« AnteriorContinuar »
are always scrupulously made, tells us that from 1909 to 1921 the number of boys proceeding to the university more than doubled and that of the girls more than trebled. What the universities might rightly complain of, and what might usefully be the subject of conference between them and the schools is the excessive demands of the syllabuses of the Higher Certificate examinations. If these are too wide for the ordinary student, and if he becomes in a sense tired or stale in school, as one becomes over-trained and stale in sports, some alterations might usefully be made. The syllabus of the examinations must never dominate the curriculum and dictate the school method. Teaching is never good unless the pupil at the end of it has the Oliver Twist "complex. Mr. Fletcher puts it: The first and obvious duty of the staff is to teach; that is, really, to guide, stimulate, and help their pupils to learn." If the pupil at school is introduced to too wide a syllabus it is likely that the teacher lets examination take charge, and in his desire to help his pupil to pass hinders him from wishing to continue to learn. It has been suggested that the Higher Certificate papers should have a certain moderately easy section and also a section with very wide choice of more advanced questions.
A real difficulty is presented by the introduction to students of the university qualification of matriculation, i.e. passing an entrance examination and paying a fee-for none of the universities is absent-minded in this mundane matter of cash. This university qualification tends to obscure the real nature of the School Certificate examination. A matriculation examination is one demanding a good level of success in five special subjects. The practice has grown up of indicating by a letter M which of the School Certificate candidates has passed the School Certificate examination well enough to be regarded as a matriculant. Employers who wish to distinguish one school candidate from another are asking the candidates not what sort of School Certificate they got, i.e., how wide the school curriculum and how well they had done in their examination on it but merely, "Did you get a ' matric'?" This will in time tend to make the School Certificate dependent on its university utility and make the school curriculum of less importance. The American system of recognizing the school as of such a character that its school records may be accepted by the university is certainly a plan which gives more freedom to the high school than does our own. But
the university here is making a good profit on its own accrediting system, and will not lightly give it up. But the schools ought to put the School Certificate in its rightful position, to do all they can to retain control of it, and to fashion it as an instrument for their own convenience, rather than allow it to become an ill-rated pis aller for a university qualification. The School Certificate is the more important because it does overlap the other.
The question still remains whether the pupil should prepare for an intermediate university examination at school. Is not such a plan a stop-gap arrangement of temporary utility? Assuming that the pupil intends to go to a teaching university and not to go to business and in his leisure sit for an external degree, is not the so-called intermediate arts or science examination merely an indication of proficiency likely to find in the honours courses suitable opportunity for good work? If so it is a somewhat clumsy expedient. It would appear better for the schools to encourage their best students to take a higher School Certificate examination instead of a pseudo university qualification. Such an examination teachers could mould : their voice is scarcely likely to be heard in connexion with the other one. The teaching university must stand for something better than the recording of examination success. It surely stands for personal inspiration by distinguished teachers, for extending the love of learning, and widening the bounds of knowledge. It should be the House called Beautiful, and the pilgrims from the schools, as in the great allegory, should be prepared for entering it by lustration and the clean, white robes of a love of truth, beauty, and goodness. There can be, however, no overlapping in the ultimate ideals of education. The venue changes, but all true education, from the elementary school to the university, and from the university onwards, should aim at the great ends of human life and activity, “the forming and strengthening of character, the training of the tastes which will fill and dignify leisure, the awakening and guiding of the intelligence," all placing our learners as it were in the fair meadow ' of a congenial and inspiring environment.” We owe this statement to an inquiry concerning central schools! Others will no doubt speak of the advantages of schemes, plans, and systems and a mathematical precision of administration, but like President Coolidge's minister and the topic of sin, the writer is agin it."
ATHENS UNDER PERICLES The Cambridge Ancient History. Edited by J. B. BURY, Dr. S. A. Cook, and F. E. ADCOCK. Volume VAthens, 478-401 B.C. (21S. net. Cambridge University Press.)
