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Council should also receive early consideration. Act of 1907 is causa causans of the present restricted programme of work, an amendment should be secured. The need for a Teachers Council with wide terms of reference was clearly recognized by Sir Robert Morant, Secretary of the Board of Education, in his report to the President of the Board, as the result of which the Order in Council of 1912 was issued. This desire for a Teachers Council," he wrote, seems now to be the dominating factor in the whole situation, almost to the exclusion, certainly (so far as I could gather) to the supersession for the time being, of any keen interest in the nature of the Register or the purpose it might serve or the difficulties to be solved in framing it." The position to-day remains much as it was when Sir Robert Morant wrote his report. There is still an unsatisfied desire for a powerful Teachers Council. Although the difficulties of forming" the register have been overcome, registration as a teacher, as a member of a most ancient and honourable profession,



confers at present no status-even in such small matters as signing an application for a passport. And a Teachers Council possessing the necessary authority could do most useful work in the encouragement of educational study, research, and propaganda, in expressing the collective view of teachers on new legislative and administrative proposals, in securing various privileges and immunities for members of the profession, and possibly even a title and official costume. We make these suggestions in no censorious spirit. Those who remember the chequered history of the movement-it must not be forgotten that one official Register of Teachers was abolished entirely—will recognize that professional solidarity is a plant of slow growth and will agree that the substantial progress made by the Council shortly to go out of office is a subject for thanks and congratulation. But it is clearly our duty to point out that the new Council will be faced by many unsolved problems, the solution of which will invigorate the educational



The Substance of Architecture. By A. S. G. BUTLER. (12S. net. Constable.)




When the author of this book is writing of architecture he is wholly convincing. It is not derogatory to say that he is less conclusive when he is discussing beauty in the abstract. He has succeeded in this somewhat fruitless inquiry as well or better than most of his predecessors; that is to say that neither he nor they have solved the riddle. Having accepted the dictum that beauty has no objective existence, and argued from this that the Albert Memorial was beautiful in 1875 but it is not so now, he goes on to say that aesthetic value is due to some particular quality in the object," and on another page he writes of "that unattainable perfection of beauty which does, I am convinced, exist beyond the perception of human minds." This brings us back to objectivity, and so we complete the circle, and arrive nowhere. All that can be said on this subject has been put in a few words by Emerson, who says that a landscape has beauty for the eye of man “because the same power which sees through his eye is seen in that spectacle."

But it is ungracious to quibble over these metaphysical obstacles, against which all writers on aesthetics seem impelled to break their shins. The author himself is only too relieved to leave them behind, and to get to the real business of the book; which is the interdependence of beauty and practical structure, and the emotional significance of line and form. All he has to say on this subject is illuminating. Fitness to function is a commonplace of architectural criticism, but we do not remember seeing so well put elsewhere the important distinction between the actual fitness of a building for its purpose, and the appearance of fitness and suitability in the significance of its architectural form. It is not possible, as some critics have attempted to do, to dissociate the so-called mere sensuous pleasure derived from the harmonious units of form and colour, from the pleasure we owe to emotional significance. The book is mainly occupied with tracing the emotional significance of architectural form, and the adjustment of this aesthetic quality to material requirements. tecture is successful when it perfectly fulfils the material requirements and, as well, has an appearance of justly significant beauty, these two qualities being adjusted to the position of the building in the general scale of utility. The brief summary of the argument given at the end is admirably lucid, and we venture to advise the reader to digest these axioms before reading the book. As Sir Edwin Lutyens says in the foreword, "Mr. Butler's essay gives indispensable help to all those earnest in the desire to reach beyond the clouds of words to the real substance of architecture."



Roman Society in Gaul in the Merovingian Age. By the late Sir SAMUEL DILL. (21s. net. Macmillan.) The late Sir Samuel Dill, in two great works published during his lifetime, made a permanent contribution to our knowledge and comprehension of the Roman Empire. These works treated of Roman society, the one in the first and second centuries of the Christian era, the other in the fourth and fifth. They were based on a wide and deep classical scholarship; on a reading of every available source, and on a remarkable power of co-ordination and interpretation. The results, moreover, of Sir Samuel's researches were conveyed in so attractive a style and with so sympathetic an appreciation, that the volumes in which they were embodied themselves at once became classics.

