Imágenes de página
[blocks in formation]

London University School Examinations.

G. denotes the General School Examination,

J. the Junior Examination.

Chaucer. The Prologue. By A. J. WYATT, M.A. 1s. 9d. (G.)
Macaulay. Essay on Addison. By A. R. WEEKES, M.A
Pope. Rape of the Lock. By A. F. WATT, M.A. 2s. (G.)
Shakespeare. Coriolanus. (Matriculation Edition.) By G. E.
HOLLINGWORTH, M.A. Cloth, 2s.; Paper Covers, 1s. 6d.
Henry IV, Part I. (Matriculation Edition.) By G. E.
HOLLINGWORTH, M.A. Cloth, 2s.; Paper Covers, 1s. 6d.
Henry IV, Part I. (Tutorial Edition.) By A. J. F.



(G.) (G.)

Orford School Certificate and Junior
Local Examinations.

S. denotes the School Certificate Examination,
J. the Junior Examination.

Chaucer. The Prologue to the Canterbury Tales. By A. J. WYATT, M.A. 1s. 9d. (S.)

Shakespeare. As You Like It. By A. R. WEEKES, M.A. 2s. 6d.




Henry V. By A. J. F. COLLINS, M.A. 3s. Julius Caesar. By A. F. WATT, M.A. 2s. 6d. Merchant of Venice. (Tutorial Edition.) By S. E. GOGGIN, M.A. 2s. 6d. (S.) Merchant of Venice. (Matriculation Edition.) By S. E. GOGGIN, M.A. Cloth, 2s.; Paper Covers, 1s. 6d. (S.) The Tempest. (Tutorial Edition.) By A. R. WEEKES, M.A. 2s. 6d. (S.)

The Tempest. (Junior Edition.) By A. R. WEEKES, M.A., and FREDERICK ALLEN, M.A. 2s. (J.)

Cambridge School Certificate and Junior
Local Examinations.

S. denotes the School Certificate Examination,
J. the Junior Examination.

King Lear. By S. E. GOGGIN, M.A. 3s.
Midsummer Night's Dream. By A. F. WATT, M.A. 2s. 6d.
Much Ado About Nothing. By S. E. GOGGIN, M.A. 3s. (G.)
Richard II. By A. F. WATT, M.A. 2s. 6d.
Twelfth Night. By H. C. DUFFIN, M.A. 2s. 6d. (J.)
Winter's Tale. By A. J. F. COLLINS, M.A. 2s. 6d.


Orford and Cambridge Schools Examination

Board Certificates.

S. denotes the School Certificate Examination, L. the Lower Certificate Examination.

Milton. Comus. By S. E. GOGGIN, M.A., and A. F. WATT, M.A. 1s. 3d. (S.) Milton. Sonnets. By A. R. WEEKES, M.A. Third Edition. 1s. 3d. (S.) Scott. Marmion. By FREDERICK ALLEN, M.A. 2s. 3d. (J.) Shakespeare. King Lear. By S. E. GOGGIN, M.A. 3s. (S.) Merchant of Venice. (Tutorial Edition.) By S. E. GOGGIN, M.A. 2s. 6d. (S.) Merchant of Venice. (Matriculation Edition.) By S. E. GOGGIN, M.A. Cloth, 2s.; Paper Covers, 1s. 6d. (S., J.)