As the admirable Cambridge Ancient History penetrates farther and farther into the recorded period its volumes increasingly attain to concentration and unity. The opening volumes covered thousands of doubtfully dated years, and dealt with the concerns of many vast and vaguely delimited empires. The present volume treats in the main of a single city during a term of no more than seventy-seven years. Moreover, whereas the earlier volumes were replete with wholly novel information collected from the scattered results of the excavations and researches of very recent years, the present volume has to be content with reviewing the evidence for very familiar events, and with telling again a story which has been recounted a thousand times. Nevertheless, although the volume before us lacks the unexpectedness of some of its predecessors, it is, in its own way, not less interesting and valuable than they. Indeed, for the ordinary student of ancient history it exceeds them all in importance; for it treats of precisely that subject which forms the centre of his reading. The Athens of Pericles is, without question, the most notable culture-state in the history of the world, and never is it possible to examine the sources of our knowledge respecting it too
often, or to recount its glories too frequently. Further, although the literary authorities for the history of the Confederacy of Delos, the Periclean Democracy, and the Peloponnesean War, have been examined with minute care again and again, archaeology, anthropology, economics, and jurisprudence have thrown so much new light upon Greek origins that the whole of the literary evidence has had to be interpreted afresh. Hence this volume has a novelty of its own which, if different in kind from that of its forerunners, is not less attractive than was theirs.
Apart from the narrative chapters which are the work of such experts as Mr. E. M. Walker, Mr. R. Hackworth, Prof. F. E. Adcock, and Prof. W. S. Ferguson, there are notable studies of special topics, such as Mr. M. N. Tod's brilliant description of the economic background of the fifth century; Mr. J. T. Sheppard's masterly and enthusiastic account of the Attic drama of the period; Prof. Bury's aggressively rationalistic portrayal of the struggle of the Sophists and, chief among them, Socrates, with ignorance and superstition; the venerable Dr. R. W. Macan's delightful and illuminating comparison of Herodotus and Thucydides, which he pathetically tells us is the swan-song of a Phil-Hellenist well stricken in years "; and, finally, an excellent chapter on Greek Art and Architecture, by Messrs. J. D. Beazley and D. S. Robertson -a chapter which for its full appreciation requires the illustrations which are promised, in a separate portfolio,
THE SOURCE OF STELLAR RADIATION The Internal Constitution of the Stars. By Prof. A. S. EDDINGTON. (25s. net. Cambridge University Press.) Astronomers and physicists alike who have followed the brilliant investigations which Prof. Eddington has been pursuing during the past ten years with a view to elucidating the problem of the source of stellar radiation, will welcome this volume. While in the main a reproduction of the substance of the masterly series of papers which have appeared in the publications of the Royal Astrono. mical Society and elsewhere, the whole has been welded by the author into a connected argument and the earlier views have been revised, when necessary, to take account of the latest developments of atomic theory.
Prof. Eddington postulates that there are three pairs of variables, of which any one pair defines the state of a star. He takes them to be; (1) the value of gravitation at the surface and the rate of outflow of radiant heat; (2) the spectral type and absolute magnitude; (3) the mass and radius; and the main problem here investigated is the determination of the relation between the first and third of these pairs.
Many subsidiary problems are considered; for example, a chapter summarizes the results obtained by Milne, Fowler, and others on the interpretation of stellar spectra ; but it is with the conditions in the interior and not those at the surface that the book is chiefly concerned.
The feature which distinguishes Eddington's work from that of previous investigators is the predominant rôle assigned to radiation as the means of transfer of heat within the star. He regards the problem as essentially one of determining the conditions under which a mass of gas is in equilibrium when heat passes by radiation and not by convection as was assumed by Lane and others. The simple fact that we see the stars prove that there is an outward flow of radiant energy, and this indicates the existence of an upward temperature gradient from the surface to the centre. At the same time this flow is not explosive; it changes but little in the course of millenniums and therefore there must be a controlling factor, an opacity or absorption effect which obstructs the flow and renders it uniform. The earlier chapters are devoted to working out the consequences of these hypotheses, while the later ones seek to link the opacity and the supply of stellar energy with the recent theories of the atom.
The problem proposed is essentially an inverse one and therefore of great difficulty. It can only be attacked by constructing model stars of known constitution and comparing their radiation with that observed in actual stars. Probably the white dwarf companion of Sirius affords the most striking support to the theories here developed, and the paper by R. H. Fowler in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society last December appears to remove one of the most serious difficulties in the way of their acceptance.
