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Things Were Different: Compiled from the Diary of Emily Bell Stretton. By Elisabeth Fagan. (7s. 6d. net. Constable.) How much of this is the diary of Emily Bell Stretton and how much the pure imagination of Mrs. Fagan is hard to determine. But whatever the ratio, the result is surely one of the most fascinating books of recent times. Born in the sixties of last century, Emily Bell Stretton tells us of her childhood, her family and her friends, of life in a small town in mid-Victorian England, where the only really thrilling occupation of the girls was the pursuit of lovers, of her travels in India and of her sorrows and disappointments, bringing the account right up to post-war England. But especially does she tell us of Mollie, beautiful and alluring, ever ready to love, but just as ready to forget. The history of Mollie and her lovers makes a story as absorbing as any thriller." Miss Stretton's frank, outspoken style (or is it Mrs. Fagan's?) is charming and her wit inimitable. The inclusion of some of the popular ballads and rhymes of her early days forms one of the main attractions of the book-if only space permitted their quotation here!

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(5) Episodes from The Road to Timbuktu. By Lady DOROTHY MILLS. (Is. 6d. Harrap.)

None of these books is an abridgment in the old and reprehensible sense: i.e. none of them either mutilates or paraphrases the sentences of the original. The aim is, by presenting episodes and sections which lie within a manageable compass, to facilitate the use in school of large-scale works with which otherwise the pupil might never become acquainted. One can only hope that Dr. Wilson's pious aspiration that the student will go on to read the whole of the original is sometimes fulfilled. It seems a pity that there is no map with (5) the exhilarating chapters from Lady Dorothy Mills.

Essays of To-Day and Yesterday. (1) By F. THOMPSON. (2) By A. HARRISON. (Is. net each. Harrap.)

The Francis Thompson (1) is a particularly welcome addition to this popular series; it includes a portion of the famous essay on Shelley. The short papers by Mr. Austin Harrison (2), till recently editor of The English Review, are light and readable. (1) De Quincey. Selections. With Essays by L. STEPHEN and F. THOMPSON. With an Introduction and Notes by M. R. RIDLEY. (3s. 6d. net. Clarendon Press.)

(2) Selected Essays of WALTER Bagehot. (Is. 6d. net. Nelson.) Mr. Ridley (1) has made as representative a selection from De Quincey as the scale of the "Clarendon Series " permits. One misses the finest dream-passage of the Confessions, the recollections of his brothers from the Autobiography, and the wonderful descriptions of "The Revolt of the Tartars but it was impossible to include all De Quincey's fine things. The introduction is admirable.


It is a most commendable enterprise (2) to produce a clearlyprinted selection from Bagehot's famous literary and biographical essays and price it at eighteenpence.

(1) A Higher English Grammar. By L. TIPPING. (3s. 6d. Macmillan.)

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(2) Everyday English for Foreign_Students (with Craigie Pronunciation Marks.) By Prof. S. POTTER. (3s. 6d. Pitman.)

(3) The Melody of Speech: an Original Study and Analysis Resulting in a New Explanation of the Purpose and Effect of Inflection and Variation of Pitch in Speech and a Method of Indicating a Reading of a Passage. By E. B. SKEET. (2s. net. French.)

Mr. Tipping's Grammar (1) is a pleasant contrast in its brevity and simplicity to the elaboration of old-fashioned Higher Grammars. He gives real help with the everyday idioms which constitute for most people the practical problems of grammar. It is suggested that the editorial we is due to a modest reluctance on the part of the editor to obtrude himself"; but what about the we of a royal proclamation?

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Everyday English (2) is a compendious store of information about English life, introducing most of the words needed by visitors to this country. The ordinary spelling is used, but the pronunciation indicated by the Craigie system of marks. The Melody of Speech" (3) is an interesting and thoughtful study.

Elizabeth June: Her Mother's Diary. Edited by MARGARET CROPPER. (IS. S.P.C.K.)

A minutely faithful record of the sayings and doings of a delightful but precocious child brought up under strongly religious influences. Of much interest psychologically.