[blocks in formation]

University Tutorial Press Ld., High Street, New Oxford Street, London, W.C. 2

Printed in Gt. Britain by THE CAMPFIELD PRESS, St. Albans and Published for the Proprietors by Mr. WILLIAM RICE, Three Ludgate Broadway, London, EC

[merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors]

Co-education, by the Rev. Canon E. Lyttelton, J. H. Badley,
M.A. (Bedales), J. Wicksteed, M.A. (King Alfred School),
C. Brightwen Rowntree, B.A. (Friends' School, Saffron Walden),
and Alice Woods; The League of Nations and the Schools, by
Mabel King Beer, Dr. Maxwell Garnett (League of Nations
Union), and The Writer of the Article; The Manifesto of the
Incorporated Association of Assistant Masters, by Member of the
Education Committee of the I.A.A.M.; Technical Education,
by A. E. Evans, Ex-President A.T.T.I., and H. Hall, President,

L.R.A.M., Central School of Speech Training and
Dramatic Art

[ocr errors]
[blocks in formation]












[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small]

The problem of the "school leaver" is ever with us, and is certainly no less insistent in this generation than in the last. What to do with our boys-and our girlsis the question which faces parents, teachers, and other advisers, sometimes including in these days the psychologist. It is to be feared that, for the masses of children who leave the elementary schools at the age of 14, the problem known as that of vocational guidance has little reality or relevance. Whether or not they feel a call to a job, the stern fact is that it is the job that calls them, and they have little or no choice in the matter. A shopkeeper round the corner wants a boy, and there the boy more or less gladly goes.

By a large and important part of the population, however, the problem of the boy's or girl's vocation is beginning to be taken seriously. More than ever before, the intelligent parent realizes the unwisdom of trying to fit round pegs into square holes for reasons of mere convenience or convention. The help of the teacher is being more than ever sought and offered, and the resources of science are being brought to bear, though in a necessarily tentative fashion. And every one concerned will listen attentively to a man who combines in himself human feeling, shrewd judgment, a true sense of relative values, and the best kind of worldly wisdom. Such a man, we judge, is Sir Charles Wakefield, whose book entitled, " On Leaving School and the Choice of a Career," has just been issued by Messrs. Hodder & Stoughton. Not often, we think, is a book which is so full of good things to be had at so modest a price as three shillings and sixpence.

We have said that for the children of the masses very little choice of occupation actually exists. Sir Charles Wakefield makes an incidental remark which affords a good deal of consolation in that matter. He quite frankly avers that for most of us (most of us being just average people) any one of quite a number of occupations would suit as well as another. "It is perhaps possible to say that A has an eye for colour and design, B a head for figures, or C is handy with hammer and chisel; but there are several trades and professions consistent with each of these general subdivisions." He concludes that fathers and mothers whose children are "not visited by the compelling power of genius" have a comparatively simple task, so that the influence of parents or friends in a certain direction may very well settle the matter. The really difficult problem is that of the child of marked ability and intelligence who by reason of the straitened circumstances of the parents has to earn money at the earliest possible age; and this problem is by no means completely solved by our present system of scholarships and allowances.

[ocr errors]

Taking the case of boys who leave the public and secondary schools, Sir Charles Wakefield deals first with those occupations which provide a safe career, the end of which can be pretty clearly foreseen from the beginning. Such occupations include the Civil Service in its several branches and grades, banking, insurance, and teaching. These occupations belong to the safety first class. They imply an assured but a limited position, and they imply security of tenure. To be distinguished from these is "the broad highway that lies before a boy who takes a minor position in an office, but who according to his ability and resource, may rise to any position up to that of a merchant prince or a captain of industry. The case of the girl is complicated by the obvious fact that at any time she may adopt the ancient and honourable profession of matrimony. For that reason, and no doubt for others also, the tendency is to restrict the business girl to work of a routine character.

One of the outstanding features of this book is that its author, a distinguished and highly respected leader in the world of business, and a very prominent figure in the City of London, lays enormous stress upon a good general education, and has no sympathy with any scheme of premature vocational training. We observe also that he does not join in the frequent condemnation of the elementary schools and of the teachers in those schools. He knows too much about the difficulties under which they labour, and of what can be properly achieved with children under 14 years of age.


ingredient of a general education, whether in the elementary or in the secondary school, upon which he lays greatest stress, is English, taking that term in its broadest sense. It is good to know that one who is not a professional teacher has studied carefully the report of the departmental committee on the teaching of English, though his own easy mastery of the art of writing English quite explains his interest in that subject. He deplores the unfortunate tradition that it is "businesslike" to thank a correspondent for his letter “ of even date,' to beg to inform him " that "the same shall ' receive attention," to refer to "our Mr. Jones," to quote " him such a price, and, finally, to assure him of our best attention at all times." We hope that the author's remarks on the use of the King's English will find their way into the hands not only of young persons

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

leaving school, but also of heads of business concerns everywhere.