In concluding this brief notice there remains only room for remark on the extraordinary manner in which progress in our knowledge of the largest aggregates of matter in the universe depends upon like progress with regard to its smallest elements.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF ART
A Short History of Art: From Prehistoric Times to the Present Day. For the use of Students and General Readers. Translated from the French of Dr. A. S. BLUM. Edited and Enlarged by R. R. TATLOCK. (21s. net. Batsford.)
Among the multitude of books on art, a clear and concise history such as this is welcome. We have books in which
the critic assumes the rôle of a dictator in matters of taste. We have others on how to study pictures, which profess to help the student to form his own judgment. We have inquiries on "What is Art,' The Philosophy of Art," and recently we have the astonishing spectacle of a professional art critic writing a thesis to prove that all art is a manifestation of the powers of evil. Amid all this one reads Dr. André Blum's short history with a sense of relief and of having firm ground under one's feet. Here are the outstanding facts in art history, here the accepted masterpieces, and such and such the environment of the men who produced them.
Dr. Blum is thoroughly qualified to write a general account of art history. He writes without bias and preaches no doctrine, but has given us a simple, unprejudiced survey of the art of the countries which are of interest to Europeans. The work of translation and adaptation to the needs of English readers has been ably carried out by Mr. R. R. Tatlock, editor of The Burlington Magazine. It is difficult to understand the point of view of those who consider that general histories of this kind are useless. We believe the reverse to be the case and that we owe a great debt to the authors of the outlines" of history, literature, art, and science, which have appeared recently. For the general reader a grasp of the salient features of the history of the world is surely the main objective, and is quite another matter from the little knowledge which is a dangerous thing. Such a general survey is made possible only through the work of the specialists and the peculiar genius for selection and condensation possessed by such writers as Dr. Blum. Looked at from this standpoint the spadework of the specialists is only a means to an end: the end being the amount of usefulness and enjoyment which is added to the life of the ordinary man through the medium of such an admirable summing-up as the present work. The book covers an immense range and a special section has been added, bringing the history down to the art of the present day. In spite of the enormous field covered, the work is far from being a bald catalogue of artists and their works. The judicial attitude is preserved throughout as from one who has heard and weighed all the evidence. The right point is quietly emphasized in a way calculated to inspire confidence in his guide on the part of the student, and to refresh the memory of the more mature critic.
The illustrations are a representative collection of masterpieces in the several arts dealt with, and are of inexhaustible interest until one comes with a shock to some of the so-called chef d'œuvres of the modernists, to which the test of ages has yet to be applied. Let it be granted that both Cézanne and Van Gogh were sincere in their endeavours. Their reputation appears to rest on these endeavours rather than their performance, and there seems no justification for the inclusion of such works as the former's bathers and the latter's portrait of a postman. The difficulties of the art historian who would bring his work up to date are great. When we remember that a well-known cubist has requested that a picture of his should be removed from the national collection because he now considers it to be "the world's worst picture"; and that a former rebel, now an associate of the Academy, has announced in The Times that he is an admirer of 'Pinkie"; that a gifted dramatic critic is anxious to "fight for ever for Jacob Epstein," oblivious of the fact that the world's great art wins by peaceful persuasion and has needed no militant champions, we are forced to the conclusion that all this may have a place in the history of self-advertisement, but it can have no permanent place in the history of art.
Minor Notices and Books of the Month
(1) The Art and Craft of Drawing: a Study both of the Practice of Drawing and of its Aesthetic Theory as Understood Among Different Peoples and at Different Epochs; Especial Reference being made to the Construction of the Human Form from the Practical Draughtsman's Point of View. By V. BLAKE. (18s. net. Oxford University Press.)
(2) Drawing for Children and Others. By V. BLAKE. (бs. net. Oxford University Press.)
Mr. Vernon Blake's books are a strange mixture of aesthetic theory, catholicity of taste, and technical instruction. In such ambitious works it is confusing to find mistakes in elementary perspective in diagrams which purport to be a guide to the uninitiated. On the first page of The Art and Craft of Drawing we are informed that "it is now many years since I read the often splendid, but as frequently inconsequent, prose of Ruskin." We would remind Mr. Vernon Blake that Ruskin also wrote "The Elements of Perspective," and that that book is a trustworthy guide for Ichildren and others," despite his incapacity for " concatenated thinking." There is, however, much in these books of Mr. Blake's of interest. His enthusiasm is as rash as
Ruskin's own, though perhaps not so infectious. He has undoubtedly thought much on the theory of art, and, though we cannot recommend his book to "children," the larger work will repay perusal by the "others." On the strength of the fact that he was unfortunate in the instruction he received in his youth, he throws out the offensive generalization, that drawing masters are "beings who pretend to teach a subject they themselves have
failed to understand, other wise they would not be filling the
The Beginnings of Art in the Public Schools. By MARGAREt E.
