HISTORY Primitive Culture in Italy. By Prof. H. J. ROSE. (7s. 6d. net. Methuen.) A companion volume to the author's "Primitive Culture in Greece," this book provides for the general reader who wishes to know something of the beginnings of civilization in Europe. It is interesting to note the numerous traces of savage custom and savage mentality which lingered into historical times, and which, in the case of Italy, were not compensated for by any great advances towards civilization in other directions. In the last chapter Prof. Rose attempts an answer to the question : How did this somewhat backward people become the second centre of civilization for all Europe ? Health, Wealth, and Population in the Early Days of the Indus trial Revolution. By M. C. BUER. (10s. 6d. net. Routledge.) It is much to be desired that publishers, on the title-pages of the books which they issue, should give the name of the writer either in full, or, at any rate, in such form that the sex of the author is indicated. With respect to the volume before us, numerous indefinable signs suggested that "M. C. Buer" is a woman, but it was necessary to visit a public library and procure a copy of the Reading University Calendar before the M" could be found to stand for "Mabel." Miss Buer has compiled an important and convincing book respecting the condition of England during the period 1760-1815. Dealing in turn with population, industry, commerce, agriculture, sanitation, and public health, she shows conclusively that there was a steady upward movement all the time, and that the age of the Industrial Revolution, so far from being a period of unprecedented misery as has sometimes been proclaimed, was one of decided advance upon the conspicuously worse conditions of the earlier centuries. No student of English economic history can afford to neglect Miss Buer's much-needed corrective of the many partial pictures of the period which are presented to credulous readers. Historical Association Leaflet No. 66. Parish History and Records. By Prof. A. H. THOMPSON. Revised Edition. (IS. net. Bell.) The "Village History" Committee of the Historical Association, appointed in January last, has inaugurated its public activities by publishing a revised edition of Prof. Hamilton Thompson's excellent pamphlet on Parish History. No better preliminary guide could be desired by any one who is contemplating research into local records. Documents Illustrating the History of Civilization in Medieval England (1066-1500.) By R. T. DAVIES. (ros. 6d. net. Methuen.) Two years ago Mr. Trevor Davies, of Oxford, published a valuable and well-written sketch of Civilization in Medieval England. The present work is a companion volume, containing extracts from original sources. Mr. Davies has drawn upon chronicles, records, literature, and domestic correspondence, to illustrate the four and a half centuries between the Norman Conquest and the Tudor Period. Where necessary, he has translated his authorities into English, and has appended explanatory notes. He has produced a scholarly work of singular interest, and one which, in the hands of a skilled teacher, can be used to excellent educational advantage. English Men and Manners in the Eighteenth Century: An Illustrated Narrative. By A. S. TURBERVILLE. (Ios. net. Clarendon Press.) For conveying an adequate idea of the contents of this book, the sub-title is important. To such an extent is it an illustrated narrative," that the number of illustrations is not far short of three hundred. And when we say that they seem to us well selected, and that they are produced in a manner worthy of the Oxford Press, our readers will understand that we have formed a high opinion of the book. It will make a capital addition to a school library, or to a form library, when the eighteenth century of English history is being studied. A Short History of the French Revolution, 1789-1795. By E. D. BRADBY. (7s. 6d. net. Clarendon Press.) If one had been asked to mention a subject on which a new text-book was urgently needed, one certainly would not have named the French Revolution. For books upon it are legion; some years ago a bibliographer estimated the number at 40,000. Nevertheless, fresh information is continually coming to hand, and the survey of recent sources which Miss Bradby gives amply justifies her attempt at a new evaluation. She does not investigate the causes of the Revolution-a serious and regrettable omission, especially as she indicates in a footnote that she dissents The English Poor in the Eighteenth Century: A Study in Sociu and Administrative History. By Dr. DOROTHY MARSHALL. (12s. 6d. net. Routledge.) The Third British Empire: Being a Course of Lectures delivered at Columbia University, New York. By A. ZIMMERN. (6s. net. Oxford University Press.) Documents Illustrating the History of Civilization in Medieval England (1066-1500). By R. T. DAVIES. (IOS. 6d. net. Methuen.) A Short History of the French Revolution, 1789-1795. By E. D BRADBY. (7s. 6d. net. Clarendon Press.) The English-Speaking Nations: A Study in the Development of the Commonwealth Ideal. By G. W. MORRIS and L. S. WOOD. With Chapters on India and