Last, but by no means least, we trust that this highly successful man's remarks upon success, as he has seen and known it, will sink deep into the mind of many a young reader. A generation brought up on Smiles and his like is still apt to measure success too exclusively in terms of material gain, although a tragedy like that of the late Jimmy" White now and then pulls us up


[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

sharp. Sir Charles Wakefield quotes with telling effect the wise man who once said that the secret of success in life is known only to those who have never succeeded. There is," he says, a profound truth in this seeming paradox," which he takes to mean that "success is not an end in itself, and that those who make some material objective their goal, and think that in its achievement they have gained all, are ignorant both of their true selves, and of the possibilities of life."

Occasional Notes.

'HE Adult Education Committee of the Board of Education has recently issued a report (Natural Science in Adult Education: Paper No. 8. 54 pp. H.M. Stationery Office. Price 6d. net) Natural Science which will rank as one of the most in Adult Education: useful contributions it has yet made to the important subject it is considering. There is, perhaps, no need for us to justify the adjective "important": it becomes increasingly clear that, if the full value is to be derived from our schemes, adults no less than children must be enabled to have their share in them. Not only is this necessary in order to avoid the estrangement which must develop between the informed and the ignorant; it becomes essential in view of widened powers of suffrage and in view of the growing tendency of men and women to inquire more closely into the social and economic structure wherein they live. But while studies such as literature, history, and economics have become very popular with adults, the report shows that the demand for natural science subjects is comparatively small, the number of courses. recognized during the session 1925-26 under the Adult Education Regulations being only 47 out of 1,224 (935 students out of a total of 26,806). A large part of the report is therefore rightly directed to an excellent restatement of the value of scientific studies. Some phrases in that restatement are well worth reproduction: If they (students) once can be persuaded to take up the study of science, they find that it is as attractive, and has as great a bearing on social conditions, as the study of economics": "to be ignorant of its influences and lessons is to belong to the past and to distrust the future"":"It involves the rejection of authority and the habit of scepticism in the domain of reason." The

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

spirit of investigation should be encouraged so that the

feeling of hostility to new discoveries, based on prejudice against innovation, may be dissipated."


Present Neglect of Science :

"LEARLY, however, statistics show that in adult education, natural science studies are not in great demand in spite of the excellent classes which are conducted in certain localities, and Reasons for the report gives several reasons for this neglect. One of the most important reasons appears to be that advanced by Sir Richard Gregory and quoted in the report. Briefly it is that there is a tendency for science to be regarded as a thing apart from spiritual and social progress. Doubtless our method of training science teachers is, in a large measure, responsible. The honours graduate in physics may have no knowledge of biology, and the graduate in biology may be quite unacquainted with the chemical conditions which underlie his work. Specialization in its cold and rigid sense does not appeal to the adult. A unification of knowledge is essential. It is the inter

actions and the implications of many sciences on modern social life which give the humane quality which alone attracts the adult. And it cannot be too often repeated that, in adult education, conditions almost entirely different from other branches of education must be faced. Particularly must it be remembered that "adults must be free to select their own subjects of study, and to have some part in the choice of their tutors and the syllabuses which they are to follow." One of the greatest difficulties, therefore, will be to find "teachers of wide knowledge who are capable of inspiring interest in natural science as the study of the conditions of human action."

What Subjects may be Studied ?