The New Era Spelling Manual: Specially Arranged for Commercial and Civil Service Examinations and Class Work in all Schools. By H. J. BOWER. (2s. 6d. Pitman.) The Shaping of English Literature: And the Readers' Share in the Development of its Forms. By AMY CRUSE. (7s. 6d. net. Harrap.)

The Science of Speech: An Elementary Manual of English Phonetics for Teachers. By B. DUMVILLE. Second Edition. (4s. University Tutorial Press.)

A Practical Course of Précis Writing: A Course of Instruction, with Classified and Graduated Exercises, Notes, and Worked Examples. By E. M. PALSER. In Three Books. Book II. (28. stiff cloth; Is. 10d. limp cloth. University of London Press.)

A Guide to Précis Writing. By W. J. HALLIDAY. (2s. Arnold.)
A Century of English Literature: A Companion to Elton's Surveys
of English Literature, 1780-1830 and 1830-1880. Edited by
Prof. A. A. COCK and MARGARET J. STEEL. In Four Books.
Book III. Poetry, 1830-1880. (2s. 6d. Arnold.)
Easy Steps in English Composition. By R. K. and M. I. R.
POLKINGHORNE. Books I and II. (6d. each; cloth covers,
8d. each. London: Bell; Glasgow: Holmes.)
The Brodie Books.
No. 3.
Parables from Nature. By Mrs.
GATTY. No. 4. The Seven Poor Travellers and Other Stories.
No. 5.
The Pilgrim's Progress.
Part I. Christian's Journey. By JOHN BUNYAN. No. 8.
The Golden Deeds of Greece and Rome. By CHARLOTTE M.
YONGE. No. 9. The Traveller and the Deserted Village. By
Oliver GoldSMITH. No. 25. The King of the Golden River,
or The Black Brothers-a Legend of Stiria. By JOHN RUSKIN.
No. 29. The Poems of Thomas Gray. No. 35. The Adventures
of Alice in Wonderland. By Lewis CARROL. (Manilla Wrap-
pers, 3d. each. Double Brodine Cloth, 5d. each. Brodie.)
English Studies: Reading, Speaking, Writing for Junior Classes.
By W. J. GLOVER. Book III. (Is. paper; Is. 2d. cloth.

More Stories to Tell. By MAUD LINDSAY. (3s. 6d. net. Harrap.)
The Gateway to English. By H. A. TREBLE and G. H. VALLINS.
Part IV. Style in Composition. (3s. 6d. Oxford University

Selections from George Borrow.
WILLIAMS. (2s. Methuen.)

Chosen and Edited by W. E.

The Big World Picture Book. By ELSIE A. WOOD. (IS. 6d. Edinburgh House Press.)

Essays of Yesterday. Selected by H. A. TREBLE and G. H. VALLINS. (2s. 6d. Harrap.)

The Worm. By DESMOND COKE. (7s. 6d. net. Chapman & Hall.) Selections from the Brontes: Being Extracts from the Novels of Charlotte and Emily Brontë. Edited by H. A. TREBLE. (4s. Cambridge University Press.)

An Introduction to the Reading of Shakespeare. By F. S. BOAS. (2s. 6d. net. Oxford University Press.)

Selected English Short Stories. XIX and XX Centuries. (Third Series.) (Cloth, 2s. net. Leather, 3s. 6d. net. Oxford University Press.)

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(1) The physical features, peoples, and products of the world have already been described in Volume I of this geography; in Volume II, just issued, the work is divided into two parts, the first dealing with the political divisions and economic development of Europe, North America, and Japan; the second, with the commercial geography and trade of the rest of the world. Taken together, the two volumes give a sufficiently detailed account of the world to enable pupils in secondary schools to prepare for the certificate examinations of the various examining boards. The lessons in this geography are written in a clear, interesting style, and the descriptions contain information that is both accurate and up to date. Numerous sketch maps and diagrams illustrate in an effective way the essential points dealt with in the text. (2) Since its first publication in 1916, this well-known geography has passed through many editions; the edition now issued has been thoroughly revised and with the other volumes in the series will certainly continue to be a popular text book in secondary schools. (3) Book III of the Primary Series of Human Geographies has for some years been widely used in English schools; we are therefore glad to note that, owing to a demand north of the Tweed, a special edition has now been prepared for Scottish schools.