Children's Coloured Paper Work. By Prof. F. CIZEK. (12s. 6d.
HUBBARD. (12s. 6d. net. Breamore, nr. Salisbury: The
English Gothic Churches: The Story of their Architecture. By
The Architecture of Ancient Rome: an Account of its Historic
The Life of James W. Alsop, LL.D., B.A. By His Wife. With an
The Interpreter Geddes: The Man and His Gospel. By AMELIA
No one comes creditably out of the business, and the reader is left with the impression that the fiction entitled Mr. Perrin and Mr. Traill is in essentials not untrue to fact, at any rate at Eton in the 1860's and 1870's. The best of Browning's work was no doubt his influence upon young men at Cambridge, which was excellent of its kind. He never obtained a tithe of the recognition which he coveted, but he probably obtained as much as he really deserved.
Edmund Burke. By B. NEWMAN. (8s. 6d. net. Bell.)
Mr. Newman is, we think, right in believing that there is room for another attempt at a brief biography of Burke, differing somewhat in aim and scope from the well-known contribution of the late Lord Morley to the English men of Letters" series. Besides giving the main facts, Mr. Newman has aimed at giving the substance of Burke's most important utterances in Burke's own words. By his skilled selection and emphasis, Mr. Newman has succeeded in conveying a vivid picture of the man, and a clear view of the political doctrine for which Burke's name stands. We may be permitted to express our surprise that the late Prof. C. E. Vaughan's contribution to the study of Burke has apparently escaped Mr. Newman's
Sir Isaac Newton: a Brief Account of his Life and Work. By
This book was written, says the author, because while she was in America during the War, and on her return to London, so many people reiterated the question put by an American editor : notice. Who is Patrick Geddes, anyway, and what does he stand for?" This is not an easy question to answer, because the mind of Geddes works by flashes of insight rather than by patient and deliberate thinking. As his pupil, Prof. J. Arthur Thomson, says, "Geddes' brain moves very quickly; he tires people with his rapidity; he lives at high altitudes, and when he lifts his friends up, they suffer from mountain sickness." The author of this book, who has caught the spirit of Boswell, gives her impression, obtained at first hand, of Geddes' life and work, and she does it well, showing successfully that his versatility is the mark of genius and not of shallowness. The book is enriched by an introduction by Mr. Zangwill, and by several other appreciations by persons of note.
Oscar Browning. By H. E. WORTHAM. (16s. net. Constable.)
This excellent biography will inevitably make a different appeal according as the reader did or did not know "O.B.," and did or did not know at first hand something of the "O. B.” legend at Cambridge. But to many an outsider, so remarkable a personality, so rich and extraordinary a mixture of contradictions, was bound to become familiar by repute. And then, though the part that Oscar Browning played in English education was a curious one, yet he certainly did play a part over a long stretch of years, and so his well-informed biographer is able to make the story illustrative of a great part of English education in the nineteenth century. In this sense the book makes a very wide appeal. The part of it relating to Eton makes sorry reading
Many people will have had their interest in Newton freshly
Memoirs of Henry Arthur Morgan, Master of Jesus College,
MR. J. H. REYNOLDS, whose death on July 17 has been announced in the press, was one of the great pioneers of technical education in the north. He was formerly Principal of the Municipal School of Technology, Manchester, and Director of Higher Education in the same city.
Euripides. The Cyclops. Edited by D. M. SIMMONDS and R. R. TIMBERLAKE. (3s. Cambridge University Press.)
This is almost an ideal little edition of a Green play which should interest schoolboys as much as Odyssey IX. The introduction contains an excellent comparison with the "Ichneutae of Sophocles, and the notes-concise and to the point-show a remarkable understanding of boys' needs. The frontispiece from a Greek vase gives a very attractive appearance to a pleasing little volume, which we strongly recommend to those who are looking for something at once attractive and scholarly for their Greek reading classes.