FROM the evidence before the Committee, it seems clear that biology has particular attractions for the adult student. Laboratory requirements are not so great as in other sciences, and the student's own observations and experiences can be easily related to his study. Geology fulfils similar conditions, but physics (except from the point of view of recent developments treated in a broad way) does not lend itself so easily because considerable mathematical knowledge is required and special apparatus is essential, at least to the lecturer. Since the War gave a great impetus to the study of history, the human interest of science by means of lectures on the history of science can be brought out clearly. The biographical method lends itself not only to a treatment of methods of investigation, but also to dramatic incident which frequently provides the kind of background against which the adult student can most clearly see the process by which modern society has evolved.

WHEN the Report on the Education of the Adoles

cent was published some seven months ago, educationists were pretty well unanimous in agreeing that its most important recommendaThe School tion was that the school-leaving age Leaving Age: should be raised to 15 in five years" time. The action of Lord Eustace Percy, who hastened to make it clear that the Government had no intention of introducing the necessary legislation, caused much disappointment and aroused considerable criticism. One of the points he made was that the adoption of the recommendation would unduly disturb the plans and programmes which the Local Authorities had already formulated. It is therefore highly significant that the Association of Education Committees, at its annual general meeting in June last, expressed the opinion that the age of obligation to attend school should be raised to 15 years, and that six years should be suggested as the period to elapse before the new regulation came into force. This action of the Local Authorities is of the first importance, because it turns into practical politics what

educationists had been forced by the President of the Board to regard as an academic question. Moreover, the action is all the more significant because the original

resolution, which stated that the period of five years mentioned in the report was insufficient, was strengthened in the manner we have indicated. There is a great difference between saying that you cannot do a thing in five years and saying that you can do it, and that it ought to be done, in six years.


Will the Government Move ?

N attempt has already been made to ascertain whether this declaration is likely to result in a modification of the President's attitude. He was asked in the House whether he had considered the resolution of the Association of Education Committees and whether, in view of the statement in his letter of January last to the effect that his reason for not carrying out the recommendation of the Consultative Committee was that, by so doing, he would disturb the plans of Local Education Authorities, he was now prepared to introduce legislation raising the leaving age to fifteen. In replying he said that last January he invited Local Authorities again, as he had already done two years ago, to formulate their views on the question of the schoolleaving age, and that in March he asked them to undertake comprehensive surveys of the ultimate requirements of their areas in respect of post-primary education. He hoped that the resolution indicated an intention on the part of Authorities to undertake such surveys, which few of them had yet done. Meanwhile he was prepared to consider proposals for raising the age, and he had already approved proposals made by Cornwall and Plymouth. Thus, in effect, he refused to say whether the attitude of the Government had been in any way changed, and his suggestion that comprehensive surveys should be undertaken appears to indicate that no action will be taken until these surveys are complete. This would mean a serious postponement of the matter.




HE caution shown by Lord Eustace is easily explicable. It may be that the Government as a whole has not seriously considered the matter, and that the President was therefore not in a What we position to commit himself on Think. important point of policy in answer to a question. Still, we wish he had been a little more encouraging. He still appears to cling to the idea that the leaving-age can be raised piecemeal by the action of individual Local Authorities. If we read the resolution of the Association of Education Committees aright, it a repudiation of this suggestion. The Local Authorities want legislation which shall fix a definite date. And is it really fair to ask them to undertake comprehensive surveys" without fixing such a date? Their estimate of the ultimate requirements of their areas must depend very largely on whether or not the age is to be raised, and we have no doubt that it was with a view to the formulation of the necessary programmes that they passed the resolution. We agree that there is much still to be done. The planning of a fouryear course for all children in what we hope will be secondary schools of different types, cannot be accomplished in a day. But we must lay emphasis on the fact that the Local Authorities say in effect that they can find the teachers, that they can afford to build the necessary schools, and that in six years they can be

[ocr errors]

ready with their plans. Why, then, does the Government hesitate?


