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THE JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCHOOL WORLD
OCTOBER 1, 1927.
"IT IS CLEAR
that a a capable agent who has pursued his calling for years will have gathered, by visits, by personal interviews, and by correspondence, a globe of precepts, and that his profession of recommending schools is no idle pretence." The Journal of Education, June, 1916.
This is the definition, by a competent judge, of what should constitute a
It may be presumed that no one would knowingly make trial of the services of any other kind, but it is still true that a proportion of Principals are induced to yield to the importunities of plausible and worthless concerns, with the resultant loss and disappointment that might be expected. This is a disillusioning experience for which there is no necessity. The established, reliable Scholastic Agencies are not many in number, and they are well known, and their record and standing easily to be ascertained. As one of these we have a sufficient claim to clients' confidence. If, further, we obtain the greater share of Parents' Inquiries, we also take unusual pains to secure them.
As a result, few days pass without at least one letter of thanks from parents who appreciate the assistance we have given them. Principals are equally generous in expressing their indebted
had four good pupils this year from four different places, and through two of these have five more coming this term: that is, ten pupils from paying one commission."
"Thank you very much for your help. We should not have been able to make the school we have, but for your assistance and recommendation."
"Hearty thanks for your continued recommendations, which bear such excellent fruit in the number of boys that I get through you. I find that out of my 32 boarders 16, or exactly one half, have been sent here by you."
If you have not yet made trial of our services, we shall be
J. & J. PATON,
143 CANNON STREET, LONDON, E.C. 4.
Telephone: Central 5053.
1,000 MEDALS AND PRIZES !!!
By ARTHUR FIELDHOUSE, Accountant,
who will forward copy Index and Specimen Pages on receipt of Post Card addressed to P.O. Box A 27, Huddersfield, Yorks.
374 Pages. 33rd Edition. Price 3/6. 100 Exercises. 350 Questions.
The ONLY TEXT-BOOK to which there is a FULL KEY.
While this text-book more than covers all Elementary Examinations in this subject, its special design is to meet the requirements of the excellent Syllabuses issued by the Royal Society of Arts, the College of Preceptors, Oxford and Cambridge Locals, the London Chamber of Commerce, and the National Union of Teachers.
The exercises and the principles introduced therein are so carefully graded in point of difficulty that the student is trained to work the most difficult set of transactions without being appalled at any stage of his study. No exercise is too long or too complicated to be completed between each lesson. The questions will be found very useful for testing the student's knowledge at each stage of his work. Examination Papers of the Royal Society of Arts, the College of Preceptors, the Oxford and Cambridge Locals, and the L.C.C. are included. 500,000 copies sold.
LONDON: SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT & CO., LTD.
LONDON (ROYAL FREE HOSPITAL)
This is the only practical up-to-date book on Commercial Correspondence and the Theory and Practice of Commerce, and is characterized by the same qualities that have made the author's other text-books so popular. The lessons are well graduated and the teacher is saved the drudgery of preparing Test Papers, one of which follows every chapter, in addition to numerous Examination Papers. PRACTICAL Work is provided in the Series of Business Transactions included in some of the Test Papers. It is the only Complete Guide, covering all the Public Examinations. Small-priced books may be had on the subject, but as they do not cover the Syllabuses they are dear at a gift. Efficiency should be the first consideration. It is an excellent Handbook for the Junior in the Office. 100,000 copies sold.
LONDON: SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT & CO., LTD.
SCHOOL OF MEDICINE FOR WOMEN If you need
(UNIVERSITY OF LONDON),
HUNTER STReet, BrunswiCK SQUARE, W.C. 1.
Full Courses are arranged for the London M.B., B.S. Degrees, and the Examinations of other qualifying bodies, including the pre-Medical examination.
Clinical Instruction is given at the Royal Free Hospital (248 beds), and at the National, Cancer, Moorfields, Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, and South London Hospitals.
Appointments at Hospital and Medical School are open to students after qualification.
Arrangements for Dental Students (Degree and Diploma). Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes, value £1,450, awarded annually.
Residence arrangements for students.
Prospectus and full information can be obtained from the Warden and Secretary, Miss L. M. BROOKS.
FLORENCE E. BARRETT, C.B.E., M.D., M.S., Dean.
GEO. M. HAMMER & CO., LTD.,
MANUALS OF TRADE, CRAFTS, AND INDUSTRY
(1) Modern Ignition Simply Explained: a Simply-written Handy Book on Modern Ignition Systems—The Construction, Maintenance, and Light Repairs, an Exposition of Principles, and Illumined by Reference to the Leading Types of Ignition Devices. By H. H. U. CROSS. (4s. net. Lockwood.)