The Economic Resources of the Empire: A Series of Lectures
Delivered at the Polytechnic, Regent Street, London, W. I.
Edited by T. WORSWICK. (5s. net. Pitman.)
One of the most important results of the Imperial Conference
of 1926 was the clear recognition of the benefit to be derived

from the greater co-operation in trade and industry among the constituents of the Empire. In order to promote effectively such co-operation, the Polytechnic authorities obtained the services of lecturers with personal and adequate knowledge of the various parts of the Empire. The lectures delivered by them are now issued in this volume, and it is hoped that their publication will enable very many others than the listeners to realize how great a heritage the British people have in their Empire. Throughout the text, the latest official statistics are given and in many cases the figures are represented in diagrammatic form.

(1) Geography Through Pictures. By L. BRETTLE. Pictures by J. LITTLEJOHNS. Junior Book. (2s. 6d. Pitman.) (2) Geography Through Map Reading. No. 4. Africa. (IS.) No. 5. Asia. (Is. 3d. Oxford University Press.) (3) Macmillan's Geographical Exercise Books. The Southern Continents. With Questions by B. C. WALLIS. (Is. Macmillan.) (1) For young children, the method of teaching adopted in this book is a good one, namely to show them typical scenes in different parts of the world, to ask them questions about each picture and then to supplement the knowledge of the children with further information. The pictures in this attractive book are reproduced from the paintings and sketches of a well-known artist, and opposite each picture suitable questions are printed for the use of the pupil and the teacher. (2) These two geographies (Africa and Asia) contain a number of questions and exercises classified under such headings as relief, communication, climate, vegetation, commerce, and population. The chief aim of the exercises is (a) to provide material for individual work and (b) to encourage map-reading and the use of reference books. (3) As in the other exercise books of this useful series, maps are provided on which the various features asked for in the questions may be inserted.

Philip's British Empire Calendar, 1928. (1s. Philip.)

A Progressive Geography. By C. B. THURSTON. Book 5. The World. (5s. Arnold.)


Empire Settlement. By Sir J. A. R. MARRIOTT. (2s. 6d. net. Oxford University Press.)

In a singularly felicitous manner Sir John Marriott combines in this little manual non-controversial history with non-party politics. Beginning with a sketch of British colonization in Tudor and Stuart times, he proceeds to his main theme, which is Empire Settlement at the present day. No one who is contemplating emigration, but has not yet decided to which part of the King's dominions overseas he will go to, should fail to study this short but authoritative handbook.

(1) The Mediterranean World in Greek and Roman Times. By D. M. VAUGHAN. (3s. 6d. Longmans.)

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(2) A Brief History of Ancient Times. By Prof. J. H. BREASTED. Abridged and Edited from the author's Ancient Times by W. H. JONES. (3s. Ginn.)

(3) The Old World Story: For Young Readers. By H. G HUTCHINSON. (2s. 6d. Murray.)

(4) Roman Britain. By G. HOME. (6d. Benn.)

The study of ancient history has recently become exceedingly popular in schools. It has two advantages over very recent history, which is its only formidable rival; first, it is free from political controversy, and secondly, it deals with civilizations so different from our own as to be most fascinatingly interesting. The four little volumes before us will all serve further to stimulate this study. (1) Miss Dorothy Vaughan presents an admirable and well-illustrated sketch of Greek and Roman history, mainly social and economic, from Lycurgus to Marcus Aurelius; (2) Mr. W. H. Jones skilfully abridges Prof. Breasted's masterly history of early Egypt, Babylonia, Persia, Greece, and Rome, making it suitable for the upper forms of schools; (3) Mr. Horace Hutchinson summarizes for younger children the greatest story in the world," viz. the history of mankind from the earliest times to A.D. 100; and (4) Mr. Gordon Home, in one of Messrs. Benn's remarkable "Sixpenny Library Volumes," tells in brilliant outline the tale of the Roman occupation of Britain. Nineteenth Century England: a Political and Social History of The British Commonwealth, 1815-1914. By R. M. RAYNER. (6s. Longmans.)