A MODEST paragraph of a few lines announced the completion of the purchase of the Bloomsbury site by the University of London. A gift of £250 has been received by the University to The Bloomsbury enable a preliminary study of the best method of developing the site to be made. This is welcome recognition of the need for a coherent plan. Not only has the general character of the buildings to be decided, but also questions relating to the closing of roads and the provision of open spaces. The Vice-Chancellor has pleaded for a "sky-line," suggesting towers, domes, or minarets. Though the bulk of the buildings will necessarily be planned on lines of business and economy, there should be one or more characteristic architectural features. A long view must be taken of the way in which university education in London will develop in the future, especially as regards the future needs for research facilities in various arts and sciences. Already several distinguished architects, including Prof. A. E. Richardson, Prof. Adshead, and Mr. H. V. Lanchester have published sketch plans and elevations, all possessing merits and demonstrating the possibility of a development worthy of the site and of the city.

THE Lord Mayor of London entertained a distinguished company at the Mansion House in support of the appeal for a University of London sports ground and boat-house. He was able to announce that the scheme was strongly supported by the Prince of Wales, an honorary graduate of the University, The sports

Sports for London University.

and by Lord Rosebery, its Chancellor. ground is at Motspur Park and the boat-house is at Chiswick. The prime cost is £22,000, towards which £13,000 has already been collected, but a large additional sum will be required for levelling and buildings. Lord Birkenhead keenly welcomed the enterprise, saying with truth that the minds of students must not always be fixed on study. "He was sure that people became much more useful for some lighter element in their lives, and of all those lighter elements he placed sport as the highest." From the view-point of health, life in London is becoming more and more difficult, and it is well that the University should recognize its responsibility towards the health of the students who are coming to London in increasing numbers to take advantage of the educational facilities which the University and its colleges are able to offer.

ACADEMIC London spent a somewhat strenuous week

University College.

in celebrating the centenary of University College. The King and Queen opened the ceremonies on June 23, and on the following day Prince Arthur of Connaught dedicated the new Great Hall, provided as a combined centenary and War memorial. For the purpose of the Hall, the College acquired the disused and dismantled Church of All Saints, behind the College buildings, and the Hall as reconstructed will seat 1,500 people. Mr. H. A. L. Fisher, always a vigorous champion of university education, delivered the centenary oration on Our Universities," and many public lectures, plays, and exhibitions were arranged. Other universities throughout the world sent delegates and addresses. An

[ocr errors]

amount of £117,440 has been collected towards a centenary fund of £500,000 to meet urgent needs for further endowment, buildings, and equipment. This includes a generous gift of £25,000 from the Rockefeller Foundation for the endowment of the Department of Pharmacology, and the Foundation has also supplemented by £93,178 its previous gifts to the Departments of Anatomy and Physiology.


R. E. CHANDLER COOK, the Education Secretary for Plymouth, has written a pamphlet on "Plymouth in relation to the University Scheme of the SouthWest." His immediate purpose is to University of stimulate the generosity of Plymouth the South-West. citizens and to justify the regional solution proposed for university education in this part of the country. A sense of common life and union with each other in matters educational," he says, "needs now to be recognized, and the obsession of separate, inde

[ocr errors]

pendent effort to cease." Plymouth has recognized this fundamental principle by handing over its buildings and funds to the Governing Body of the University College of the South-West. Under the division of labour proposed, Exeter will provide arts and pure science, and Plymouth will provide engineering, economics, and commerce, law, pharmacy, and possibly, in course of time, medicine. Having regard to the distance from Exeter to Plymouth, the practical difficulties of this method of organization are sure to be formidable. Objection may even be raised to the name of the proposed university, for there is no authorized region of England known as the " South-West," a name which suggests a railway rather than a university. The great point, however, is that the urgency of the problem is recognized. Equality of opportunity, "constantly on the lips of the people as a potent factor of deliverance from unrest," will remain an empty phrase if local facilities for university education are not provided.