At the time of his lamented death, which occurred in May, 1924, Sir Samuel Dill was at work on a third volume, intended to carry forward the investigations of its two predecessors. Its subject was Merovingian Gaul from the fifth to the seventh century of the Christian era-roughly, A.D. 410-610. He had read the main chronicles of the period; he had studied the complex Leges Barbarorum; he had waded through most of the multitudinous and monss trous Vitae Sanctorum. He had even put much of himaterial into shape. But he had not finished his constructive work, and the final revision he had not so much as begun. Failing health compelled him to lay aside his uncompleted task, and to call in a friend to take it up and see it carried through. This friend was Prof. C. B. Armstrong, of Saint Columba's College, Dublin. With pious skill and perfect self-effacement he has accomplished his difficult and delicate duty, and he presents us in the book under review with the third and concluding member of Sir Samuel Dill's great trilogy.

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The work consists of three parts. The first, entitled 'The Historical Aspect,” traces the story of Gaul from the breaking of the Rhenish frontier of the Roman Empire at the beginning of the fifth century to the fall of Brunhilda 200 years later. It gives a vivid and memorable picture of the Frankish conquest of Gaul, the submergence of the Latin civilization, and the establishment of the The second part, which to most Merovingian House. readers will be the most novel and interesting, treats of 'The Social Aspect." By means of countless references to contemporary sources, the author gives a living picture of the life of the aristocracy, the townsfolk, and the peasantry; discusses the morality of that brutal and superstitious age; and concludes with a detailed description of the circle in which Gregory of Tours gyrated. The third part deals with "The Ecclesiastical Aspect," under which heading are depicted the monastic life of the age,

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the universal belief in incessant miracle, the church organization of the period, and the immense power and prestige of the bishops. Finally, thirty-seven pages of notes and references, not only guide the student to the original authorities on which Sir Samuel's masterly study is based, but also give the reader some faint idea of the toilsome yet, no doubt, happy years of research and contemplation which must have been spent in gathering the material out of which this noteworthy monument of learning has been constructed.

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SIR W. RALEIGH'S "GOLDEN LEGACY " On Writing and Writers. By WALTER RALEIGH. Being Extracts from his Note-Books, Selected and Edited by Prof. G. GORDON. (6s. net. Arnold.) Milton's definition of a good book as the precious lifeblood of a master spirit, embalmed and treasured up on purpose to a life beyond life," might seem to apply with special force to a book which preserves the lecture-notes of a great teacher, saved from oblivion by the piety of friends and disciples. The impression which the late Sir Walter Raleigh made upon his generation is not fully accounted for, or represented by, his published writings, valuable and delightful as they are. Doubtless it was this feeling which led to the publication, some months ago, of a large selection from his letters, in the hope that these would give the public a truer understanding of his personality. Possibly they did perform this service to some extent, but their value was diminished by a serious drawback. The literary judgments in the letters too often expressed Raleigh's reactions to authors with whom he was, either permanently or temporarily, out of sympathy. The personal prejudices of a literary man may be interesting to his friends, but they may also be mischievous if print gives them an importance which their own author would never have assigned to them. In this volume, on the other hand, we have Raleigh's deliberate judgments as he pronounced them from his professorial chair. That they lack the final form which they would have received, had he embodied them in a book, is true and important. But it is also true, as Prof. Gordon claims, that "not the least of their charms is that they preserve so often the informality of the primus impetus, of thoughts in their first dress." The first all-too-short section collects some of the apophthegms with which Raleigh bestrewed a course of lectures which he repeatedly gave on Composition. "A platitude is a truth spoken by some one who does not feel it "; or, To use words well you must know them as you know persons "-that is the sort of pearl which Raleigh drops by the way. The dicta are seldom amplified into a paragraph; but there is one delicious simile-the effect of Burke's rhetorical style on the English composition of the Bengalis likened to what may sometimes be seen in an Indian forest-" the monkeys are behaving in a strange and unnatural manner, a manner that is quite unintelligible till the cause is discovered : a man has passed that way."



A longer section, on Letters and Letter-Writing," contains the notes which Raleigh prepared for a projected but

abandoned volume on the subject. Raleigh thought

Cowper and Lamb the two best of English letter-writers.

Next comes a chapter on Chaucer, notable for the writer's judgment that Chaucer was not the inventor of a special kind of English, but a poet who wielded with easy mastery a speech already in being. Other chapters treat of Lamb, Hazlitt, Landor, De Quincey, Peacock, the Periodical Reviewers, and Macaulay. The last receives severe handling. An interesting chapter on "The Decline and Fall of Romanticism in Nineteenth Century Poetry" gives us something of Raleigh's own poetical creed-" the Classic creed with trimmings." We have only one quarrel with the editor. Small as the book is, its importance and its variety clearly demanded that it should be equipped with an index.


(1) The Oxford Book of Eighteenth Century Verse. Chosen by D. N. SMITH. (8s. 6d. net. India paper, Ios. net. Clarendon Press.)