Egypt. (8s. 6d. net. Clarendon Press.) Builders of the Empire. By J. A. WILLIAMSON. (7s. 6d. net. Clarendon Press.) A Brief History of Civilization. By J. S. HOYLAND. (7s. 6d. net. Oxford University Press.) Mediaeval England: A New Edition of Barnard's Companion to English History. Edited by H. W. C. DAVIS. (21S. net. Clarendon Press.) Travel in England in the Seventeenth Century. By JOAN PARKES. (21s. net. Oxford University Press.) English Life in the Middle Ages. By L. F. SALZMAN. (7s. 6d. net. Oxford University Press.) English Industries in the Middle Ages. By L. F. SALZMAN. New Edition, Enlarged and Illustrated. (Ios. net. Oxford University Press.) European History, 1598–1715. By A. D. INNES. (25. Bell.) An Introduction to Roman History, Literature, and Antiquities. (Continued on page 70) EDUCATION IN THE PHILIPPINES. Although The Round Table is a quarterly the main concern of which is Imperial politics, the December issue (Messrs. Macmillan & Co., Ltd., price 5s.) contained a long article entitled, "The Education of the Filipino People," which all educationists will read with interest. The writer traces the course of educational effort in these islands since their acquisition by the United States of America in 1898. In 1901, when the new school system really commenced, some eight hundred American teachers were imported. Organization and courses of study were still undefined, and the teachers were expected to open classes with the chief object of preparing rapidly some native teachers. The widest powers were given to the Director of Education, with the result that many experiments in method were tried out. At first, academic instruction was largely on American lines, but text-books adapted to the peculiar needs of the natives were quickly introduced. Development was rapid, and with it came the realization that the needs of the majority were best met by a four-year primary course including reading, writing, arithmetic, geography, civics, hygiene, practical agriculture and handicrafts, sewing, and cooking. Indeed, the whole educational system has been developed on intensely practical lines, and of recent years we find that the Director of Education has even been able to establish a considerable export trade on behalf of the schools. Similarly, it was through the schools that the people were taught to grow and eat maize, and it is estimated that the increased production of this crop now nearly meets the annual cost of education for the whole country. The writer of the article, who took part in the work himself, may be pardoned the just pride which he takes in the progress resulting from education in the Philippines. Complete List, including the Higher School Certificate Examination, free on application. MACMILLAN CO., LTD., ST. MARTIN'S STREET, LONDON, W.С. 2. MATHEMATICS Projective Geometry. By C. V. DURELL. (7s. 6d. Macmillan.) This is a revised form of Part II of the author's "Course of Plane Geometry for Advanced Students," which was published in 1910, and is well known as a standard and authoritative work. The author styles the new version an "abbreviated" form, but in effect little has been cut out; some of the analysis which was not necessary to the development of the subject has gone, and also the brief section on Plans and Elevations. The collection of riders has been pruned, but additions have also been made, and the number and variety of examples are excellent. Smaller print makes the volume look much less formidable, but not less easily read. A companion volume, containing answers and solutions, has been prepared. In fact, much has been done to make the book still more suitable for teaching purposes, although even in its older form it had already proved its sterling worth. Elements of Mathematics : For Students of Economics and Statistics. By D. C. JONES and Prof. G. W. DANIELS. (8s. 6d. net. University Press of Liverpool. Hodder & Stoughton.) This is an attempt to provide a compendium of mathematics for the economist who is frightened of symbols and statistical methods. There is much sound matter in the book, but few will be able to master it, if it is actually their first introduction to such subjects as co-ordinate geometry and the calculus. On the other hand, the volume does contain, in a compact form, most of the mathematical theory required by a student of economics, and the final part on the calculus as applied to economics should be of great interest to teachers of mathematics to whom this aspect is new. We should like to have seen the argument that gambling at fair odds is an economic blunder included in this part. Stories About Mathematics-Land. By D. PONTON. Book I. (3s. 6d. Dent.) This is a praiseworthy attempt to provide a primrose path to the knowledge of mathematics. We doubt whether the thin covering of jam about fairyland will make the mathematical pill any more attractive to the young mind. Possibly it may in the earliest nursery stages, but by the time the method of practice is reached the young mind is likely to find the jam rather sugary and cloying, and it is more likely to impede than assist the digestion of the pill. There can be no harm in making the