THE 'HE Canadian supplement of The Times included an article on Canadian universities by Sir Arthur Currie, the well-known Principal of McGill University. Canadian universities offer a pale reflecCanadian tion of our religious and educational


[ocr errors]

controversies of the nineteenth century. As one progresses westward, the privately-endowed universities, often with a religious basis, give place to the State universities of the western provinces. "Let it be clear at once," says Sir Arthur Currie, that we can never deny the debt we owe to the churches, which initiated almost every educational effort in Canada." Canada still has great Roman Catholic universities in Laval and Montreal. In other provinces, such as Manitoba and Ontario, a process of federation has been at work to build up strong universities such as Toronto, in which denominational colleges are partners. Both McGill and Toronto have gained international fame in science and medicine. In conclusion, Sir Arthur Currie eloquently described the universities of Canada as based upon the very soul of Canada," producing prophets and disciples of Canadianism, a new kind of national spirit which looks to the future, an idealism facing facts and depending neither on race nor origin.

LINCOLN COLLEGE, Oxford, has celebrated its quincentenary. Founded by two Bishops of Lincoln, at a time when the diocese extended from the

Lincoln College.

Humber to the Thames-was not the first Chancellor of Oxford University an Officer of Lincoln Cathedral ?-the College has supplied many distinguished men to Church and State. Originally devoted to theological training, the College gave a primate both to France and to England; but perhaps the most distinguished theological name in its roll is John Wesley. Among its alumni are several eminent headmasters-Bell of Marlborough, James of Rugby, and King of Clifton. Lord Morley combined scholarship and statesmanship, and Mark Pattison, scholar and critic, is an outstanding name in its long list of rectors. It is well to be reminded, in these days of large institutions, of the value of the work of a small foundation, and of the interest and significance of its history, recapitulating as it does the great movements in religion and learning.



AN interesting controversy at Cambridge relating to the position of Anglo-Saxon in university studies has ended by a friendly compromise. Hitherto AngloSaxon has been comprised in the group of medieval and modern languages. Linguistically, Anglo-Saxon is not a specially interesting study, and its study as a language has perhaps been overdone, especially in the case of English students whose interests are literary rather than linguistic. Under the new dispensation, Cambridge has formed a Board of English, and at first sight the inclusion of Anglo-Saxon within the jurisdiction of the Board would appear natural. But, as Prof. H. M. Chadwick points out, a combined study of Anglo-Saxon language, literature, history, and civilization (including both institutions and archaeology) forms a comprehensive course which will enable Cambridge to do for England what French, German, and Italian universities have done for the early history of their respective countries. The study of Anglo-Saxon and early Norse literature, as well as of Roman Britain, contributes to a true understanding of the early history and civilization of England, and it is true, as Prof. Chadwick says, that the study of Roman Britain has been left too much to local archaeological societies. logical societies. The result of the discussion is that Anglo-Saxon and kindred studies are to form a department of the Faculty of Archaeology and Anthropology; and to ensure liaison with the English Board, a representative of Anglo-Saxon will be included in that Board.

THE Queen performed the opening ceremony at

Crosby Hall, Chelsea, the club-house and hall of residence for women graduates of all nations, in connexion with the International FederCrosby Hall. ation of University Women. It will offer, as Prof. Caroline Spurgeon said, a pleasant communal life for university women, especially those-and especially those-and their number is increasing rapidly-engaged in research in arts or science. Crosby Hall is one of a chain of clubs created by the International Federation in various cities, such as Washington, Rome, Paris, and Athens. Several fellowships have been endowed to enable Dominion and other students to prosecute their research work and to reside in the Hall. We can well believe, as Prof. Spurgeon suggested, that such a meeting-place for students of

different nationalities will help to promote goodwill and friendship among the nations, the sure foundation on which the future peace of the world will be built.

« AnteriorContinuar »