Text-books of history are very numerous, but it is seldom that one encounters a text-book so thoroughly good in every way as Mr. Rayner's "Nineteenth Century England." For one

thing, there is hardly a dull page in the book, and this is due, not only to skilful selection and arrangement of matter, but also to the author's turn for the picturesque and telling phrase. We agree entirely with his view that the facts of history should be grouped round centres of interest, and not merely marshalled in chronological order. The book is meant for the highest forms in public and secondary schools, and most excellently does it meet that purpose. We feel sure, too, that many old boys who have lived through the last half-century of Mr. Rayner's story will be mightily interested in his lively narrative and pungent comments.

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Histories. By C. H. K. MARTEN and E. H. CARTER. Assisted in Book IV by H. DE HAVILLAND. Book IV. The Latest Age. (3s. net. Blackwell.)

Hartley Through the Ages: The Story of a Kentish Village. By the Rev. G. W. BANCKS. (4s. 6d. The Author, Hartley Rectory, Longfield, Kent.)

Junior Test Papers in History: For the Use of Pupils Preparing for Lower Certificate, County Scholarship, Oxford and Cambridge Locals, College of Preceptors and Similar Examinations in the Junior Grade. With Points Essential to Answers. By H. G. NEWMAN. (4s. 6d. Pitman.)

The Beginners' Ancient History: From Earliest Times to about A.D. 1000. By J. B. NEWMAN. Revised and Enlarged Edition. (2s. 6d. Harrap.)

Dreamland in History. By the Rev. Dr. H. D. M. SPENCE. New Edition, slightly abridged. (Is. 6d: Harrap.)

English History in Forms of Essays, Political and Constitutional, 1066-1688: For the Use of Students. By D. C. COUSINS. (12s. 6d. net. Allen & Unwin.)

Practical Exercises in Matriculation History. By W. T. WILLIAMS and F. ADAMS. Part I. English History, 1066-1485. Part II. English History, 1485-1688. Part III. English History, 1688-1815. Part IV. English History, 1815-1914. (10d. per part. Philip.)

Makers of Nineteenth-Century Europe. By Prof. R. FLENLEY. (6s. net. Dent.)

Five Roman Emperors. Vespasian-Titus-Domitian-NervaTrajan, A.D. 69-117. By Dr. B. W. HENDERSON. (21S. net. Cambridge University Press.)


Old English Songs: Amorous, Festive, and Divine. Chosen and Handwritten by A. C. HARRADINE. The music arranged by N. C. SUCKLING. (10s. 6d. net. Howe.) This is indeed a delightful collection of some of the best of the Old English songs. Collected from the British Museum, the airs, for the most part will be new to singers, even if the lovely lyrics are known. Some of the lyrics have been wedded to country dance tunes of the period-between the thirteenth and seventeenth centuries-and the harmonization of the airs based on the lute accompaniments, has been well done. "These songs were made for singing," says Mr. Harradine, who is responsible for the collection, and all singers of really good songs will gladly re-echo, "Indeed they were.'


Nelson's Music Practice, Infants' Teachers' Book. (2s. Nelson.) There are good and doubtful points about this book. A good point is the insistence in Chapter II on Rhythm and Rhythm and Rhythm, and although the author insists on the importance of the rhythm names (and rightly for young folk) he inadvertently forgets to mention the inventor of this most useful systemAimé Paris. We may mention that Mrs. Curwen's method for the pianoforte-than which there is no better-also makes use of the same "Aids to Rhythm." In my opinion, a doubtful point is the insistence in training the voice on the vowel sound of "OO" or COO." This vowel sound, so beloved of village organists, can never alone develop a child's vocal organs; andwe ask-why should it? There are others, and to the study of the open throat we recommend the author of "Nelson's Music Practice."

