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encores should be kept down to the minimum or abolished altogether. Some authorities favour preliminary explanations; the opinion of the writer inclines to very short notes on the programme.

Concerts given by "outside" artists range obviously from recitals by individuals to concerts by an orchestra. The orchestral concert has a glamour all its own and in part non-musical. For this reason too much stress should not be laid on the enthusiasm which it apparently evokes. Owing to the expense entailed it cannot be a frequent event, and it is apt to diminish rather than increase the I attractiveness of less showy kinds of music.

We now come to the types of activities which demand more intensive cultivation; and, as space is running out, they must be dealt with only in briefest outline. The choral society will probably include a good many unskilled members; hence it will have to learn its work mainly by rote; but membership confers all the benefits of community singing and the additional one of gaining practical acquaintance with music of higher quality and greater elaboration. Material is not too easy to find, and the conductor should not shrink from giving merely a selection from standard works, if need be. What can be done may be gathered from the Musical Times reports already mentioned.

The choir's work differs from that of the choral society in that it is mainly occupied in rendering familiar music as well as possible. This fact should allow time for a little voice-production and practice in unaccompanied singing. The more familiar the music, the greater should be the effort to prevent mechanical performance. Among the means to this end which have been found successful are unaccompanied verses, descants, and treble verses in a higher key. The last two give the trebles an opportunity of singing in the best part of their compass-an opportunity denied them by music of "congregational" pitch.

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The individual instrumentalist is now, more than ever, a pianist, and the problem of the school orchestra (not to mention chamber music) is acute. Every encouragement should be given to the string-player; and boys who are fond of music but incapable pianists should be urged to take up an orchestral instrument at the earliest possible moment. Some schools manage to keep a full military band in being; but the technique of brass instruments in military band music is so exacting that such a band is an exceptional achievement; on the other hand, sufficient technique for participation in simple (or simplified) orchestral music can be acquired fairly easily; and the presence of brass and wood-wind in the school orchestra is a great gain in effect.

Individual instrumental work should be supplemented by a short weekly class, unless the pupil is exceptionally slow. In any case class-work in the elements of musical notation and dictation is desirable at the outset. After the first year, those who wish to learn about music as well as to play an instrument may go on to classes in which music is played, explained, and discussed; and selected pupils may be initiated into the elements of counterpoint and harmony. In stimulating the individual a useful device is to post a list of pupils at the beginning of the term, and to enter against each name the title of any piece learnt as soon as it has been satisfactorily performed.

Inter-House competitions in music possess, for the writer, only two features of any merit. They appeal to the competitive instinct, and are therefore fairly popular; and they give certain boys, in the training of house choirs, useful opportunities of taking musical control. Such concerted music as they produce must be simple, or it would be beyond the capacity of the trainers to handle; and far more time is usually spent on it than it deserves. The best part, musically, of these competitions is the individual performances of instrumentalists; and if it be urged that competitions provide them with opportunities of playing before an audience, it may be answered that such opportunities can be provided equally well, if not better (for the strain of competition is absent), by informal concerts.

In concluding this incomplete summary I would say that, my own experience having lain entirely among boys, I make no presumption to dogmatize for the gentler sex. Girls' schools, I believe, tend increasingly to approximate in type to boys' schools; but their problems and the solutions of them can never be quite the same. Finally, let me urge all who are interested in the musical activities of boys to read, mark, learn, and inwardly digest two admirable essays published by the Oxford University Press: Dr. Thomas Wood's "Music and Boyhood," and the Rev. A. H. Peppin's "Public Schools and their Music." These little books discuss fully and ably many points which in the present article have perforce been merely indicated, or entirely omitted.