(2) The Magneto Manual: a Practical and General Reference Work for Automobile Engineers, Aeronautical Engineers, Mechanics, Apprentices, Chauffeurs, Car-Owners, &c. By H. R. LANGMAN. (7s. 6d. net. Lockwood.) (3) A Manual of Automatic Telephony. By C. W. WILMAN. (7s. 6d. net. Lockwood.)
Technical instruction is playing a steadily-increasing part in the general educational scheme in this country, and it is pleasing to note that the haphazard methods and syllabuses of two or three decades ago have given place to carefullythought-out courses that are receiving both the blessing and the co-operation of the large business and manufacturing firms. An inevitable reflection of this transition is to be seen in the nature and quality of the technical text-books now being issued, and in this connexion we are happy to record our appreciation of the series of Manuals of Trade, Crafts, and Industry, issued by Messrs. Crosby Lockwood & Son. Three of these, just issued, lie before us, and they are excellent examples of what is wanted for the furtherance of technical knowledge offered in an elementary manner on a sound scientific basis. The first two deal with important aspects of the internal combustion engine, and are solid evidences of the advance in text-book presentation to which we have referred above. It is well within our memory that in order to satisfy the rapidly-growing needs of the student of the gas and oil and petrol engines, authors and publishers deemed it sufficient to add to their text-books on the steam engine usually one, and less frequently two, chapters on the internal combustion engine, with the sole additional (and misleading) change of a title to the book. The internal combustion engine has now rightly come into its own. Not only are there available text-books devoted to the subject as a whole, but also the sectional features of its study have assumed sufficient importance for separate treatment.
Mr. Cross's book on " Modern Ignition Simply Explained" and Mr. Langman's work on The Magneto Manual" are both excellent illustrations of this. The former is very simply written, and the underlying facts of electrical science are well put. The result is a well considered little volume that it is a pleasure to recommend. If we have one fault to find with it, it is in the use (in our opinion unnecessarily) of such a term as plug-ology." But this is, after all, a very small point.
THE AGE OF ALEXANDER
The Cambridge Ancient History. Edited by J. B. BURY,
Dr. S. A. Cook, F. E. ADCOCK. Vol. VI.-Macedon,
Dr. S. A. Cook, and F. E. ADCOCK. Volume of Plates I,
The key-word of the sixth volume of the monumental Cambridge Ancient History is Macedonia, and its central figure is Alexander the Great. The portrayal of this mighty pioneer among world-conquerors has been assigned to the pen of a new writer, Mr. W. W. Tarn, of Trinity College, Cambridge, whose five chapters constitute nearly one-third of the whole of the volume. Mr. Tarn writes lucidly and well, and his scholarly equipment makes his contribution a valuable summary of recent research on a fascinating and important theme. But though Macedonia is the theatre of the main action of the century portrayed in this volume, and though Alexander is the protagonist of the drama, contemporary movements in world-history receive their due share of attention.
Mr. Tarn himself describes the closing years of the great Persian monarchy founded by Cyrus which Alexander was destined to overthrow. Dr. Cary treats of Sparta, Athens, and Thebes during the two generations which intervened between the Peloponnesian War and the Macedonian Conquest. The late Prof. Bury makes his last contribution to historical science in a masterly chapter on Dionysius of Syracuse, the first tyrant who seriously endeavoured to
establish a universal dominion over the Mediterranean world. Dr. H. R. Hall completes his study of independent Egypt in a chapter wherein expert scholarship struggles with defective literary form. Dr. S. A. Cook treats of Palestine during the period in which Judaism broadened into the shape fitted to provide the nucleus of Christianity. The culture of the fourth century B.C. is portrayed in admirable chapters from the pens of Mr. F. M. Cornford, Dr. Ernest Barker, Prof. J. D. Beazley, and Mr. D. S. Robertson, who write respectively of Philosophy, Political Thought, Art, and Architecture. Altogether, this fine volume well maintains the high standard of its predecessors.
Accompanying it comes from the press the first volume of illustrated plates, comprising 394 pages of alternate drawing or photograph and explanatory description. It is intended to elucidate Volumes I-IV of the Ancient History," and accordingly it is divided into four parts, following the order of the text, of the History," to the pages of which it gives numerous references. Nevertheless, it is an independent volume, and the explanatory descriptions-all by such first-rate authorities as Prof. J. L. Myres, Dr. H. R. Hall, and Mr. A. J. B. Wace-make it adequately self-sufficing. It provides a marvellous museum of ancient art from the drawings of the cave-men, through the craftmanship of Egyptians, Sumerians, and Cretans, to the finished products of Athenian skill in the sixth century B.C. It is an altogether delightful and illuminating volume.