experiment and seeing what effect it has. Test Papers in Geometry: For the Use of Candidates Preparing for School Certificate, Matriculation, and Similar Examinations. By W. E. PATERSON. (25. Pitman.) The title sufficiently explains the purpose of this volume. It contains a hundred miscellaneous papers well adapted as tests. Modern Mathematics: an Elementary Course. By Prof. R. SCHORLING, J. P. CLARK, and H. W. CARTER. (3s. 6d. Harrap.) One of the main objects of the authors is to show that mathematics directly or indirectly enters into all human activities. In this they are largely successful. Some will find stimulating ideas in the method of presentation; others will dislike the impression the book gives of "playing to the gallery." (1) Practical Geometry: Based on the Various Geometry Books by Godfrey and Siddons. By A. W. SIDDONS and R. T. HUGHES. (4s. Cambridge University Press.) (2) Theoretical Geometry: Based on the Various Geometry Books by Godfrey and Siddons. By A. W. SIDDONS and R. T. HUGHES. (3s. Cambridge University Press.) Those who know the geometry books of Godfrey and Siddons will appreciate the excellence of the method and examples in these two volumes. But it is certainly arguable that the authors were unwise in separating the practical and the theoretical into distinct volumes as they have done. Both books must be used, and it is a mistake in any way to emphasize the idea already present in the minds of many pupils that mathematics is divided into watertight departments containing different subjects, which are to be kept distinct, instead of encouraging by every means the correlation of the various parts of one subject. There is one clear gain in the subdivision adopted here, and that is that the logical sequence of theoretical geometry is emphasized, chiefly because it is easier to find one's way about the book. This advantage would have been greater if the numbering of the theorems had been printed in a more prominent position and a separate page used for each theorem so far as possible. An Introductory Course of Mathematical Analysis. By C. WALMSLEY. (15s. net. Cambridge University Press.) This is a scholarly book. It contains amongst other things a sound theoretical treatment of rational and irrational number, convergence, the exponential and logarithmic series, limits and the preliminary concepts and processes of differentiation and integration. The most noticeable feature is the introduction of the trigonometrical functions in an analytical form as power series; their chief properties are developed and they are then identified with the trigonometrical ratios as defined in the usual geometrical way. The book is not suitable to the young and immature mind, but is well adapted for a first-year course at a university. A Second Geometry. By J. DAVIDSON and A. J. PRESSLAND. Being a Sequel to the Primer of Geometry by W. PARKINSON and A. J. PRESSLAND. (2s. 6d. net. Clarendon Press.) The authors have compressed into a small space a treatment of "modern" geometry, taking the subject as far as harmonic ranges and the properties of poles and polars, and a more formal treatment of solid geometry. The matter is well arranged, but a school book is likely to be judged as much by its examples, as by its bookwork, and the number of the examples is scarcely adequate for the wide amount of ground that the bookwork covers. Practice and Progress in Mathematics. By J. H. FELSHIE. (2s. Grant Educational Co.) This is a first course in algebra and geometry. In the algebra section the matter is explained in refreshingly simple language for the pupil. Negative numbers are introduced needlessly and perhaps dangerously early, and we should have preferred to see more emphasis on the meaning and use of a simple formula. In the geometry section the formal proofs of such theorems as the congruence theorems should be omitted in an introductory course, but Scottish educational authorities are still clinging to Euclid and seem to favour a more formal treatment than is educationally justifiable. The Lightning Graphs. By I. S. DALGLEISH. Series I. (General.) For the Instant Solution of unknown variables in a2-b2+c2, an=d, ✓a = d, and also giving Hyperbolic Logarithms and Reciprocals. Designed and Drawn for the Use of Engineers, Physicists, Architects, Surveyors, Draughtsmen, Students, &c. (5s. net. Crosby Lockwood.) Fundamental Arithmetic. By Dr. P. B. BALLARD. Pupil's Book 2. (Paper, 10d. Limp cloth, Is.) Teacher's Book 2, with Notes and Answers. (2s. University of London Press.) Four-fold Geometry: being the Elementary Geometry of the FourDimensional World. By D. B. MAIR. (8s. 6d. net. Methuen.) Mechanics and Applied Mathematics: Statics-DynamicsHydrostatics. By W. D. HILLS. Part II. Applied Mathematics. (5s. University of London Press.) Notes and Answers to Exercises in Junior Geometry. By A. W. Siddons and R. T. Hughes. (Is. Cambridge University Press.) A Civil Service Arithmetic. By LILIAN COURT. (2s. 6d. Gregg Publishing Co.) Mathematical Tables, with Full Tables of Mathematical and General Constants. By R. W. M. GIBBS. Second Edition. Revised. (8d. Christophers.) School Trigonometry. By B. A. HOWARD. Part II. (Is. 9d. Ginn.) Elementary Arithmetic. By W. G. BORCHARDT. (3s. Rivingtons.) Stories About Mathematics-Land. Book I. By D. PONTON. (3s. 6d. Dent.) The Dial Machine: An Apparatus for the Elementary Mathematical Laboratory. By T. C. J. ELLIOTT. (45. 