The Wandering Scholars. By HELEN WADDELL. (218. net. Constable.)
Miss Waddell explains that this fine study was begun as an introduction to a book of translations from medieval Latin lyric, soon to be published, and that it outgrew the original intention, without outgrowing its limitations. The student of medievalism will feel deeply indebted to the author, and indirectly also to Lady Margaret Hall, which made the research practicable. Miss Waddell carries her load of learning with an air, and for our part we much appreciate her way of quite literally elucidating an obscure theme. A scholarly and exhaustive bibliography adds materially to the value of the book. Primum Graius Homo: an Anthology of Latin Translations from the Greek, from Ennius to Livy. With an Introductory Essay and Running Commentary. By B. FARRINGTON. (8s. 6d. net. Cambridge University Press.)
The dependence of Latin literature upon Greek has been known to the scholarly world from the days of Macrobius to those of Henry Nettleship, but Mr. Farrington here presents us with a unique opportunity of realizing it for ourselves. His book consists of parallel passages from Greek and Latin authors, furnished with an instructive commentary upon the nature and extent of the indebtedness of the Roman to his Greek original. Before the selected passages comes a short essay, by way of introduction, upon this unique dependence of one literature upon another, which casts some quite unexpected sidelights upon many aspects of Latin literature. What Mr. Farrington has to say about patronage and the outstanding position of Lucretius and Catullus is singularly well put. But the main value of the book is the convincing testimony afforded by the parallel passages. These are in six sections dealing respectively with Ennius, Cicero (early period), Lucretius, Catullus, Cicero (later period), and Vergil. Scholars will find Mr. Farrington's commentary upon these passages peculiarly illuminating. All of the above are verse passages; there follow prose selections from Cicero and Livy which make us feel the wonderful skill of these writers in appreciating the diversity of the genius of the Latin and Greek languages.
Demosthenes and his Influence. By Prof. C. D. ADAMS. (5s. net. Harrap.)
Here is yet another interesting addition to the series "Our Debt to Greece and Rome." Prof. Adams, in his account of the life of Demosthenes, boldly faces the problem of whether his
statesmanship was sound or not in the lead which he gave the Athenians against Philip. The question must be decided, as Prof. Adams rightly holds, by an examination of Demosthenes' attitude during the five critical years following the peace of Philocrates. The account of these years, which this book contains, seems to us to be both fair and shrewd. The outstanding feature of the oratory of Demosthenes, alike in the political and in the private speeches, Prof. Adams finds to be originality or independence of the set rules of the rhetoricians. Other points, such as powers of invective, lack of humour, &c., are fully dealt with. Then come chapters dealing with the influence of Demosthenes in classical antiquity and in modern Europe, while the last traces his influence upon English and American oratory.
The Works of Aristotle. Translated into English under the Editorship of Prof. W. D. Ross. Vol. VII. Problemata. By E. S. FORSTER. (158. net. Clarendon Press.)
A philosopher, says Plato, will despise nothing, and remembering the young Theaetetus we are willing to take an interest in most things, but would it not have been well to leave at least the fourth book of the present volume in the obscurity of a foreign Problemata language? The is not an authentic Aristotelian work, and its addition to the Oxford translations can do little to enhance the fame of that excellent series. Not that Mr. Forster's translation is in any sense unworthy; on the contrary it is excellent (he had already proved his mettle by translating the "Oeconomica" in the same series) but, to put it bluntly, the subject-matter seems scarcely worthy of the scholarship which has been expended upon it.
Martial and the Modern Epigram. By P. NIXON. (5s. net. Harrap.)
Had Mr. Nixon not been writing for the series "Our Debt to Greece and Rome " he might have produced a very good book on Martial. Even as it is the opening chapters on the epigram and Martial's life are written with a vivacity and humour which make them a pleasure to read. But the necessity which the series lays upon him of tracing the influence of his author upon all subsequent writers in all subsequent ages of all civilized nations is too much even for Mr. Nixon's spirit. His speed slackens, and the reader yawns.