Notes on the Interpretation of 24 Famous Piano Sonatas by Beethoven. By J. A. JOHNSTONE. (6s. net. Reeves.) This little book contains many helpful hints to students, bearing on the correct interpretation of the earlier Beethoven sonatas. The author quotes many authorities for his opinions on the tempi and expression of the various movements, and in a subsequent edition we hope he will consult some editors a little more up to date than Czerny, Germer, &c. The D'Albert edition, and the more recent one by Casella, contain much that would supplement the useful amount of knowledge that Mr. Johnstone here provides, and would make his little handbook even more valuable.



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Of all the contributors to the Year Book Press Series of Anthems and Church Music, and it must be added Part Songs, the name of Charles Wood must ever rank among the highest. Nothing commonplace ever came from his pen. His works live after him, and we are indeed fortunate in receiving a number of posthumous works, which number among them, some of the best examples of English polyphonic music. Christmas carol, The Burning Babe"; 'O Most Merciful " and Oculi Omnium," introits, S.A.T.B.; Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis in E flat, S.A.T.B.; "God Omnipotent Reigneth," S.A.T.B.; Song for a Dance," glee, S.A.T.B.; Deck the Hall," fourpart song, S.A.T.B.; The Lamb," four-part song, S.A.T.B.; "When Thou Art Nigh," four-part song, T.T.B.B. ; O'Rourke's Noble Fare," four-part song, T.T.B.B.; Neptune's Empire," three-part song, T.B.B.; What is a Day?" three-part song in cannon; Robin Hood," three-part song, T.B.B.; "O'er the Valley," two-part song. Competition festival secretaries should carefully note these, and the following also can be recommended. A Leaf on the Water," unison song, by Emily Daymond; W Close Now Thine Eyes," two-part song, by Emily Daymond; Highland Lullaby," unison song, by Clive S. Carey ; Darest Thou Now, O Soul," unison song, by R. Vaughan Williams. This last is quite a different setting to the one for chorus and orchestra. There are some tricky changes of time, and choir and conductor will have to be on the alert, but its effect, when properly rendered, is certain. All the above, are published by the Year Book Press, with the exception of "Darest Thou Now," which is in the Curwen Edition. Miniatures for the Piano. No. 1. Happy Go Lucky. No. 5. Puck.




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By G. FORBES. Under a Sussex Down: Six Slight Reminiscences for the Pianoforte. No. 3. Shoes and Stockings. By E. FOWLES. Early Days: Four Pieces for Pianoforte. No 2. Humoresque. By H. NICHOLLS. Six Lyrics for the Pianoforte. No. 2. Melody. By G. DYSON. A Toy Story: For the Pianoforte. No. 2. The Postman. By C. S. Stanford. Sylvan Echoes: For Pianoforte. No. 4. Gentle Breezes. By A. T. L. ASHTON. Once Upon a Time: A Piano Suite. No. 5. Good Fairy. By H. HOWELLS. Six Australian Sketches (Second Set-Easy). No. 6. The Boundary Rider. By T. HAIGH. (9d. net each. Stainer & Bell.)