6d. Peterborough: Peterborough Press.) Notes and Answers to Exercises in Practical Geometry and Theoretical Geometry. By A. W. SIDDONS and R. T. HUGHES. (Is. 6d. Cambridge University Press.) Speed and Accuracy Tests in Arithmetic. Book I. (4d. Blackie.) The Ordinary Man's Own Accounts. By BM/FAX5. (Continued on page 72) (5s. "The books of these authors are more used than any others in the English schools, as they certainly are of the best. They will be an excellent help to the teacher of mathematics."-Education. ARITHMETIC By C. Godfrey and E. A. Price Crown 8vo. Complete (Parts I, II, III). With Answers, 1s; without Answers, 3s 6d. Parts I and II (together), "One of the best arithmetic books we have seen. The type is excellent, conforming, as it does, to the standards laid down by the British Association Committee on 'The Influence of School Books on Eyesight.' In many arithmetic books the treatment of fundamentals aims at generality, and fails to appeal to average pupils; in this book free use is made of concrete examples, and the treatment, which is careful and sound without being laboured, should appeal to all."-The Times. ()()()()()()()()()()()()()() SCIENCE A New Experimental Science. By J. G. FREWIN. Part I. (Is. 6d. net. Clarendon Press.) A brightly-written and well-produced little book on elementary science by one who has had exceptional opportunity of observing the methods and requirements of Scottish schools. It presents no strikingly new feature, but we are glad to see that Mr. Frewin gives the derivations of scientific terms, and thus helps to remove one of the beginner's chief difficulties. The Bunsen burners, as is too commonly the case, are incorrectly drawn, and if constructed as shown (e.g. Fig. 27 b) would not work. Sermons of a Chemist. By Dr. E. E. SLOSSON. (7s. 6d.net. Cape.) About two years ago we recommended Dr. Slosson's "Chats on Science" to the notice of our readers. In the present volume he appears in the character of a man of science turned preacher. The change of rôle is of a kind that ought to be much commoner. The services of the educated layman are far too seldom enlisted by some of the churches. It has been said that every man has at least one good sermon in his head. Dr. Slosson has many, and some of them, combining the true spirit of science with a broad human appeal, are here set down. Mechanisms: A Text-Book for the Use of Non-technical Students. By E. S. ANDREWS. (University Tutorial Press. 3s. 6d.) We agree with the author that there are agricultural students, motorists, and others who have not had sufficient training in engineering subjects to enable them to use the text-books on applied mechanics which are available, and who desire to acquire knowledge as to how typical mechanisms work. This volume will be extremely useful to such students. With scarcely any mathematics, the text explains clearly such matters as levers and pulleys, screw and linkage mechanisms, chain and toothed gearing, differential gearing, friction and lubrication, bearings, couplings, clutches, brakes, and types of heat engines. The diagrams are excellent. A First Course in Wireless. By R. W. HUTCHINSON. (35. 6d. University Tutorial Press.) Available text-books on wireless are, for the most part, either popular handbooks or scientific texts requiring a good knowledge of mathematics. The merit of this volume is that it cannot be classed in either of these groups: it is a serious treatment of the subject, and yet elementary. The first five chapters are devoted to the general principles of electricity and magnetism; and the later chapters to the principles and technique of wireless. The numerous diagrams are simple, but quite clear and appropriate. Magnetism and Atomic Structure. By Dr. E. C. STONER. (18S. net. Methuen.) This is a remarkably complete account of magnetic phenomena and of the attempts to interpret them in terms of the quantum theory. The treatment, necessarily, is highly mathematical; but this does not apply to Chapter I, which is an exceptionally lucid historical survey of the growth of electromagnetics. A full bibliography of original sources is given at the end of each chapter. How Photography Came About. By C. R. GIBSON. (IS. 3d. Blackie.) The early days of photography are here described in a simple and interesting manner. Much is said about the work of Daguerre and of Fox Talbot; and short sections on the cinematograph and on the reproduction of photographs for book illustrations are included. The Theory of Electricity. By Prof. G. H. LIVENS. Second Edition. (16s. net. Cambridge University Press.) This book is a revised form in a smaller and more convenient size of the author's "Theory of Electricity," published in 1918. In his rreface Prof. Livens states that "the object has been to present a complete account of the purely theoretical side of the subject in the only form in which it appears to be satisfactory