(2) A Book of Christmas Verse. Selected by H. C. BEECHING. Second Edition, Revised. (6s. net. Oxford University Press.)

In his interesting and combative preface to the latest addition to the series of Oxford anthologies (1), Mr. Nichol Smith refers to the absence of any accepted verdict on the poetry of the eighteenth century, such as seems to exist for the poetry of the two preceding centuries. The nineteenth century disparaged the eighteenth; its verdict is up before the twentieth century for revision, but the revised verdict has still to be pronounced. Whilst disclaiming any intention to give judgment, Mr. Nichol Smith does not disguise his own sympathies. He expresses his dissatisfaction with the watchwords classical" and "romantic," refuses to regard the century as one mainly of decadence relieved by anticipations of revival, and claims for it positive achievement. His 700 pages, with their 450 specimens, bring together all the best that the century offered till the Lyrical Ballads (which he has rightly excluded and handed over to the nineteenth century) came in 1798; and they provide better material on which to base a verdict than has hitherto been available within the covers of a single volume.

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In several notable respects Mr. Nichol Smith's choice is both bolder and more catholic than that of previous anthologists. He is unquestionably right in including the finest hymns of Isaac Watts, the Wesleys, and Cowper. It is curious to reflect that Palgrave, himself a hymn-writer, excluded them from his Golden Treasury," whilst admitting devotional verse of the seventeenth century. With still greater boldness Mr. Smith has inserted Let dogs delight to bark and bite" and "How doth the little busy bee." These poems have doubtless been a target for the scoffer from the moment of their appearance, but they can scarcely be read dispassionately without the conclusion being reached that it was their intrinsic merit which won them their original fame and which should now preserve their memory. Some quite famous poems of the century, such as Dyer's Grongar Hill" or Mrs. Greville's Prayer for Indifference," have not been very accessible in recent years; and for their sake, as well as for good things rescued from obscurity, we heartily welcome this anthology. Whether it will at all persuade lovers of poetry that the eighteenth century has riches to offer comparable to those of the seventeenth or the nineteenth, is another matter. Even Mr. Saintsbury, a resolute champion of the Augustans, would not put forward such a claim.

Few men of his generation had a finer taste in poetry than the late Dean Beeching, as is witnessed by his "Paradise of English Poetry and his " 'Lyra Sacra." His Book of Christmas Verse " (2) was published in 1895. The reissue embodies corrections and additions which he had made before his death in 1918, with a number of further additions. The book includes joyous Christmas verses and Latin carols as well as hymns and poems dealing with the

deeper significance of the festival. It is regrettable that the compiler's death has deprived us of those notes on " origins" which he could have furnished so superlatively well.

SUMMER SCHOOL OF SPANISH, Liverpool.-The eighth annual Summer School of Spanish, will be held at Liverpool from July 28 to August 13, 1927, under the direction of Prof. E. Allison Peers. The School, as in past years, combines a graded intensive course in the Spanish language, with lectures on the language, literature, art, music, and social life of Spain, and daily meetings of small circles for Spanish conversation. Special attention is given to teachers, for whom conferences on method are held. The lectures for 1927 include a course by the Director on practical Spanish phonetics. Gramophone instruction on Spanish pronunciation will be given as in past years, and there will be excursions on the Saturdays of the course and on Bank Holiday to places of interest near Liverpool.

Minor Notices and Books of the Month


The Painter's Methods and Materials. The Handling of Pigments in Oil, Tempera, Water-Colour and in Mural Painting, the Preparation of Grounds and Canvas, and the Prevention of Discoloration, together with the Theories of Light and Colour Applied to the Making of Pictures, all Described in a Practical and Non-Technical Manner. By Prof. A. P. LAURIE. (21S. net. Seeley Service.)

In modern times painting as a craft can scarcely be said to have been taught in the schools. Teachers have concerned themselves almost solely with aesthetic criticism, and in consequence their students have formed habits of trusting to the opacity of oil pigments to cover almost any ground. The result has been that many modern masterpieces have deteriorated out of all recognition, while the works of the brothers Van Eyck have remained undimmed through 500 years, and still defy the impure air of London. No doubt the modern artist, Turner for example, attempts problems of light and changing effect in the portrayal of which the methodical procedure of the old masters would be impossible. Nevertheless all students should leave the schools with a sound knowledge of their trade. It is not enough to rely on the excellent work of our chemists and colourmen. We have much to relearn, both in oil and fresco; and we hope that this learned treatise by Prof. Laurie may do much to arouse interest among students and to ensure that the mural decorations and easel pictures of our future great masters may testify, as do those of the ancients, not only to our aesthetic genius, but also to thorough and reliable craftsmanship.