ADULT EDUCATION AT HAMPSTEAD.-Hampstead Garden Suburb Institute, founded in 1909 by Dame Henrietta Barnett, still its honorary director, sends us a copy of its attractive programme for the forthcoming session. The idea of the Institute is to provide " a centre where persons of either sex, whatever their age, income, social standing, or opinions, can meet on equal ground and draw out their latent possibilities, obtaining knowledge and creating friendship.” The Institute, in a word, is an ideal centre of adult education. Set on a low hill amid open spaces, and far from the madding noises of the streets, it is yet easily accessible, thanks to the new network of communications from almost any part of London. Its various activities cover a very wide field. On the more theoretical side we note literature, philosophy, science, modern languages, accountancy, and other commercial subjects, and, in the autumn term, a course of illustrated University Extension Lectures on Songs -a most welcome new departure. On the more practical side are arts and crafts, sketching, cookery, shorthand, and firstaid, together with schools of music (orchestral and choral), drama, opera, folk-dancing and eurhythmics. All, or any, of these things are offered, weekly or fortnightly, at little more than a nominal cost, the fees ranging from is. to 10s. 6d. a term. Such a liberal programme will, it is hoped, meet nearly all needs; if not, efforts will be made to supply any other serious demand. Especially would the Council welcome co-operation with the Workers' Educational Association. There have been established in the Institute in addition a library and reading-room, a Students' Union, and a very strong branch of the League of Nations Union, with a membership of more than 1000. Side by side with all this admirable adult education there is a flourishing secondary day school, recognized by the Board of Education, with more than 300 girls in the senior department, and 100 girls and boys in the junior; and quite apart from the school, there are special evening classes for children-notably, a play hour. The great success of the work in the past may be inferred from the fact that plans (by Sir Edwin Lutyens) are ready for an extension of the building which will be put in hand as soon as the £25,000 already subscribed has been raised to £36,000. Full particulars may be obtained from the Secretary of the Institute, Hampstead Garden Suburb, N.W. 11.

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BIBLICAL STUDY AND SCHOLARSHIP.-The Vacation Term for Biblical Study was held this year at Cambridge, the main subject throughout being "In the fullness of time God sent forth His Son." An inaugural address was given by Sir Edwyn Hoskyns at Great St. Mary's Church, Dr. Oesterley, Prof. of Hebrew and Old Testament at King's College, London, contributed a lecture upon "The Present position of Old Testament Criticism," and a second upon The Samaritans," which led up to the first course of the week, The World into which Christianity came,' The second by the Rev. Eric Graham. course was by Dr. J. K. Mozley upon "The Incarnation in the light of Modern Philosophy." In the second week the same twofold treatment of the subject was maintained in two courses, Judaism under the Persian Domination," by Dr. L. E. Binns, and St. Luke's Gospel, by Dr. Creed, Ely Professor of Divinity, Cambridge. There was also a single lecture on the Cambridge Platonists by the Regius Professor. The scheme is now in its twenty-fifth year, and its success had been amply proved by the large numbers who attend, by the spirit of fellowship among the students, and above all by the eminence of the experts who place their great learning at the disposal of the committee. Those who teach and those who study the Bible for its own sake do indeed find here an opportunity of becoming acquainted with the results of modern Biblical Scholarship through instruction on academic lines, and on a Christian basis.



Europe in the Nineteenth Century (1789–1914). By Prof. A. J. GRANT and Dr. H. TEMPERLEY. (12s. 6d. net. Longmans.)

To attempt to write, within the limits of five or six hundred pages, the history of Europe during the last century and a half, ending at 1914, is to attempt a great feat of selection and compression. It is also to attempt a feat of impartiality and detachment with reference to movements and events which stirred the passions of plenty of people who are still alive to tell the tale. We will say at once that in our judgment the authors of this work have scored a great success. They have written a book which will prove valuable, not only to the college student, but also to the mature observer of European politics. The present reviewer's clear political memory stretches back over about forty-five years, and the common talk of his elders when he was young takes him back over a further period just as long. For him and for his like this clear and readable narrative helps to fill in the picture, to put things in their places, and to establish connexions which only the course of time could reveal.

The book falls into five parts. Part I describes the Revolution, and shows how it spread over Europe, and what Napoleon retained and what he rejected of that vast spiritual and national upheaval. In Part II we have the struggle between the opposing principles of international and strong national government, and the triumph of the latter. Part III opens with revolutionary 1848, describes the "tragic blunder " of the Crimean War, and ends with the revival of France. Part IV deals with the dark problems of the Balkans during the ten years following 1876, with colonial development throughout the century, and with the story of the formation of the great systems of European alliance, ending with the final plunge of 1914 In Part V we take leave of the chronological order and are given, with some necessary repetitions, a most interesting treatment of the main currents of European movementthe growth of nationality, the development of parliaments, and representative governments, war and militarism, and efforts for peace and unity.