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The Oxford Library of Standard Songs. Edited by S. WILSON,
Recit. and Aria, O Ruddier than the Cherry. From "Acis
and Galatea." By G. F. HANDEL. Star of My Love (Caro
Mio Ben). By GIORDANI. English Translation by S. WILSON.
Nymphs and Shepherds. By HENRY PURCELL. Arranged
by G. JACOB. I'll Spread My Music's Pinions (Auf Flugeln
des Gesanges). By MENDELSSOHN. English Translation by
S. WILSON. Angels, Ever Bright and Fair. By G. F. HANDEL.
Adelaide. By BEETHOVEN. English Translation by S.
WILSON. Cherry Ripe. By C. E. HORN. Words by R.
HERRICK. I Know a Bank: Two-Part Song. By C. E.
HORN. Words from Shakespeare's "Midsummer Night's
Dream." I've Been Roaming. By C. E. HORN. Honour and
Arms. From Samson." By G. F. Handel. Lo! Here the
Gentle Lark. By Sir. H. R. BISHOP. The words from "Venus
and Adonis ' introduced into the " Comedy of Errors."
Three Fishers Went Sailing. By J. HULLAH. Words by
C. KINGSLEY. To Anthea, Who May Command Him Any-
thing. By J. L. HATTON. Words by HERRICK. Should He
Upbraid. By Sir H. R. BISHOP. The words from "The
Taming of the Shrew," also introduced into The Two
Gentlemen of Verona." Hear Us, Isis and Osiris. From
'The Magic Flute." By MOZART. English Translation by
E. J. DENT. (Is. 6d. each. Oxford University Press.)
An Album of School Marches. Edited and Arranged by A. F.
MILNE. (IS. 6d. Oxford University Press.)
Selected Pieces for the Violin, with Pianoforte Accompaniment.
Series 1, No. 8. In Gavotte Style. By E. MARKHAM LEE.
(Is. 6d. Williams.)

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Selected Pianoforte Pieces. Series 3, No. 7. The Sailor. By A. SOMERVELL. (9d. Williams.)

(Continued on page 774)


DRAMATIC FESTIVAL.-The Training Colleges Annual Dramatic Festival has now completed the first season of its existence. There are sixteen members, and plays, produced in training colleges and judged during last winter, have included Calderon's "Beware of Smooth Water," Yeats's King's Threshold," Synge's "Riders to the Sea," two of A. A. Milne's plays, one of Shaw's, one of Barrie's, as well as some of earlier date. The producers and actors have found the festival of great help in guiding them as to their strengths and weaknesses. More members would be welcomed, and Mrs. Steppat, Maria Grey Training College, N.W. 6 (Organizing Secretary, North London Group), will be pleased to give further particulars.

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THE LATE Frances Mary Buss.—An interesting centenary -that of the birth of Frances Mary Buss-was celebrated on September 15, when a service, which was attended by the pupils of the North London Collegiate School and of the Camden School for Girls, was held in Southwark Cathedral. In his sermon the Bishop of Chester enumerated several of the well-known benefactors who were born in the ten years 1820-30, passing, like brilliant meteors, through time-Queen Victoria, Charles Kingsley, Elizabeth Blackwell, Joseph Lister, Frances Mary Buss, Florence Nightingale, and Josephine Butler. He asked whether, amongst the present pupils of the Frances Mary Buss schools, some girl was now qualifying herself for social service akin to that which these great personages had rendered; and he assured his hearers that they had no idea how rich they were, in comparison with the girls of earlier generations, before girls' public schools were established. A leading article in the Daily Telegraph on Miss Buss's work, which appeared on the date of the centenary, concluded thus: "The best measure of her ability is the English system of public schools for girls. No one did so much as she to make that possible. No one had so large a share in determining its scope and spirit." In addition to her educational work, Miss Buss found time to give personal service in the East End of London. In a letter to The Times, Miss I. M. Drummond, headmistress of the North London Collegiate School, has directed attention to the acquisition of property in Bromleyby-Bow which will ultimately provide residence and spacious club rooms in "The Frances Mary Buss House." This follows on work which has been carried on by the schools in the district for some years. As Miss Drummond states, "Miss Buss never lost an opportunity of interesting her pupils in various forms of social work and of enlisting their active co-operation." Miss Buss is perhaps most widely known to the modern generation of women teachers from the fact that she was the Founder in 1874 of the Association of Headmistresses.

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C. F. C. LETTS and G. M. JACKSON. Crown 8vo. 4s. Part I, separately 2s 6d. This book has been written with the idea of providing a satisfactory Latin Prose Composition for boys and girls of the ages of ten to fourteen who have learnt Latin long enough to master the Simple Sentence. It is divided into two parts, the first covering what is required for the Common Entrance Examination, the second what is required for Entrance Scholarships. The authors have paid particular attention to the order in which the constructions are introduced.