INFANCY TO ADOLESCENCE
The Health of the Child of School Age. By Various Authors. (6s. net. Oxford University Press.)
The Mental and Physical Welfare of the Child. By Dr. C. W. KIMMINS. With Contributions by Sir B. BRUCE-PORTER, Dr. A. GESELL, Dr. E. PRITCHARD, B. HARMAN, Dr. M. LEVICK, Dr. G. A. ANDEN, Dr. G. E. FRIEND, Dr. M. CLEMENTS, Dr. JANE REANEY. (6s. net. Partridge.)
Within the last two generations many principles which appeared to be firmly rooted both in education and in medicine have undergone material changes. All now appear to agree with the dictum of Herbert Spencer that
'the first requisite is to be a good animal" but there is far more realization of the fact that all are not cast from the same mould and cannot be brought up on exactly the same lines. Procrustean methods have passed away, and individual idiosyncrasies are more fully recognized. varied and mixed diet is necessary for all, so is a broad basis of general knowledge, but just as some children are intolerant of certain foodstuffs so are they incapable of deriving benefit from certain educational methods, whether these be for fundamentals as reading or for more advanced and specialized acquisitions such as mathematics. Assimilative powers vary mentally as well as physically, and a study of the individual may save much discomfort to the child and disappointment to his parents and their surrogates. In the little books now under notice the whole range of child's life from infancy to adolescence is discussed by specialists from a number of angles and a wealth of experience. In almost every field the importance of prevention rather than cure is made manifest, and the clear vision of the educationists of Porte Royale, who asked for the care of the child for the first few years of life, made more and more manifest. If you sow an acorn you must expect an oak," runs an old motto to be remembered by all who care for youth. Prevent disease by increasing resistance by nature's means-fresh air, light, good food with adequate vitamin content; if, none the less, mal-formation shows itself, treat it efficiently from the start. Nutrition is perhaps the most important item, and it is noteworthy that the great fall in the incidence of such scourges as tuberculosis began not with slum clearance as such, but with the rise in the real purchasing value of wages and education in domestic management. When there is need for action,
as in the case of dental caries or adenoid growths, that action should be taken at the earliest moment. It is simply untrue, as is pointed out in these manuals, to pretend that adenoids once present can be cured by sneezing exercises, breathing exercises, drugs, vaccines, ultra-violet rays, or the like. They may atrophy after puberty, but by then the damage they have done physically and mentally is irreparable. Prevent by all and every means, but act vigorously once there is a need for cure.
The same argument applies to the development of intelligence and character; study the child, introduce him to the evils and difficulties of the world in small doses, but do not forget the use of disciplinary measures in their proper place and time; the rebellious child ultimately rebels against himself and develops avoidable neuroses. Too much protection may be fatal to progress, observant neglect is a good motto, the child must be allowed to learn much for himself or he will never learn at all. This applies not only to character and school subjects but even to physical resistance. A generation sheltered too far from all contact with infections suffers severely once contact is established. It is interesting to note how much more absence from studies occurs in our public boarding schools from infections than in the upper departments of elementary and secondary schools the pupils of which have worked off the minor infectious ailments before the years of more serious educational import. As consequence, it is even suggested that parents of sheltered children should not be so rigid in their isolation in the nursery.
The perusal of the various articles will afford all interested in the care of youth with knowledge and what is even more important with fruitful trains of thought.
Minor Notices and Books of the Month CLASSICS
The Roman Campagna in Classical Times. By Dr. T. ASHBY. (21s. net. Benn.)
The Roman Campagna is one of the most fascinating districts in the world, both to the historical student and to the lover of scenery, and its pictorial praises have been uttered very eloquently by Ruskin and many other writers. Dr. Ashby pursues the more sober path of the scholar and after an introductory chapter on the general history of the Campagna follows out the course of each of the old Roman roads which traverse it, noting the remains of antiquity and identifying the sites. The book is supplied with a map and plenty of photographs-rather small for purposes of appreciation-but views are singularly inadequate to do justice to this landscape. Those who have plenty of time to spend in Rome and have the means to make excursions will find this book a valuable companion not only for its treatment of well-known spots but also because it may draw them away to such unfamiliar but attractive places as Anzio, Prattica di Mare, and Castel Fusano. We wish the map at the end could have had the names of the roads printed more clearly. Asianic Elements in Greek Civilization: the Gifford Lectures in the University of Edinburgh, 1915-16. By Sir. W. M. RAMSAY. (12s. net. Murray.)