And these final topics remind us that the only bias to which the authors of this book confess is a bias against war and all its attendant evils. They eschew the details of military history, and prefer to use their restricted space in showing how one war after another might possibly have been averted had such a means of consultation as the League of Nations been in existence. Such bias, if it be properly so called, must surely be welcomed, even in the case of impartial and responsible historians. At other points their candour may get them into hot water with some folk, as, for example, in their estimate of Disraeli's doings in the 1870's. But that they have produced a most useful summary of the march of European events from the French Revolution to the Great War, and of the meaning and connexion of these events, we deem past a doubt.

THE RECORD OF A MAN OF SCIENCE Collected Papers of Sir James Dewar, Fellow of Peterhouse and Jacksonian, Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Cambridge, 1875-1923, Fullerian Professor of Chemistry in the Royal Institution of Great Britain, 1877-1923. Edited by Lady DEWAR, with the Assistance of J. D. H. DICKSON, H. M. Ross, and Dr. E. C. S. DICKSON. With Two Supplementary Papers not Heretofore Published, and an Appendix and Indexes. 2 Vols. (84s. net. Cambridge University Press.) Sir James Dewar died in his eighty-first year on March 27, 1923, and till within a week of his death had been working in his laboratory at the Royal Institution. As a monument to the life-long work of a master of physical and chemical science these two imposing volumes have

been prepared by Lady Dewar and her able assistants. Even in the amount of material published the volumes are impressive; but when we find that the long series of spectroscopic researches in which he was associated with Prof. G. D. Liveing are referred to only by title, we are left in a state of amazement at the energy and versatility of the virile Scot. The " Collected Papers on Spectroscopy" by Liveing and Dewar were published in a single volume in 1915. In the table of contents we find 257 titles of scientific papers published either under his own name or jointly with other investigators. The papers are arranged chronologically and the last two contain hitherto unpublished material; one describes some experiments in calorimetry with liquefied gases below their boiling points, and the other gives the results of determinations of specific heats of inorganic and organic compounds. In the Appendix are printed eight papers which have reference to Sir James Dewar's work, although they do not bear his name. One of the most interesting of these is the Friday evening discourse delivered at the Royal Institution in 1896 by Prof. J. A. Fleming, containing a summary of joint researches on electric and magnetic properties at low temperatures.

The earlier papers from the Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh are concerned with organic chemistry, the first paper containing a description of a simple mechanical device for representing the structure of the non-saturated hydrocarbons in accordance with Dr. Crum Brown's graphic notation. In 1873 a new subjectthe physiological action of light-is investigated in collaboration with J. G. M'Kendrick, and it is shown that the action of light on the retina is to bring about an appreciable alteration in the electromotive force of the retina and nerve. In the following year we find a preliminary note in collaboration with P. G. Tait on a new method of obtaining very perfect vacua by employing the remarkable power of absorption of coconut charcoal for gases, a method which was to reach its full development when liquid air became available. After a period devoted to spectroscopic research we find the problems connected with the liquefaction of gases becoming more and more prominent, for it was just after his appointment as Fullerian Professor in the Royal Institution in 1877 that news was received of the liquefaction of oxygen by Cailletet and Pictet, and Dewar at once attacked the question of obtaining liquefied gases in bulk with a view to studying their physical properties. The resulting liquids can be stored in the vacuum flasks which he devised. Liquid oxygen was shown in the Royal Institution in 1884, and in 1898 Dewar for the first time obtained liquid hydroger. in static form. In the last years of his life Dewar turned to the problem of the soap film, and the beautiful plate which forms the frontispiece of Volume II shows the effect of air vortices on plane soap films. In Volume I is a striking photograph of Dewar in his laboratory. As an experimentalist Dewar stood alone; there has never been a greater, probably none so great."

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THE NEW MENANDER Selections from Menander. Edited by W. G. WADDELL, (7s. 6d. net. Clarendon Press.)

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Ὡς Χαρίεν ἐστ ̓ ἄνθρωπος, ὅταν ἄνθρωπος ᾖ

(How comely a thing is man, when he remembers his humanity.)

The publication of this book marks the culmination of a series of events ranging from the first discovery of the new" Menander in the dry sands of Egypt to the placing of an annotated text in the hands of the modern schoolboy. Few schoolboys, maybe, will appreciate that quality of Menander which is so well illustrated by his own fragment heading this notice. But the momentous fact is just this -that schoolboys now have the opportunity of reading

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Menander, and the effects of that opportunity will extend far beyond school-life. We remember what R. L. Stevenson wrote in his "Ebb Tide" about the classics : For it is the destiny of these grave, restrained and classical writers, with whom we make an enforced acquaintance at school, to sink into the blood and become native in the mind, so that a phrase of Virgil speaks, not so much of Mantua and Augustus, as of English places and the student's own irrevocable youth."