Woodcuts. By Members of Bembridge School. Edited, with an Introduction, by J. H. WHITEHOUSE. (10s. 6d. net. Cambridge University Press.)

Simple Art Crafts and Stage Craft for Schools. By F. GARNETT. (3s. Methuen.)

A few years ago it was difficult to find books which would help the art teacher with the actual framing of the syllabus and

conduct of his classes. Indeed each one had to invent his own scheme of work, guided by a few great pioneers such as John Ruskin and Walter Crane. At the present time helpful books are appearing frequently, and it is significant that, produced as they are by men who have been working without reference to each other, the general trend is all in the direction indicated by the above-named pioneers, and which was advocated so ably in America by the late Prof. A. W. Dow. The two books which are the subjects of the present notice are evidently the outcome of keen and successful teaching of appreciation of the spacearts, based on the now accepted axiom that design is the beginning, the primer of art. The woodcuts from Bembridge School show a remarkable appreciation of the beauty peculiar to the medium, and should be an incentive to many other schools. Both students and teachers will find many helpful technical hints in “Simple Arts and Crafts for Schools," by Mr. Garnett. The examples given in the section on block printing do not show the same distinctive qualities as those from Bembridge, but the crafts are well chosen, and it was a happy idea to include scene painting. Art teaching such as this opens wide avenues of culture and enjoyment to the layman and, since it is profoundly true that a nation gets the art it deserves, it must help to produce the artists and craftsmen who will cater for this quickened sense of beauty and propriety.

Alcamenes and the Establishment of the Classical Type in Greek Art. By Sir C. WALSTON (WALDSTEIN). (30s. net. Cambridge University Press.)

Metalcraft and Jewelry. By E. F. KRONQUIST. (ICS. net. Peoria, Illinois: The Manual Arts Press. London: Batsford.) Primary Industrial Arts. By Prof. D. F. WILSON. (IOS. net. Peoria. Illinois: The Manual Arts Press. London: Batsford.)

Drawing for Children and Others. By V. BLAKE. (6s. net. Oxford University Press.)


(IS. 4d. net. Dent.)

The Flower of Gold and other Legends: From the French of | Junior Modern Essays. Selected and edited by G. N. FocOCK. Albert Meyrac. By DOROTHY KING. (IS. 4d. Blackie.) This little volume is delightful in every way. The exterior is inviting and the fairy tales which are mainly based on legends of the Ardennes country, are simply and freshly told.

Sir Adam's Orchard: A Story of York and Lancaster. By MARGARET B. REED. (2s. 3d. Arnold.)

An interesting tale which gives a vivid picture of the adventures of a Yorkshire brother and sister who find themselves involved in the campaign during the Wars of the Roses. Chambers's Stepping-Stones to Literature. Edited by a Former Inspector of Schools. Book IV. Treasures New and Old. (2s. 6d. Chambers.)

Well-chosen material, clear type, and plentiful illustrations should ensure a welcome for this reader.

The Clarendon Readers in Literature and Science.

Edited by J. C. SMITH. Book I. (2s. 6d. net. Oxford University Press.)


This series is designed to meet a demand that the " continuous" reading of English prose, which is usual when once the preparatory stage is passed, should be supplemented from time to time by reading of a more varied character. The special feature of the new readers" is the inclusion of scientific and informative passages as well as historical pieces, legends and poems. The editor's name is a guarantee that everything is of the best quality and at the same time adapted to its purpose. Roderick Random. By TOBIAS SMOLLETT. (2s. net. Dent.) On the Study of Words and English Past and Present. By R. C. TRENCH. (2s. net. Dent.)

A Sentimental Journey and the Journal to Eliza. By LAURENCE STERNE. (2S. net. Dent.)

Areopagitica and Other Prose Works of John Milton. (2s. net. Dent.)

De Quincey. Reminiscences of his Boyhood. (First published, 1834-1852.) Edited by H. E. M. ICELY. (IS., paper; Is. 3d., cloth. Black.)

Tales of Travel and Discovery. By Various Authors. (Is. 9d. Murray.)

The Story of a Short Life. By JULIANA H. EWING. (IS. 4d. Bell.) Untold Tales of the Past. By BEATRICE HARRADEN. (Is. net. Dent.)

The Whaling Story from Moby Dick. By HERMAN MElville. Abridged and edited by R. CLIFT and G. C. F. MEAD. (IS. 4d. net. Dent.)

For Repetition: Prose and Poetry for Learning by Heart. Chosen by G. N. PoсOCK. (IS. 4d. net. Dent.)

