by the pupils, according to circumstances. Further, he has introduced two entirely new sections, covering about eight pages, on Growth and on the Movement of Plant Organs, tropisms as well as such as are not due to external stimuli. Here again experiments suitable to school conditions are described. (Parenthetically, there is an obvious misprint in the last line of page 213, where C, H, O should read C, H12 Os.) We thus have now in this book, than which we know none better designed for use during the final school years, in addition to the excellent accounts of structure, a good general survey of the physiological processes and mode of life of a typical flowering plant.

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History of Science Teaching in England. By D. M. TURNER. (7s. 6d. net. Chapman & Hall.)

The author of this work has recently written a book on the history of electrical science. She passes here from the history

of science to the history of its teaching, and in so doing has placed the whole of the teaching profession in general, and teachers of science in particular, under a debt. It is not so very long since the present position with regard to the teaching of science in England was explored by a Prime Minister's Committee, and we would suggest that considerable profit could be derived from a careful reading of Miss Turner's book, followed by a re-reading of the Report of the Committee of 1918. We have no space here, unfortunately, for a detailed review of this valuable study. We do feel, however, that it comes opportunely at a time when most people are inclined to consider criticaly to what extent of science teaching, and the scientific method and the scientific spirit are and should be, adequately incorporated into our general educational scheme. And for this question, as for all other such questions, the background of historical knowledge must present an invaluable basis which no thinking adult can afford to ignore. The book is well written and well produced, and should undoubtedly be read by the whole of the teaching profession.

Test Papers in Mechanics and Physics (Dynamics, Statics, Hydrostatics, Fundamental Measurements). By P. J. L SMITH. (2s. Pitman.)

A welcome addition to Messrs. Pitman's well-known and valuable Test Paper" series. The examples are well graded and will prove of great assistance to teachers of mechanics. It should be clearly understood, however, that the questions are confined to mechanics and fundamental measurements, and do not include the other formal branches of physics.

Qualitative Analysis. By W. F. F. SHEARCROFT. (IS. Oxford University Press.)

A sound little book which should be found very suitable for boys and girls just beginning Qualitative Analysis. Some thirty pages are devoted to a consideration of the theoretical principles involved, including ions and ionization and precipitation; this section is particularly well done. Throughout the book it is quite evident that Mr. Shearcroft knows what difficulties the young would-be analyst most frequently encounters, and he has taken pains to explain them as clearly and carefully as possible. At its low price the book should have a wide sale.

Smith's Inorganic Chemistry. Revised and Rewritten by Prof. J. KENDALL. (12s. 6d. net. Bell.)

The revised edition of Alexander Smith's Inorganic Chemistry has been prepared by Prof. James Kendall, who has carried out a difficult task with conspicuous success. The book has been left as far as possible a characteristic Smith text, but such recent work as that of Bohr on the atom and Debye and Hueckel on the theory of complete ionization has been briefly treated. The manufacturing processes described have also been brought up to date. It should be noted that since the pagination of this edition differs from that of earlier ones, the companion volume, "Experimental Inorganic Chemistry," cannot be used with the new edition. A revised edition of the practical book will, however, be issued in the near future (so Prof. Kendall assures us), and meanwhile the 1923 edition of the "Laboratory Outline of Smith's College Chemistry" can be rendered suitable by means of a printed sheet obtainable from the publisher. Test Examinations in Chemistry. Arranged by F. M. OLDHAM. (IS. 3d. Methuen.)

An inexpensive little book, which might conveniently be supplied to each member of a class and used in setting preparation. The questions are of approximately Matriculation standard and appear to cover the ground satisfactorily, while the answers to the numerical examples have been carefully checked.

Sir Isaac Newton: a Biographical Sketch. By V. E. PULLIN. (6d. Benn.)

The Stars. By Dr. G. FORBES. (6d. Benn.)

Like their predecessors in the same series, these two additional volumes in Benn's Sixpenny Library are amazingly good value for money. Mr. Pullin's sketch of the life of Sir Isaac Newton is a model of what such a miniature should be; it is written in a lively fashion and is not encumbered with too detailed a consideration of technical scientific facts. May we hope that Messrs. Benn will give us similar sketches of the livee of other scientists? In his little book on The Stars, Dr. Forbes explains very clearly just the kind of information which the average layman or intelligent schoolboy is likely to desire. We ourselves found the book very fascinating and can warmly recommend it. (Continued on page 916)

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