Scholars have, of course, known Menander for many years. But this is the first English edition of selections for schools, and as such deserves a very warm welcome. It combines both the "old" and the "new" Menander which we owe to the discovery of the great Cairo Codex at Aphroditopolis-appropriate scene for the discovery of the writings of one who made the intrigues of love so much his theme as Menander did. This discovery in our own time has more than doubled our knowledge of Menander, and this edition will help our knowledge to percolate through to the younger generation. There is an introduction dealing with the life and times of Menander, his art in relation to his predecessors and successors, and the structure and metre of his plays. The text of the selections has, of course, as its backbone three long scenes from the 'ЕлIтρÉлоνтεs, but even the comparatively short quotations from the other plays are made to live by the excellent commentary and exposition with which they are accompanied. This gives the notes a very special value, in fact, it is the notes that are the real feature of this edition, for they make plain and intelligible at a glance many a point that might puzzle more than schoolboys. Mention should also be made of the excellent illustrations of the typical actors' masks of comedy and of fragments of papyrus, which the schoolboy may contrast with what Mr. Waddell has here given him to read.


(1) Astronomy: A Revision of Young's Manual of Astronomy. Vol. I. The Solar System; Vol. II. Astrophysics and Stellar Astronomy. By DR. H. N. RUSSELL, R. S. DUGAN, and J. Q. STEWART (10S. 6d. net. each vol. Ginn & Co.)

(2) Modern Astronomy: its Rise and Progress. By H. MACPHERSON. (6s. net. Oxford University Press, 1926.)

(3) Stars and Atoms. By Prof. A. S. EDDINGTON. (7s. 6d. net. Clarendon Press.)

During the last few years many books on astronomy have been published, varying in style from mere hack work to highly specialized treatises. Of those types which are worthy of attention, the above three works are excellent examples, differing both in style and in purpose, but each fulfilling its own object with marked success.

(1) The first is a text-book, for teachers of astronomy or for serious students who are not content with mere popular essays. It is undoubtedly the finest general textbook in the English language, and should be invaluable to first-year college students, as well as to school teachers and private students. Although the whole range of astronomy is covered with astonishing completeness of detail, including recent developments, the only preliminary knowledge required is very elementary mathematics and physics. The style, in spite of this handicap, is perfectly clear and concise. The usual plan is adopted of printing in small type paragraphs which may be omitted in an elementary course, and exercises are given at the end of most of the chapters; useful references to other books or original papers are also frequently given. Although nominally a revision of Young's "Manual," the extensive alterations and additions have doubled its size and rendered it practically a new work.

(2) Macpherson's is a more elementary little book for the general reader. The title is, unfortunately, rather misleading; historical as well as modern astronomy is

described, and many modern developments are not dealt with. Half the book is devoted to the solar system, the remainder being concerned with stellar astronomy and cosmogony. It is well written, accurate, and entirely non-mathematical, and will be appreciated by those who require something lighter than a text-book.

(3) Prof. Eddington succeeds, as perhaps no one else could, in rendering both clear and interesting to the uninitiated such abstruse subjects as the internal constitutions of stars and their relation to atomic structure, radiation pressure, &c-subjects in which the author is a foremost authority. Although non-mathematical, this most entertaining book requires some concentration of thought; but the effort is well repaid by the intellectual treat afforded in grasping the fundamentals of a most important modern aspect of astronomy. The book is in the form of three lectures on allied subjects; popular, or even humorous in style, but without the slightest loss of that scientific precision for which the author is famous.

A CAMBRIDGE CELEBRITY Memoirs of Henry Arthur Morgan, Master of Jesus College, Cambridge, 1885-1912. By His Daughter IRIS L. OSBORNE MORGAN. (IOS. 6d. net. Hodder Stoughton.)