Readers of Sir William Ramsay's books know that he is a learned and interesting but diffuse writer, and in this book on the Asianic elements in Greek civilization they will find much to perplex and bewilder as well as to interest. The theme sounds most attractive, and the first chapter in which the achievements of the Asiatic Ionians are recounted raises high hopes. Succeeding chapters, however, do little to satisfy them; for the author never seems to close with his subject but leads us through a maze of observations drawn from his note-books or from the reminiscences of travel in Anatolia, in which we advance but very slowly to any certain knowledge of the Asianic contribution to Greek life and thought. Some idea of the varied contents of the book is conveyed by the titles of the chapters, connected together by the very thinnest of threads, which discuss Epimenides, The Vultures at Troy," Heaven and Earth," Hipponax and Lydian Society," Phrygian Dirges," "The Four Ionian Tribes." The book is based on Gifford Lectures delivered in 1915-16 in the University of Edinburgh and it is possible that unity of theme and treatment has been lost in expanding them into a book. At all events we must confess to have been disappointed in the hopes with which we took it up.
The Plays of Terence: Translated into Parallel English Metres. By Prof. W. RITCHIE. (21s. net. Bell.) This translation by Prof. Ritchie of the plays of Terence into the same metres in English is a heroic enterprise, but we doubt if the attempt will bring greater popularity to his author. Westminster is probably the only school where Terence is systematically read and studied. Those who wish to sample Latin comedy prefer the greater variety and vigour of Plautus, and, where examinations are concerned, his greater difficulty. Terence's quiet humour, the polished and easy flow of his elegant language will always attract a few refined and sedate readers. And those who have the leisure as well as the desire to read this halved Menander," and want some assistance in making out the text, will be helped as well as interested by Prof. Ritchie's version. Before they have finished the six plays they will have formed some definite ideas about the problems of translation, particularly those of metrical form, and may reach the conclusion that, in the case of such different languages as Latin and English, a literal transcription of metres sacrifices too much of the spirit and style of the original.
Senior Greek Test Papers. By A. R. FLORIAN. (IS. 6d. Rivingtons.)
Greek Unseens. Senior Course. By the Rev. Dr. A. E. HILLARD and C. G. BOTTING. (3S. Rivingtons.)
Stage Antiquities of the Greeks and Romans and their Influence.
Greek Prose Composition. By Dr. J. A. NAIRN. (10s. 6d. net.
Greek Prose Composition. By Dr. J. A. NAIRN. School Edition. (6s. Cambridge University Press.)
A Literary History of Rome: From the Origins to the Close of the Golden Age. By Prof. J. W. DUFF. Seventh Edition. (12s. 6d. Fisher Unwin.)
Junior Greek Test Papers. By A. R. FLORIAN. (Is. 3d. Rivingtons.)
EDUCATION, PHILOSOPHY, AND PSYCHOLOGY
Roedean School. By L. C. CORNFORD and F. R. YERBURY. (25s. net. Benn.)
This beautiful production, consisting of fifty-six excellent photographic illustrations, preceded by a historical and descriptive introduction, is worthy of one of the greatest educational enterprises of our time. It is an impressive fact that where the stately buildings of Roedean School now stand, sheep were feeding a little more than thirty years ago. Former pupils of the school, and many others besides, will be proud to possess this record of a great achievement.
Education in Australia: a Comparative Study of the Educational
Systems of the Six Australian States. By P. R. COLE, A. J.
It is said that teachers in any one of the six Australian States know very little about the educational systems of the other five. This full account of the educational systems of all six will therefore be extremely useful in Australia itself. But that is by no means all. There are good reasons why Australia should be regarded as an exceptional field for the comparative study of education. A superficial acquaintance would almost certainly cause an Englishman to condemn utterly the highly centralized administration of Australian education. This book puts the other side of the matter, and shows how risky it is to form conclusions about education without knowing the social and economic framework into which the educational system has to be fitted. The editor and contributors are to be congratulated on having produced a thorough and an enlightening piece of work.
La Nueva Educación en La Argentina: Contribución a la Realización de la Escuela Activa-Trabajo Presentado por la Sección Argentina de la Liga Internacional de la Nueva Educación al Congreso de Locarno. By Clotilde Guillen de RezzaNO. ($1 net. Buenos Ayres.)
Theory and Practice of Education, with Special Reference to
Contemporary Thought of Japan and China. By K. TsUCHIDA. (5s. net. Williams & Norgate.)