The Writing of Clear English: A Book for Students of Science and Technology. By F. W. WESTAWAY. (3s. 6d. net. Blackie.) The Heart of Emerson's Journals. Edited by B. PERRY. (7s. 6d. net. Constable.)

Elocution for Teachers and Students. By ROSE I. PATRY. (4s. 6d. net. Allen & Unwin.)

A Progressive Course of Précis and Paraphrase.
WILLIAMS. (2s. 6d. Methuen.)

By W. E.

Humorous Narratives: An Anthology for Schools. Collected by G. BOAS. (2s. 6d. Arnold.)

Chats About Our Mother Tongue. By Dr. B. L. K. HENderson, (2s. net. Macdonald & Evans.)

Under Fire: The Story of a Squad. By H. BARBUSSE. Translated by F. WRAY. (2s. net. Dent.)

The Prelude to Poetry: the English Poets in Defence and Praise of their Own Art. (2s. net. Dent.)

The Boy Slaves. By MAYNE REID. (28. net. Dent.)

A Servant of the Mightiest. By Mrs. ALFRED WINGATE. (7s. 6d. net. Crosby Lockwood.)

A Mid-Century Child and Her Books. By CAROLINE M. HEWINS. (8s. 6d. net. New York: Macmillan.)

The Gate House: A Story of Queen Elizabeth's Days. By MAR-
GARET B. REED. (2s. 3d. Arnold.)

The Betrothed. By Sir WALTER SCOTT. Pendennis. By W. M.
THACKERAY. 2 Vols. Modern Painters: A Volume of
Selections. By JOHN RUSKIN. (Is. 6d. net each. Nelson.)
A Commentary and Questionnaire on Songs of Innocence and
Songs of Experience (William Blake). By M. ORCHARD. A
Commentary and Questionnaire on Recent Essays (edited by
ARCHBOLD), and A Commentary and Questionnaire on The
Tempest" (Shakespeare). By J. G. SIMPSON. A Com-
mentary and Questionnaire on The School for Scandal"
(Sheridan), on Guy Mannering" (Scott), and on "The
History of Henry Esmond" (Thackeray). By K. E. CLARKE.
(6d. each. Pitman.)

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John Galsworthy as a Dramatic Artist. By R. H. COATS. (6s. net. Duckworth.)

Mr. Coats has made a close and sympathetic study of John Galsworthy's work, and he here presents an analysis of the author's dramas. Dealing first with the leading characteristics that mark Galsworthy as a playwright, he discusses the general range of interest and types of character portrayed in the plays, and then gives us a classification of the whole of the plays grouped under the headings of their main themes. We obtain an insight into the construction of the plays and the special dramatic craftsmanship of which Galsworthy is a master. a concluding survey we get, mainly in Galsworthy's own words, the underlying motives that actuate him as an artist and his conception of the services of dramatic art in promoting human sympathy and understanding. A very fine appreciation of the work of one of our leading dramatists, this book should prove of value to those seeking a fuller comprehension of Galsworthy's contribution to English drama.


Rabindranath Tagore: Poet and Dramatist. By E. THOMPSON. (10s. 6d. net. Oxford University Press.)

Students of Bengali often tell their English friends that the poems in English of Rabindranath Tagore, beautiful as they are, give little idea of the depth and range of his poetical inspiration, and therefore fail to explain the remarkable ascendancy which he has long exercised over Indian thought and feeling. Mr. Thompson's elaborate study for the first time makes Tagore more adequately known to the English reader. The striking portrait of the frontispiece prepares us for a personality of wonderful charm and power, and the excerpts scattered through the chapters, many of them Mr. Thompson's own translations, fully bear out this first impression. Of the poems which he quotes from " 'Chitra," the translator says, not unjustly, they snow-peaks catching the breath with their lofty beauty." Of Gitanjali he writes: Rarely was finer poetry, one thinks, made out of less variety." But, he adds, and not less truly: 'It is astonishing what range the poet gets out of these few things." The interesting appendix on Rabindranath's knowledge of English poetry tells us that Blunt, Davies, and De la Mare are almost the only moderns that attract him. Altogether this is a notable book, and alike in its narrative, its versions, and its criticism, it serves the important purpose of helping the West to understand the East.



Many Mansions. By LORD GORELL. (5s. net. Murray.)



There is little to mark these poems as productions of the twentieth century; but those who care for delicate fancies gracefully expressed, a love of moorland and wild birds, and a regard for the pieties of faith and home and friendship, will appreciate their modest charms.

Selections from Shelley. Edited by E. H. BLAKENEY. (Is. 6d. Macmillan.)