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Dr. Morgan-familiarly called "Black Morgan," to distinguish him from his namesake Red Morgan," the Dean of Jesus-was never perhaps very widely known outside his own university. But he was a great figure for many years in Cambridge, and was one of the first of those college tutors of the second half of the nineteenth century who gave a new importance to the smaller colleges. Strong testimony is borne to his fine character and influence by Dr. Foakes-Jackson and Dr. Charles Whibley, whose appreciations stand at the beginning of his memoirs. His daughter, Miss Iris Osborne Morgan, has shown herself a most judicious biographer. Personal and family details are furnished, but with admirable brevity. His eldest brother, Osborne Morgan, was one of the founders of university education in Wales and leader of the Welsh party in the House of Commons. H. A. Morgan himself took an interest in higher education in Wales; he felt that the clever boy in a humble Welsh home had not the same chance as a boy similarly placed in England or Scotland, and he was instrumental along with his brother in altering that unfair state of things. But Miss Morgan has expressly set herself to secure another of her father's titles to fame, which without the assistance of a recording scribe would not have survived his own generation. He was a great raconteur, and the outstanding feature of this book is its delightful collection of academic stories. Leslie Stephen, Henry Fawcett, Mr. Harold Cox, Dr. Corrie (Master of Jesus before Dr. Morgan) are among the men commemorated. It would have been a thousand pities if these stories, witty but kindly, with their inimitable combination-room flavour, had perished for lack of a sacred bard.

YOUNG GERMANY.-The German Youth Movement seeks to explain itself to the city and to the world. A Young Germany Exhibition is at present being held in Berlin (August 12 to September 25). This represents family and association life, games and physical exercises, professional work and leisure pursuits, holiday excursions and club huts. It is not merely a fair or advertising show, but is intended to give a survey of the whole social, cultural and physical situation of the younger generation. Every day there will be a special programme with visits from local groups and performances by them, thus adding to material exhibits the life of lectures, gymnastic diplays, film shows, folk dances, plays and songs. The Prussian minister of finance has put at the disposition of the national committee of German young people's societies Schloss Bellevue and part of the adjacent park. This is in the Thiergarten and accessible by rail at Bahnhof Bellevue, or by tram and omnibus via "Grosse Stern." Further particulars may be had from the information office, Unterkunftsamt, Ausstellung " Das junge Deutschland," Berlin, N.W. 52, Schloss Bellevue.

Minor Notices and Books of the Month


The Quality of the Educational Process in the United States and in Europe. By W. S. Learned. (New York: The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.)

The European reader of Dr. Learned's masterly report can scarcely help feeling somewhat flattered. He tells his countrymen that their ideals exhaust themselves in brick, mortar and equipment of school buildings; that the cult of the average determines the quality of American education; that the attention which the European has lavished upon his most gifted pupils is in America largely focused at the other end in endeavouring to bestow the blessings of the average on the feeble-minded ; and that the instalment plan in American universities, with a corresponding accumulation of "credits" is, compared with our final examinations, like proving fitness to run a two-mile race by running half-a-mile each year for four years and then adding up the results. Of course there is something to be said on the other side, but Dr. Learned has preferred firm and unsparing criticism.

New York at School: a Description of the Activities and Administration of the Public Schools of the City of New York. JOSEPHINE CHASE, in Collaboration with the School Authorities. ($1.50. Public Education Association of New York.)

The leading characteristics of this book are, first, that it is expository rather than critical; secondly, that it is popular rather than technical, and, thirdly, that it covers the ground with remarkable completeness. The American citizen, and in particular the New Yorker who desires an intelligent acquaintance with the vast educational organization of the American capital, will find here what he wants. And the British educator who would make a comparative study, say of New York and London or Liverpool, will also find what he wants. The writer has carefully consulted the relevant authorities, and has produced a most useful and readable account of every aspect of school education in New York.

L'Enseignement en France. By Prof. C. RICHARD. (5s. net. Paris Librairie Armand Colin. London: Deane: The Year Book Press.)

The Inglis Lecture, 1927. Do Americans Really Value Education? By A. FLEXNER. (4s. 6d. net. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. London: Oxford University Press.)

Guidance of Childhood and Youth: Readings in Child Study Compiled by Child Study Association of America. Edited by B. C. GRUENBERG. (бs. 6d. net. New York: Macmillan.) A useful book for busy parents and others who want to know something of modern thought on the subject of Child Study. The extracts are carefully chosen from a variety of authors-mainly but not exclusively American-and classified under the four main heads of Impulses and Activities, The Social Environment, Organic Foundations, and Individual Variations. The book is up to date, and is well indexed.

The Mind and its Mechanism, with special reference to IdeoMotor Action, Hypnosis, Habit and Instinct, and the Lamarckian Theory of Evolution. By P. BOUSFIELD and W. R. BOUSFIELD. (9s. net. Kegan Paul.)