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I. An Anthology of the Five Major Poets
selected by

J. DOVER WILSON. Crown 8vo. School edition, 5s. (Library edition, 7s 6d net.) (The Cambridge Anthologies)

The present volume is intended to provide, in a handy form, an anthology of the best work of Wordsworth, Coleridge, Byron, Shelley, and Keats.

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Adventures in Engineering.


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Edited by A. MALLE. Collins.) Adventures in Science. Edited by A. MALLE. (Is. 9d. Collins.) These two volumes have been issued as have so many other books of a similar type recently, in consequence of the recommendations contained in the now well-known" Report of the Committee on Natural Science in Education." There should be more of the spirit, and less of the valley of dry bones, if science is to be of living interest, either during school life or afterwards," wrote the Committee; and again, "We are confident that the teaching of science must be vivified by a development of its human interest side by side with its material and mechanical aspects." Both volumes before us do adequate justice to this viewpoint in bringing vividly forward to the reader some of the many romances of science and engineering with which their histories abound. The biographical medium is employed to advantage, and in simple language the stories of Brunel, A. Stevenson, Lord Armstrong, Ferdinand de Lesseps, Sir William Willcocks, and Sir William Arrol are told in Adventures in Engineering," and of Louis Pasteur, Lord Lister, Sir William Perkin, Thomas Edison, W. K. Röntgen, and G. Marconi in the volume of " Adventures in Science." We heartily commend these readers to all elementary schools and to the junior classes of secondary schools.


Social Life in the Animal World. By Prof. Fr. ALVErdes. (10s. 6d. net. Kegan Paul.)

The aim of this book is to set forth the facts of animal sociology as ascertained by recent researches in zoology and animal psychology. The author makes a comprehensive survey of societies" that exist in many groups within the animal kingdom, and has collated a series of observations of great interest both to zoologists and psychologists. He shows that the ethical ideals of human beings are based upon the system of instincts and impulses which man possesses solely in virtue of his being a social creature; and that their source, as traced by the study of lower animals, lies in the irrational.

The Conquest of the Air: An Historical Survey.

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By C. L. M. BROWN. (2s. 6d. net. Oxford University Press.) The writer of this work has been known to us as a contributor to Punch and as the author of a very amusing book of verse called Rhymes of the R.A.F." In the rôle of historian of aeronautics we see him in a new and equally welcome light. The Conquest of the Air is the latest addition to the wellknown World's Manual" series issued by the Oxford University Press, and we have no hesitation in saying that it fully maintains the excellent standard of the series. Mr. Brown has for some years been associated with the training of aircraft apprentices for the Royal Air Force, and has therefore been in a unique position for a special study of his subject. The result is a volume full of charm of style, and packed with information. Aviation plays a part in the scheme of civilization that grows in importance day by day, and it is all the more interesting on account of the achievement is of persistence, courage, and foresight on the part of its pioneers. We hope to see Mr. Brown's book on the

shelves of all school libraries.

Alternating Current Electrical Engineering. By P. KEMP. Third Edition. (15s. Macmillan.)

The success of this useful text-book fully justifies an effort to include in it the more important recent developments of the subject. This new edition has additional matter extending to about sixty pages of text; and the extensions refer more especially to commutator-motors, frequency changers, and protective devices. Chapters on symbolic notation and transients, and a graduated series of exercises (with solutions) have been added.

The Corridors of Time. I. Apes and Men. II. Hunters and Artists. By H. PEAKE and H. J. FLEURE. (5s. net each. Clarendon Press.)

These volumes are uncommonly good value. They appeal not only to those desiring to know about the evolution of man's frame, his early industries and culture, but also to the geographer and geologist. The physical conditions of the earth's surface were closely concerned with man's first appearance, and with his subsequent development. Hence prominence is given to geological and geographical matters which the titles of these books would hardly lead one to expect. (1) Discusses the origin of man, and carries us through the Ice Age and its causes to the early types of man. (2) Begins with the retreat of the ice sheets, and considers the palaeolithic industries, and the life, thought, and art of the earliest representatives of modern man.