This dainty little volume is the ninety-second of Macmillan's English Literature Series. The introduction contains a brief biography, with critical observations by the editor, and the opinions of a few of the leading writers on the poet. Most of the shorter lyrics are given in full, but the slenderness of the volume has precluded all but excerpts from the longer poems. In those from "Prometheus Unbound" one misses with regret the three great stanzas with which the drama closes. The notes are brief but good, and are followed by a few questions and helps to further study.

Spoken Poetry in the Schools. By MARJORIE GULLAN. (Including an Outline of the Marjorie Gullan Method of Rhythmic Movement to Spoken Poetry.) (3s. 6d. net. Methuen.) No teacher who appreciates the part played in education by rhythmic movement and clear speech should fail to read this book. Such advice will be unnecessary to any of those who have seen Miss Gullan at work and have realized the joy which she and those trained by her have been able to bring into schools in spite of large classes and cramped conditions of space. Some of the actual experiments carried out by teachers are recorded in an appendix, and it may be safely assumed that the appearance of this volume will cause a large increase in their number. The Lyfe of Saynt Radegunde. Edited from the Copy in Jesus College Library by F. BRITTAIN. (3s. 6d. net. Cambridge University Press.)


This tiny volume is of considerable interest, typographical, ecclesiastical, and literary. It is carefully reproduced from one of the only two copies of the poem known to be extant. poem itself, in seven-line rhyming stanzas, dates from about 1500; and if it has no great artistic merit, it is an eminently readable narrative and very interesting in its reflection of monastic teaching.

Massinger's A New Way to Pay Old Debts. Edited by A. H. CRUICKSHANK. (6s. net. Clarendon Press.)

This is a fine and scholarly reproduction, with exhaustive introduction and notes of Massinger's best-known comedy. From Appendix II, which gives a stage-history of the play, we learn with surprise that, ever since its first performance in Philadelphia, in 1794, it has for some unexplained reason proved more popular with American than with English audiences. Poems Selected from the Works of Robert Browning. Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by F. W. ROBINSON. (3s. 6d. University of London Press.)

In this collection the notes appended to each poem are such as will be invaluable to the student in helping him to appreciate its literary features, and no writer requires annotation more than Browning. Both the notes and the occasional questions interOne calated are framed to stimulate thought in the reader. could not desire a better-chosen or better-edited selection. (1) Musa Historica: An Anthology of Poems of World History. Selected and Edited by S. H. MCGRADY. (Is. 3d. Limp Cloth, Is. 6d. Russell.)

(2) Fifty London Rhymes for Children. Chosen by FLORENCE B. HYETT. (2s. 6d. Blackwell.)

(1) An anthology to accompany a course of lessons in world history is a novelty, and this practical little work should find a wide use. The 64 poems, of which 14 deal with ancient history, 16 with the middle ages, and 34 with modern history, are placed in chronological order. The short notes introducing each poem are most valuable. (2) Would be a pretty, dainty gift for a London child. Half the poems are traditional, like London Bridge is broken down," and half the remainder are by living writers.

The Building of the Wall: A Biblical Play in three Acts. Ar-
ranged by C. E. CURRYER. (Id. Christophers.)
Almond Blossom: A Collection of Verse and Prose. Written by
Children of Tormead. (5s. net. Sampson Low.)

The Shoemakers' Holiday. By THOMAS DEKKER. Edited by
G. N. Pocock. (IS. net. Dent.)

Shakespeare's King Lear. Edited by J. C. Dent. (1s. 4d. net Dent.)

English Lyrical Verse. Selected and Edited by A. BURRELL. She Stoops to Conquer. By OLIVER GOLDSMITH. Edited by

J. HAMPTON. (Is. 4d. net. Dent.) The Winter's Tale. Edited by Prof. C. H. HERFORD. (2s. 6d. Blackie.)

A Midsummer Night's Dream. Julius Cæsar. The Merchant of Venice. Macbeth. Edited by G. Boas. (IS. 9d. each. Arnold.)

The Kingdom Within You and Other Poems. By the Rev. Dr. E. E. BRADFORD. (3s. 6d. net. Kegan Paul.)

Holly and Ivy: A Christmas Play. By VIOLET M. METHLEY. (IS. net. Curwen.)

Clever Hans: A Short Play (founded on Grimm's Story). By R. BENNETT. (Is. net. Curwen.)

Jill and the Three Days: A Short Play for Girls, in One Act. By R. BENNETT. (Is. net. Curwen.)

The Third Doll: A Short Plav for Girls, in One Act. By R. BENNETT. (Is. net. Curwen.)

The Poems and Prophecies of William Blake. (2s. net. Dent.) The Poems of Engar Allan Poe, with a Selection of Essays. (2s. net. Dent.)