A readable essay in the field of psychophysics. Realizing the great importance of meaning in relation to the responses made by living organisms to sensory stimuli, the authors find it necessary to postulate a psychic structure, intermediate between mind and brain, which integrates sensations and records experience. The substance of this structure, to which they give the name psychoplasm, is regarded as a constituent of every living cell, including the germ plasm. They apply this hypothesis to various psychological problems, and finally to the Lamarckian theory of evolution. On this topic there is a very interesting and well-informed chapter in which the authors refer to the most important modern work in support of the inheritance of acquired traits, including McDougall's recent experiment with rats, and put forward the suggestion that it may be by means of the psychoplasm that this transference takes place. Psychology: Its Methods and Principles. By F. A. C. PERRIN and D. B. KLEIN. (8s. 6d. net. Methuen.) Psychological Education: A Presentation of the Principles and Applications of Educational Psychology. By Prof. J. V. BREITWIESER. (7s. 6d. New York and London: Knopf.) Still they come. Library shelves begin to creak under the weight of elementary text-books of pyschology, and the only justification of a new one is that it shall possess really distinctive


features. The volume by Messrs Perrin and Klein, of the Univer sity of Texas, answers to this description. It is written in a rigidly scientific spirit, and, without allying itself with the extreme behaviourists," it consistently regards psychology as "the science of adaptive behaviour." One misses the familiar rubrics at the heads of chapters, and gets in their place the biological and psychological foundations of behaviour, the motivation of behaviour, learning behaviour, and intelligent behaviour. One of the best features of the book is the accounts it gives of classical experiments on behaviour. Though not written expressly for students of education, the book contains much that is of direct pedagogic interest. On its own lines it is a thorough and useful piece of work. Dr. Breitwieser, of California University, also views psychology as the science of behaviour, and stresses also the modern tendency to objective methods of inquiry. His book is, however, directly addressed to teachers. It appears to be rather a collection of lecturenotes than a student's text-book. As such it will be useful to training-college lecturers, and to students who have already acquired a general knowledge of psychology.

Directing Mental Energy. By Dr. F. AVELING. (8s. 6d. net. University of London Press.)

In his classical chapter on habit, William James set the example of turning aside from the descriptive and explanatory to the hortatory mode of psychologizing, and for this he was blamed by some teachers, but thanked by all preachers. Since his time, responsible psychologists have more freely claimed the right to give advice and counsel; indeed they have almost been compelled to do so, or else leave the field to the pretentious charlatan. Dr. Aveling's book is a good example of what we mean, and it is all the better because he recognizes so clearly the limitations of his science. The art of living" is a vast problem, and the psychologist who strays recklessly into the fields of ethics and metaphysics, as some psychologists do, may play sad havoc. Dr. Aveling is far too clear-headed to make this mistake. He addresses himself to the single issue: economies in the expenditure of physical and mental energy. Memory wastage, emotional wastage, will wastage-these are among the themes that he handles, sensibly as well as scientifically. Of course we all know well enough that it is foolish to use ourselves up emotionally and otherwise; yet it is a distinct gain to hear what science has to say about the disease and the remedies. We commend the book as an excellent example of psychology applied to the art of living within our physical and mental means. To teachers in particular it should prove both interesting and valuable.

Psychology of Elementary School Subjects. By H. B. REED. (8s. 6d. net. Ginn.)

The author declares that during the last ten years the foundations for the teaching and learning of the elementary school subjects have changed from experience and opinion to experiment and science, and he essays in this book to give an introduction to the scientific studies which have supplied these new foundations. The movement which the book conscientiously and faithfully represents has gone much further in America than in slower and more conservative England. Most English teachers would probably assess the book after the manner of the great Abraham Lincoln-for those who like this sort of thing, this is the sort of thing they will like. The book serves a useful purpose as a summary of what has so far been attempted and achieved in scientific pedagogy.

The Mind and its Workings. By C. E. M. JOAD. (6d. Benn.)
A B C of Jung's Psychology. By JOAN CORRIE. (3S. 6d. net.
Kegan Paul.)

The Psychology of Childhood: Normal and Abnormal.
Dr. MARY SCHARLEIB. (бs. net. Constable.)

I Want to be Happy: the Essential Truths of Sympathetic Psy chology, Clearly and Simply Treated. By W. PLATT. (3s. od. net. Methuen.)