Asianic Elements in Greek Civilization: the Gifford Lectures in the University of Edinburgh, 1915-1916. By Sir W. M. RAMSAY. (12s. net. Murray.) Latin Prose Unseens. By A. E. JACKSON. (Iod. Harrap.) Selections from Virgil. With Introduction, Notes, and Vocabulary by J. C. ROBERTSON, J. S. BENNETT, and D. A. GLASSEY. (2s. 6d. Harrap.)
First Latin Lessons: for Juniors and Senior High Schools. By CARRIE A. PARSONS and Dr. C. E. LITTLE. (3s. 6d. Heath.) Virgil's Aeneid, Book 2. Adapted for the Use of Beginners. Interspersed with English Translations by O. G. E. MCWILLIAM. (2s. Macmillan.)
The Life of Rome: Illustrative Passages from Latin Literature Selected and Translated by H. L. ROGERS and R. R. HARLEY: Being an English Edition, Revised and Amplified, of Roman Home Life and Religion. (6s. net. Clarendon Press.)
"This little book was prepared for use with elementary classes at the University of Arkansas." There is little to distinguish it from many other elementary text-books, while the exercise material is lacking in originality. A very good verbappendix and vocabulary are included by the author. The French Poets of the Twentieth Century: an Anthology. Chosen by Prof. L. E. KASTNER. With an Introduction and Literary Appreciations. (7s. 6d. net. Dent.)
There has been remarkable output of French poetry since the beginning of this century, and Prof. Kastner has done well to compile this anthology containing representative works by fifty
modern poets; there are from three to eight poems by each. There is an excellent introduction dealing with the main currents of French poetry during the last quarter of a century, and an appreciation of the works of each author in the anthology. It is clear that great pains have been taken over this part of the work, for which lovers of French literature have every reason to be grateful.
Contes Dramatiques, with French Songs, Exercises, Directions for
Contes de Minnie. By A. LICHTENBERger.
Maria Chapdelaine. By L. HÉMON. Edited by E. A. PHILLIPS.
A Beginner's Spanish Grammar.
By Prof. A. A. SHAPIRO.
(7s. net. The University of North Carolina Press. London : Öxford University Press.)
A French Course. By Dr. M. W. MURRAY and E. CASATI. Part III. (4s. Rivingtons.)
Some Primary Methods. By Laura G. SLOMAN. (7s. 6d. net. New York: Macmillan.) This, if we may say so, is from end to end a woman's book, full of womanly insight, sympathy and intelligence. We like it none the less because, by the confession of its author, now unhappily deceased, "it does not attempt to be ultra-scientific,” as a large proportion of American pedagogical treatises do. The book is really a series of talks, addressed by an experienced teacher to the young teacher of the present time, on the problems that arise when modern ideas on elementary teaching have to be worked out under conditions that may be anything but ideal. English teachers of young children may well gain inspiration and practical help from this message from across the waters.
The Board of Education. By Sir L. A. SELBY-BIGGE. (7S. 6d. net. Putnam.)
This is a plain, straightforward account, mostly in the style of an official report, of what has been done and is being done for education by the Department of which, for many years, the writer was administrative head, whilst ministry after ministry rose and fell. He does not profess to supply a history of our national education, even within prescribed limits of time. But such an ordered array of facts and comments, set forth on such high authority, will be extremely useful to the future historian, as well as to the contemporary student of education. We may be permitted to express the hope that, having got this somewhat solemn record off his mind, the author will bring himself to give us something more personal and human and entertaining. It would have its uses, as well as its delights.
Modern Educational Theories. By Prof. B. H. BODE. (7s. 6d. net. New York: Macmillan.)
Prof. Bode aims at helping the reader to find his way among modern educational theories. He begins with a chapter on democracy (which he defines as a social organization that aims to promote co-operation among its members and with other groups on the basis of mutual recognition of interests") and proceeds to show that education is an essential factor in achieving true democracy. After critical chapters on curriculum-making, the project method, the behaviouristic psychology, and the students at present in the American colleges, he makes a strong plea for a new aim in education, a social aim, in fact the attainment of democracy.