The Poems of Charles Kingsley. (2s. net. Dent.)
The Carfax Books of English Verse. Edited by Dr. R. JONES and
FLORENCE JONES. (Books I and 2, Ind. each. Books 3 and
4, Is. each. Book 5, Is. 3d. Book 6, 1s. 6d. Book 7, Is. 9d.
Book 8, 2s. Sidgwick & Jackson.)

Handbook to the Carfax Books of English Verse: The Approach to Poetry. Edited by Dr. R. JONES and FLORENCE JONES. (Is. Sidgwick & Jackson.)

A History of Late Eighteenth Century Drama, 1750-1800. By
Prof. A. NICOLL. (16s. net. Cambridge University Press.)
Coriolanus. By WM. SHAKESPEARE. With Notes, &c., by D. S.
CALDERWOOD. (IS. 9d. Longmans.)

Goldsmith: She Stoops to Conquer. Retaliation. Edited by E. W.
WILTON. (IS., paper; Is. 3d., cloth. Black.)
Dryden's Chaucer (Being Part of "Fables"). Edited by W. R.
MACKLIN. (Is., paper; Is. 3d., cloth. Black.)
Christopher Marlowe. By U. M. ELLIS-FERMOR.


(6s. net.

Chaucer : The Nun's Priests's Tale. Edited by K. SISAM. (Is. 6d. net. Clarendon Press.)

Anglo-Saxon Poetry. Selected and Translated by Prof. R. K. GORDON. (2s. net. Dent.)


A History of the Ancient World. By Prof. M. ROSTOVTZEFF. Vol. I. The Orient and Greece. Translated from the Russian by J. D. DUFF. (21S. net. Clarendon Press.)



This handsome volume is the first instalment of Prof. Rostovtzeff's History of the Ancient World," and includes the Orient and Greece. Rome is reserved for the second and concluding volume. The whole work is based on lectures delivered to students in the Universities of Wisconsin and Yale, and advanced or detailed treatment must not be expected. "I publish my book without scientific apparatus, endeavouring merely to make the exposition as simple and clear as possible. My book may serve as a text-book for students beginning the subject, and also may be read by those who wish to acquaint themselves with the general course of development in the ancient world." The Orient, that is, Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Babylon, occupy about 160 pages out of 400, and in that limited space the author confines himself to the barest historical outline, and dwells at greater length on the more interesting social, political, artistic, and religious development of those peoples. Perhaps the Jewish people might have received fuller treatment in view of the great influence their history and ideas have exerted in western civilization. The history of Greece is carried down to the end of the third century B.C. In spite of limitations of space, Prof. Rostovtzeff has preserved balance and perspective as well as freshness in his narrative. The pages on Crete, the Aegean Civilization, and Anatolian Greece present in interesting form the results of modern discovery, and the chapters on economic development are especially welcome, as they are usually wanting in shorter histories. The volume is admirably illustrated with eighty-nine plates and thirty-six figures covering the whole range of ancient art in Babylonia, Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Greece. It is of great value to be able to compare the various achievements in art of these different peoples, and to learn that in this sphere Greece is not without rivals. glance at the superb works of art illustrated on Plates V, XIV, XXIX shows that Egypt was the equal of Greece in one form of sculpture. The simple grandeur of Sumerian art might have been better represented from the examples in the Louvre. An Introduction to Roman History, Literature, and Antiquities. By A. PETRIE. (2s. 6d. Oxford University Press.) This small volume of 126 pages, excellently illustrated, provides in brief a valuable guide to first knowledge of Roman history, the Roman Republican Constitution, Roman military organization, religion, language, and literature. It should be in the hands of every boy and girl whose studies include Latin. Social and Industrial History of Britain. By Dr. A. A. W. RAMSAY. (3s. Chambers.)


Miss Ramsay has written a sound and interesting sketch of the Social and Industrial History of Britain. It surveys the whole ground from the prehistoric period to the present postwar regime. The book is divided into forty-one short chapters, each furnished with questions, and most with suggestions for further reading. It should prove to be an excellent introduction to the subject, both for school children and adults. It is illustrated.

Notes on European History. By W. EDWARDS. Vol. III. 1715-1815. (10s. 6d. net. Rivingtons.) Mr. Edwards continues his series of Notes on European History, the present volume extending from the death of Louis XIV to the overthrow of Napoleon. France is the central theme of the book; but round France are grouped, in a cluster of lucid analyses, Spain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia. Mr. Edwards's excellent method is now so well known that little

description is necessary. He splits up each subject into its component parts, and he arranges the salient features of each part under carefully selected headings and sub-headings. His work is a model of logical classification such as would have rejoiced the heart of Jevons. For serious students it is invaluable.