from the point of view both of mathematical consistency and of physical completeness." The work is based on the classical electromagnetic theory, and it is clear that the author has been greatly influenced by the investigations of Larmor. There is no doubt as to the usefulness of the book to the advanced student, one strong point in its favour being that the writer discusses fully questions which are often ignored or dismissed in a few words. The reviewer must, however, dissent from one change which Prof. Livens himself describes as "rather drastic." The magnetic quantity denoted elsewhere and here also by B has been designated, not the magnetic induction, but the magnetic force; while the quantity usually denoted by H is here called the magnetic induction. Even if we grant the author's contention that the change is in the interests of physical consistency, he is not, in our opinion, justified in such an interchange of familiar names. It would have been far better to have introduced entirely new designations for B and H. There is great risk of further confusion in the symbol employed in the book for the coefficient of induction of a magnetic medium. Chaos must result if names and symbols in international use are to be altered at the will of the individual writer. The New Heat Theorem: Its Foundation in Theory and Experiment. By Prof. W. NERNST. Translated from the Second German Edition by Dr. G. BARR. (12s. 6d. net. Methuen.) In 1914 Prof. Nernst gave an interesting account of his work on the specific heats of solid bodies at low temperatures in four lectures on "The Theory of the Solid State," delivered at University College, London, but this useful little book has long been out of print. In this larger volume on "The New Heat Theorem," he describes the development and applications of what is now known as the third law of thermo-dynamics, which he first published in 1906. The work includes not only the theory which was the origin and aim of his investigations, but also an account of the experimental groundwork which was well and truly laid by Prof. Nernst and his fellow-workers. The first German edition was published in 1917, and was based largely on the researches in his own laboratory, and although a second edition, on which this translation is founded, was called for in 1924, the original text was practically unaltered, account being taken of recent advances in a supplement. Consequently the book can hardly be regarded as an up-to-date treatise on the subject with which it deals, in spite of the fact that the translator has added some references to later papers. The first chapter gives an interesting historical survey of the problem of finding the relation between the free energy, A, and U (the negative value of which denotes the content of energy), showing how Nernst was led up to the new theorem. According to this theorem, A and U must coincide at very low temperatures, and it follows that A is definitely fixed if U is known as a function of the temperature down to the absolute zero. The theorem has a wide field of application, and is assumed to be valid not alone for condensed systems, but also for gases of finite density and also for solutions. It is of importance in connection with the law of specific heats at low temperatures, the calculation of chemical constants and the so-called "degeneration" of ideal gases at low temperatures. Although the book presupposes considerable knowledge on the part of the reader, it will be welcomed by physicists and chemists as an authoritative work on an important subject. Manual of Meteorology. By Sir NAPIER SHAW, with the assistance of ELAINE AUSTIN. Vol. I. Meteorology in History. (30s. net. Cambridge University Press.) A Short History of Botany. By Dr. R. J. HARVEY-GIBSON. (2s. 6d. University Tutorial Press.) Space and Time. By Prof. E. BOREL. (7s. 6d. net. Blackie.) Rural Science. By J. MASON and J. A. Dow. (2s. MacDougall.) The Internal Constitution of the Stars. By Prof. A. S. EDDINGTON. (25s. net. Cambridge University Press.) Test Papers in Chemistry: For the Use of Candidates Preparing for School Certificate, Matriculation, and Similar Examinations. By E. J. HOLMYARD. (25. Pitman.) Geology Manual: An Instruction and Laboratory Manual for Beginners. By Prof. R. M. FIELD. (18s. net. Princeton: Princeton University Press. London: Oxford University Press.) Elementary Botany: An Introduction to the Study of Plant Life. By Dr. W. WATSON. (6s. 6d. Arnold.) Health: A Textbook for Schools. By M. AVERY. (6s. Methuen.) Aids to Memory for First Aid Students and Nurses. By V. NEW ΤΟΝ. (9d. net. Bale.) General Physics for the Laboratory. By Prof. L. W. TAYLOR, W. W. WATSON, and Prof. C. E. HOWE. (10s. 6d. net. Ginn.) An Introduction to the History of Medicine: From the Time of the Pharaohs to the End of the XVIIIth Century. By Dr. C. G. CUMSTON. With an Essay on the Relation of History and Philosophy to Medicine, by Dr. F. G. CROOKSHANK. (16s. net. Kegan Paul.) The Principles of Petrology: An Introduction to the Science of Rocks. By Dr. G. W. TYRRELL. (IOS. net. Methuen.) Compulsory Teaching of Chemistry in Schools. By M. KOSTER. (Is. net. Ba Bale.) |