Manual of Meteorology. By Sir NAPIER SHAW, with the assistance of ELAINE AUSTIN. (30s. net. Cambridge University Press.)

This volume gives an excellent idea of the wide field covered by the science of meteorology, which includes much more than mere weather forecasting. The sub-title "Meteorology in History" expresses well the general scope of the book; but the necessity of comparing ancient with modern observations gives the author the opportunity of describing meteorological instruments, methods, and well established results. The whole forms a valuable introduction to the study of meteorology in all its branches, charmingly written throughout, and perfectly lucid even when the subject-matter is somewhat abstruse. The price seems rather high, but the book is well produced and the illustrations, especially those of cloud forms, are excellent. The Elements of Geology. By MARY A. JOHNSTONE. (3s. 6d. Nelson.)


To compress within two hundred and sixty freely illustrated small pages the geological history of Great Britain is a bold undertaking. The reader of this ambitious volume requires as companions a large-scale geological atlas and maps showing the probable configuration of lands and seas at various periods in the earth's history. Thus equipped, and with careful reading, he may gather from these pages a good idea of the changes which our land has experienced down the ages. Environment and Race: a Study of the Evolution, Migration, Settlement and Status of the Races of Man. By Dr. G. TAYLOR. (21s. net. Oxford University Press.) Dr. Taylor's "Environment and Race is an intensely stimulating application of geographical methods to the study of racial origins and distribution. He seeks to show that primitive men, being subject to the same laws as other animals, has evolved and migrated in response to similar stimuli. After a detailed study of the geographical factors and racial elements of the main divisions of the globe Dr. Taylor arrives at the conclusion that in each the races can be zoned along "corridors of migration" and that in each division the zones are comparable. Of the racial relationship thus established, some are distinctly startling to the ethnologist at first sight, such as, for example, that the aboriginal tribes of America are more nearly akin to West Europeans than to typical Mongolians. It must be remembered, however, that the American Indian's affinities are with Palaeasiatics rather than with typical" Mongolians, and this may represent an older, more generalized, and once more widely distributed type. In the last two sections Dr. Taylor turns to the problems of to-day and the future, applying the same methods of geographical controls to the questions of the development of Australia and the future distribution of world population. Here he ranges himself with a number of writers of the day whose deductions from scientific data, without being unduly pessimistic, hold out grave warnings for the future unless the development of the world's surface and resources is directed in the light of scientific principles now fairly well established.


Animal Nutrition. By Prof. T. B. WOOD. Second Edition. (3s. 6d. University Tutorial Press.)

Local Geology: A Guide to Sources of Information on the Geology of the British Isles. By Dr. A. MORLEY DAVIES. Second Edition, Revised. (Is. net. Murby.)

Outlines of Dynamics. With Examples. By Dr. T. THOMAS and L. MOORE. Third Edition, Revised. (3s. 6d. Mills & Boon.) A Short Manual of Industrial Hygiene: For Managers, Foremen, Forewomen, and Industrial Supervisors Generally. By L. P. LOCKHART. (3s. 6d. net. Murray.)

Healthy Growth: A Study of the Relation Between the Mental and Physical Development of Adolescent Boys in a Public Day School. By Dr. A. A. MUMFORD. (16s. net. Oxford University Press.)

Huxley Memorial Lecture, 1927: Logic and Law in Biology. By Dr. P. CHALMERS MITCHELL. (Is. net. Macmillan.) Elementary Physical Chemistry: Adapted from a Treatise on Physical Chemistry. By Prof. H. S. TAYLOR. (168. net. Macmillan.)

A School Course in Hygiene: Being an Adaptation for School Use of" A First Course in Hygiene." By Dr. R. A. LYSTER. (3s. 6d. University Tutorial Press.)

Galatea, or the Future of Darwinism. By Dr. W. R. BRAIN. (2s. 6d. net. Kegan Paul.)

Thermionic Phenomena. By E. BLOCH.
CLARKE. (75. 6d. net. Methuen.)

(Continued on page 776)

Translated by J. R.

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