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The question of a citizen's duty and place in a complex State to-day would surely be a better basis for his education than Latin and Greek or introspective philosophy. Parliament and the country are being daily confronted and settle by votes similar questions of practical twentieth-century ethics, which it should be as much the function of a university to explore, in a scientific spirit, and reduce to a reasoned and complete form, as it is its recognised duty to enlarge the boundaries of natural knowledge. Applied professional Faculties of Law, Divinity, Medicine, Education and so on, without the pure Faculties to carry out constructive and creative work in the subjects with which they deal, are just one example of our artificially engendered retrospective habit of mind. Professional Faculties merely carry on, but whose business is it at present to say what it is shall be carried on when what is being carried on becomes anti-social and out of date? We pride ourselves on being the greatest nation on earth, with an empire on which the sun never sets, and all that sort of thing, and we leave to haphazard, popular vote and professional interests, the settlement of the problems arising out of the very growth and development upon which greatness alone depends.

There is only one principle, and that an undeniable one, which needs to be logically accepted and carried out in practice to make this nation exorcise the evil spirit which has brought us so near to the brink of ruin and made of us the object of real concern and despair to every one of our daughter dominions beyond the seas. We must act as we have been forced to act during the war, as though we were great because of ourselves, our environment, our powers of making original discoveries and of applying them without fear to the peculiar problems of our day, not merely in science but universally. Act upon

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THE RETROSPECTIVE HABIT

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the principle which has dominated the past century in our education and government but a little longer and the time for reform will be past. The principle in question cannot be better illustrated than by quoting the opening words of Charles Stuart Parker's Essay on the History of Classical Education," in the volume to which I have already alluded. Referring to the Greeks and Romans, as well as the Jews, as our spiritual ancestors, he says: "They left treasures of recorded thought, word and deed, by the timely and judicious use of which their heirs have become the leaders of mankind. But they left them in their native tongues." If one comes out of a fog or mist among the mountains, natural colours of grass, flowers and sky take on an unreal vividness in contrast to the blank pall of a moment before. I can imagine that after the Dark Ages, when the world once more emerged from the fog of barbarism, the treasures of the recorded thoughts of the ancients must, by contrast, have appeared similarly vivid and satisfying, and I can imagine how the tradition arose that to these treasures the renaissance of Italy, France, Germany, and, though assuredly least of all, Britain, as great nations, was to be traced. I am not concerned with its historical truth or otherwise. But if we ask ourselves to-day, fifty years after the words I have quoted were written, whether the great nations of the earth-the United States, France, Germany, Italy, Austria, Britain, Japan, to name them in haphazard order-do actually lead the world, or can ever hope to do so again, either the world of thought, the world of action, or even the world of art, because of the recorded treasures of Greeks, Romans and Jews, the question appears too ridiculous to be answered. They will lead or fail, primarily, because of the timely and judicious use or the suicidal neglect of those treasures-also written

in their own peculiar jargon as unintelligible to the scholar as Greek to the multitude-which they, to a greater or less extent, have themselves discovered, the treasures of modern science. So utterly have these changed the whole mode of living of the world that, not only in science, but in the other great divisions of learning as well, the past has proved rather a millstone round the neck of the future than a source of inspiration and wisdom. One knows from experience in scientific research how easy it is to immerse oneself in a subject that was fascinating to a past generation, and waste time in the minutia of still ungleaned detail, until one finds oneself in a backwater which the main tide of discovery has left long since, and wherein one can waste a lifetime, which, if spent among the real outposts of knowledge, would have resulted in substantial and permanent progress being made.

Although science, in the sense it is understood to-day, owes but little to the past, it has already, in its conception of research, contributed to the ideals of a university immensely more than has ever been contributed by preceding ages, and the contribution it has made in its own sphere, if logically applied to the older branches of study, would be productive of the most valuable and far-reaching social consequences. The association of scientific research with the universities is mainly due to the exigencies under which it, as distinct from other creative work, can alone be pursued. One may read Parker's "Essay on the History of Classical Education" from end to end in vain to find the remotest parallel to the ideal which science holds up as the most important and the highest function of a university to-day, little as it has yet been realised even in science by actual British universities. From it there follows at once the idea I have here developed of pure Faculties of Art and

FACULTIES OF ART AND DUTY

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Duty to carry on research and constructive work in the æsthetic and ethical questions of to-day, to inspire the applied professional faculties, the imperial and local legislature, and the primary and secondary schools, and to do, without bias or political and sectarian passion, just that for lack of which the nation perishes, the deliberate reconstruction of the social order to meet the entirely altered conditions that prevail in consequence of the growth of science. Never yet in the history of the world have such faculties found a place in the universities. In early days the university was simply a divinity faculty, and its glory was that it provided the ladder, of which we hear so much to-day, whereby children of the humblest origin could rise through the Church to the highest positions of the State, though that was not its raison d'être. Then, all business requiring education was transacted by ecclesiastics, and the spirit of research in the sense of finding out the new, not that which is old but has been lost, had not arisen. It would indeed have been very dangerous for any one to act on the view that the pagan classics and Christian writings did not between them contain all there was to know. The revival of learning was literally the re-learning of what had been known, but now was inaccessible save to those possessing the Greek, Latin and Hebrew languages. Discovery connoted rediscovery of lost territories rather than being the first entrant into some new and hitherto undreamt of world. There is, unfortunately, a tendency to confuse this sort of original investigation and research with that understood by scientific men. In those days the extraordinary idea that there was a peculiar virtue in the teaching of Latin and Greek and ancient philosophy as the foundation of a liberal education was natural and justifiable enough. Latin was the universal written language of the learned

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world. It was in no sense the dead language that it is to-day, but the key to learned literature, not only of the past, but also of the present. When it became necessary for a gentleman to know how to write, it was Latin that he wrote, not his mother tongue. The Faculty of Arts has never yet, though the necessity has long since ceased to exist, dissociated itself from its original preoccupation with the teaching of dead languages, as a, then, necessary preliminary to any kind of learning and culture. Original creative work in painting, sculpture, architecture, the drama, music and so on have hitherto been pursued outside the university, and this applies also to by far the greater and most valuable part of poetry, and literature generally.

Even theology has been more progressive. After science had shown the value of the patient, unbiassed examination of data, pursued solely with the desire to elicit the truth, the traditional records, upon which theology is based, became the subject of critical examination, especially in Germany. Parker, writing in 1867, says: "Much of our embarrassment in Biblical Criticism is due to our ignorance of Hebrew and German. For Latin, as a common language, has died out, and German has now for a long time been the tongue in which all questions relating to antiquity are discussed with the most research and learning." But the popular attitude to such inquiries apparently is still similar to that which unbiassed inquiries in science evoked in the Middle Ages, and many times during the war have I read letters in the press tracing the decline of the moral forces in Germany to her eminence in theological studies, with never a protest from our own learned theologians against such bigotry.

But if to the old Faculties of Arts and Theology the ideals of science are not without application, the

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