An attempt by a Japanese author to introduce to Westerners Japanese and Chinese contemporary thought. There is much to illuminate Western ignorance, and Mr. Tsuchida has often a happy way of expressing the fundamental differences between East and West, e.g. "Easterners are not logical but intuitive in their natures, and though they are sensitive subjectively in finding means for arranging their own hearts well, yet they are crude objectively in selecting the means of making their environment conform to their demands."
Self-Realization: the End, the Aim, and the Way of Life. By E. HOLMES. (4s. 6d. net. Constable.)
In this volume Edmond Holmes repeats his plea for growth and self-development, for the realization of the true self which includes the service of humanity. One's own self must guide one into the path which will lead one, onward and upward, into the selfless life." The wise teacher will therefore "base his system of education on wholehearted trust in the child's unrealized possibilities and on partial distrust of himself."
The Phenomenology of Acts of Choice: an Analysis of Volitional CamConsciousness. By HONORIA M. WELLS. (10s. net. bridge University Press.) An Experimental Study of the Mental Processes Involved in Judgment: Thesis Approved for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the University of London. By DR. B. P. STEVANOVIC. (10s. net. Cambridge University Press.) Reports of research work carried out in the Psychological Laboratory, King's College, London University, under the guidance of Dr. F. Aveling, with the object of investigating mental processes by means of introspection, aided by the records of the psycho-galvanometer, the pneumograph, and the sphygmograph. The method adopted by Miss Wells was to present to her subjects specific choices between liquid tastes of varying pleasantness, with which nonsense-names had been previously associated.
The results are very carefully described, with special reference to the experience consciousness of action," and to immediate "self-awareness during choice; much interesting evidence was collected on these two points, on the whole confirming the findings of Michotte and Prüm. Emotional states were scarcely ever reported during the process of choice, and Miss Wells is inclined to the view that the psycho-galvanic reflex indicates a conative rather than an emotional state. This is also maintained by Mr. Stevanovic. The material used for his experiments consisted of sets of drawings of irregular patterns, with nonsensenames attached to them. The subjects spent a considerable time learning these patterns and their names, and afterwards were given completion tests which involved the making of judgments concerning them. The major part of Mr. Stevanovic's work is a very careful examination of the learning process with a view to investigating the development of meaning; the later chapters analyse the judgments from a logician's standpoint.
ABC of Jung's Psychology. By JOAN CORRIE. (3s. 6d. net. Kegan Paul.)
This little book was undertaken by one of Jung's pupils who has been distressed by the prevailing misunderstanding of his work. She attempts to place before the educated layman his principal theories in simple and untechnical language, and in large measure she has succeeded. The first two chapters, on The Mind and Its Structure" and "The Mind and Its Functions are at times too condensed to be clear, but the book gains in interest as it advances, and will probably send many readers to Jung's own writings.
I Want to be Happy: the Essential Truths of Sympathetic Psychology, Clearly and Simply Treated. By W. PLATT. (3s. 6d. net. Methuen.)
Mr. Platt's little book is food for babes, very wholesome and simple; some of his anecdotes will please such of his readers as happen to be lecturers in elementary psychology. The Psychology of Childhood: Normal and Abnormal. By Dr. MARY SCHARLIEB. (6s. net. Constable.)
The only unsatisfactory thing about this book is its title. Books on psychology are said to be produced at the rate of about two a week, and another small book on child psychology is apt to cause a reviewer to pull a long face. Dame Scharlieb's book is no more psychological than social, ethical, and physiological-and we like it all the better on that account. The chapters devoted to children who in one way or another are not normal are very interesting, and reveal on every page the knowledge of a first-hand authority. The book is a valuable addition to modern studies of childhood.
Mind and Body: A Criticism of Psychophysical Parallelism. By H. DRIESCH. Authorized Translation, with a Bibliography of the Author, by THEODORE BESTERMAN. (бs. net. Methuen.)
Character and the Conduct of Life: Practical Psychology for Everyman. By Prof. W. MCDOUGAll. (IOS. 6d. net. Methuen.)
The Psychology of Youth: A New Edition of "Youth and the Race." By E. J. SWIFT. (10s. 6d. net. Scribner.)
We have received the prospectus of the Northampton Polytechnic Institute, St. John Street, London, E.C. 1. The Polytechnic provides day and evening courses in engineering (civil, mechanical, and electrical), in optical engineering, and ophthalmic optics, and in horology. The engineering courses include sub-sections in automobile work, aeronautics, and radiotelegraphy. In addition, there are evening courses in fuels, electro-chemistry, metallurgy, domestic subjects, and women's trades. Day courses commence on Tuesday, October 4, and evening courses commenced on Monday, September 26.