Our Early Ancestors: An Introductory Study of Mesolithic, Neolithic and Copper Age Cultures in Europe and Adjacent Regions. By M. C. BURKITT. (7s. 6d. net. Cambridge University Press.)

Mr. Burkitt's handbook will be cordially welcomed by all students of prehistoric Europe. It deals with only a limited portion of the vast field-viz., that portion which may be broadly dated 10000-3000 B.C.-but it deals with that exceptionally well, drawing its material from many sources not generally available. Mr. Burkitt treats first of those cultures which mark the transition from Palaeolithic to Neolithic civilization, i.e. the Azilian, Tardenoisean, Asturian, and Maglemosean


cultures. To these he gives the name Mesolithic," contending that they are distinct in character from both the Old Stone and the New Stone cultures. He then proceeds to give a full and fascinating description of the ways of life of the men of the Neolithic and Copper Ages. Thirty plates illustrate the text. History of the People of England. By ALICE D. GREENWOOD. Vol. III. A.D. 1689-1834. (7s. 6d. net. The Sheldon Press.) Those who know Miss Greenwood's two earlier volumes on the History of the People of England will welcome this third volume, which carries the story down to the Poor Law of 1834. The characteristics of Miss Greenwood's work are well maintained they are, first, a strong emphasis on the religious aspects of the national life; secondly, full treatment of social and economic developments; thirdly, numerous references to the best and most distinctive literature of the period under review; and, finally, a sane and balanced judgment respecting both statesmen and affairs. This very competent text-book will be a boon to all young students of the eighteenth century. English Industries of the Middle Ages. By L. F. SALZMAN. New Edition, Enlarged and Illustrated. (10s. net. Oxford University Press.)

This new edition of Mr. Salzman's book on medieval English industries is virtually a new work. The old sections-dealing with mining, quarrying, metal-working, pottery, cloth-making, leather-working, and brewing-have been thoroughly revised and much extended. New sections have been added, treating of building, glass-making, and fishing. Above all, more than a hundred illustrations, carefully selected by the author himself, have been included. Hence the book, which for the last twelve years has served a useful purpose, is now immensely enhanced in value.

English Women in Life and Letters. By M. PHILLIPS and W. S. TOMKINSON. (IOS. net. Oxford University Press.) The main purpose of this amusing and informing volume is to describe in a picturesque manner from authentic sources the modes of women's life during the past three centuries. A brief introductory chapter, however, passes lightly over the period of the later Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Low life and high life, women in the home and women in society, learned women and women in the workshop, all are treated with grace and discrimination. The charm of the literary part of the work, moreover, is greatly enhanced by an amazing wealth of apposite illustration. Mr. Johnson, of the University Press, from his unique knowledge and unequalled resources, has enriched the volume with some 170 delightful prints. After reading this book, no one will be able to deny that by judicious treatment woman can be made interesting to man.

History of the People of England: From the Earliest Times to

1066. By ADELINE I. RUSSELL. (2s. 6d. Sheldon Press.) The "Bede Histories," to which the volume before us is the latest addition, have as their special function the placing of emphasis upon the part played by the Christian Church in the development of the culture and humanity of the English people. Further, they draw upon literature and art to illustrate their theme, and they are unusually rich, for text-books, in quotations from original sources. Along these lines Miss Russell has written a scholarly, well-balanced, and thoroughly interesting sketch of our island's story up to the Norman Conquest. Cities and Their Stories: An Introduction to the Study of European History. By Dr. EILEEN POWER and RHODA POWER. (3s. 6d. Black.)

The Story of the World. Book VI. The World at War. By M. B. SYNGE. Sketch Maps and Chapters on the Western Front by Capt. W. A. T. SYNGE. (3s. net. Blackwood.) British History, 1327-1399. By C. G. WHITEFIELD. (2s. Bell.) Charles I in Captivity: From Contemporary Sources. Edited, with an Introduction, by GERTRUDE S. STEVENSON. (155. Arrowsmith.)

A Short History of Ceylon. By H. W. CODRINGTON. With a Chapter on Archaeology by A. M. HOCART. (4s. Macmillan.) The Great War Between Athens and Sparta: A Companion to the Military History of Thucydides. By Dr. B. W. HENDERSON. (18s. net. Macmillan.)

Holinshed's Chronicle as Used in Shakespeare's Plays. (2s. net. Dent.)

Westminster Abbey. By L. E. TANNER. The Music of Westminster. By the Rev. E. H. FELLOWES. Windsor Castle and the Chapel of St. George. By the Very Rev. the Dean of Windsor. The Music of St. George's Chapel. By the Rev. E. H. FELLOWES. (Is. net. each. Dent.)

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