The Mental and Physical Welfare of the Child. By Dr. C. W. KIMMINS. (бs. net. Partridge.)

The Phenomenology of Acts of Choice: An Analysis of Volitional Consciousness. By HONORIA M. WELLS. (IOS. net. Cambridge University Press.)

An Experimental Study of the Mental Processes Involved in Judgment: Thesis Approved for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the University of London. By Dr. B. P. STEVANOVIC. (10s. net. Cambridge University Press.)


The Modern Readers' Series. Barchester Towers. By A. TROllope. (5s. net. New York: Macmillan.)

This edition of "Barchester Towers is like an old friend in a new garment. Perhaps the best way of judging a new edition of a familiar book is to read out of it some of one's favourite scenes. This test we have applied, and with most satisfactory results. Binding, paper, and print conspire to make the book pleasant to handle and to use, and the short but pointed introduction serves its purpose admirably. It is to be hoped that the publishers will find encouragement to add other volumes of Trollope to the "Modern Readers' Series."

(1) The Adventures of Deerslayer. Adapted from J. FENIMORE COOPER'S Deerslayer,' By MARGARET N. HAIGHT.


(IS. 9d. Harrap.) (2) Old Celtic Tales. Retold by E. N. WILMOT-BUXTON. (Is. 6d. Harrap.)

(3) Tales from Dickens. Selected by J. W. MCSPADDEN. Harrap.)

(Is. 6d. The first two of these books will no doubt have a well-deserved popularity among young readers. In the first the elimination of much description and moralizing has done nothing to impair the interest of the story. The delightful stories in the second are drawn from the Mabinogian, the Romance of Charlemagne, and other similar sources. The contents of the third cannot receive

the same degree of commendation. The works of Dickens are available in many cheap editions and these abridgments neither do him justice nor seem likely to develop an appreciation of him in the reader.

Companionable Books. Series I. By Prof. G. GORDON. (2s. 6d. net. Chatto & Windus.)


The appearance of this book should be reassuring to those who fear that broadcasting will merely create a desire to be persistently entertained and will fail to encourage the development of interests requiring some expenditure of effort on the part of the listener. The "Talks which it embodies were given in November and December last and are presented in book form as a consequence of many requests which have been received by the writer. It is enough to say that the charm of Prof. Gordon's talks has survived the transition from speech to print, and that the book itself might well be added to the list of those which he considers to deserve the title of "companionable." School Certificate Composition: containing the Essentials of English Composition. By A. E. ROBERTS. (Is. 6d. Russell.) This collection of exercises is arranged for the use of those pupils in central schools and senior classes who may be preparing for a First School Examination. The author has chosen to proceed from the whole composition to the paragraph, from the paragraph to the sentence and from the sentence to the word. He regards progress in the reverse direction as fundamentally unsound. This view is intriguing if not convincing, but it has the curious result of causing the book to open with an exercise in narration and end with one on punctuation.

(1) Poets of the Romantic Revival. By G. H. CRUMP. (2) The Diary of Mr. Pepys. Abridged and Edited by H. A. TREBLE. (2s. 6d. each. Harrap.)

Mr. Crump (1) has made a selection from the poetry of Wordsworth, Coleridge, Byron, Shelley, and Keats, without notes but with brief introductions and interspersed remarks. Whether this new method of treatment is more stimulating than the annotation which it has superseded experience alone can determine. (2) Gives a sufficiently copious selection from the famous diary.

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The Socrates Booklets. XI. Wordsworth. Lyrical Ballads, with a Few Other Poems." Edited by H. M. MARGOLIOUTH. XII. Via Lyrica: an Anthology mainly of Lyrical Poems. Edited by J. W. TURNER. (IS. each paper, 1s. 3d. each cloth. Black.) Via Lyrica is a catholic selection planned for a year's intensive study, and including, "The Needy Knife-grinder," and "The Latest Decalogue in addition to more orthodox classics. The arrangement of the searching and suggestive questions in groups, according to their purpose and their difficulty, adds very materially to the usefulness of this series for teacher or independent student.

The Winds a Poem. By ANNA G. KEOWN. (2s. 6d. net. Heffer.)

Only a Shelley could make a drama with mountains, winds, and clouds for its personae quite convincing; but Miss Keown shows a feeling for nature and for the sounds and associations of poetic speech.

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