Libraries and Adult Education: a Study by the American Library Association. (10s. 6d. net. New York: Macmillan.) This book supplements the excellent volumes on adult education which have recently been produced by the Carnegie Corporation. It is an admirable publication, covering the whole field in the States, and referring frequently to the practice of other countries. Especially to be recommended are its full bibliography, and the appendices which describe in detail various library experiments in reading courses and in work with the boys and girls who have left school. Most of the book applies equally well to English conditions, and it is full of stimulating suggestions both for librarians and educational workers. Permanent Play Materials for Young Children. By CHARLOTTE G. GARRISON. (6s. net. Scribner.)
A most stimulating and practical book, describing the gymnasium and toy apparatus suitable for young children. The pictures of children at work and play are delightful, and addresses are given where each toy described can be obtained. An English edition with similar information for this country would be extremely useful. Prof. Patty Hill writes an introduction pointing out the importance of toys to children : The unresponsiveness of things-the fact that they cannot be cajoled or swayed by his whims-introduces the child to the inevitableness of Nature and her laws."
The Foundations of Education: A Survey of Principles and Projects. By Prof. J. J. FINDLAY. Vol. II. The Practice of Education. (10s. 6d. net. University of London Press.) Two years have elapsed since the first volume of this treatise appeared. In that volume Prof. Findlay dealt with the aims and the organization of education. In this second volume he fulfils his promise to deal with the practice of education, i.e. with the actual educational process, in its various parts and aspects, as it takes place day by day and hour by hour in any schoolroom. Every page of the book bears the mark of that extensive knowledge and easy mastery which only long experience, accompanied by energetic thinking, can confer. To one who has known Prof. Findlay's earlier books ever since their
publication, it is interesting to observe how closely he has followed the intervening changes. A typical example is his treatment of what he used to call method, and what he now calls procedure, in teaching. The whole book is characterized by a breadth of outlook and a freedom from pedantic detail which will make it profitable reading for students of education, whether young or no longer young.
Handbook of Suggestions for the Consideration of Teachers and Others Concerned in the Work of Public Elementary Schools. (2s. net. H.M.S.O.)
The old Education Department used to issue "Instructions to Inspectors." The new and better way is to issue " Suggestions for Teachers." The change is doubly significant. The central authority has substituted suggestion for instruction, and it deals directly with the teacher, instead of telling the inspector what he should require of the teacher. Though the Board rightly disclaim any intention of providing a complete manual of method, they have allowed the book to become larger and more adequate, and they have wisely put it in a cloth cover. The book should attract the renewed attention of experienced teachers, and it should be used in the training colleges, the nurseries of the profession.
(1) The Story of Scottish Education. By G. STEWART. Pitman.)
(5s. net. (2) Duncan Dewar, a Student of St. Andrews 100 Years Ago: His Accounts. With a Commentary by the late Sir P. R. S. LANG. (7s. 6d. net. Glasgow: Jackson, Wylie.)
(1) The first of these two books provides exceedingly well something that was really wanted-a history of Scottish education that is at once brief, complete within its limits, trustworthy as to its facts, and readable. But to say merely that Mr. Stewart's book is readable is to do him injustice; it is interestingly and vigorously written. To Scottish readers the book will make immediate appeal. For English readers whose knowledge of Scottish education is vague, this book is the very thing. (2) "Duncan Dewar's Accounts, 1819-1827" may be regarded as a concrete commentary on an aspect of Mr. Stewart's book. Duncan was a student at St. Andrews a century ago. His accounts, strictly kept, fell into the hands of the late Sir Peter Scott Lang, Professor of Mathematics, who prepared a commentary on them. The whole is now published with an introduction by Lord Sands. An interesting light is thrown, not only on Duncan's economy, but also upon social customs of the time, and especially upon university life and regulations. Education in Australia: a Comparative Study of the Educational Systems of the Six Australian States. By P. R. COLE, A. J. SCHULZ, F. C. THOMPSON, J. A. Johnson, W. CLUBB, G. S. BROWNE. Edited by G. S. BROWNE. (21s. net. Macmillan.) Among the Danes. By Prof. E. W. KNIGHT. (IIS. 6d. net. University of North Carolina Press. London: Oxford University Press.)
The Quality of the Educational Process in the United States and in Europe. By W. S. LEARNED. (New York: The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.)
Dental Education in the United States and Canada: a Report to the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. By W. J. GIES. (New York: The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.)
New York at School: a Description of the Activities and Adminis-
On Leaving School and the Choice of a Career. By Sir C. C.