A History of the Italian Republics: Being a View of the Rise, Progress, and Fall of Italian Freedom

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Carey & Lea, 1832 - 300 páginas
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Página 101 - This aspect was one of a prodigious prosperity, which contrasted so much the rnore with the rest of Europe that nothing but poverty and barbarism were to be found elsewhere. The open country, designated by the name of contado, appertaining to each city, was cultivated by an active and industrious race of peasants, enriched by their labor, and not fearing to display their wealth in their dress, their cattle, and their instruments of husbandry. The proprietors, inhabitants of towns, advanced them capital,...
Página 236 - ... proof that either they, their fathers, or their grandfathers had sat in the magistracy ; they were consequently acknowledged citizens, and admitted to sit in the general council. This council was declared sovereign, on the 1st of July, 1495 ; it was invested with the election of magistrates, hitherto chosen by lot, and a general amnesty was proclaimed, to bury in oblivion all the ancient dissensions of the Florentine Republic. So important a modification of the constitution seemed to promise...
Página 271 - ... to deceive his ally, in order to obtain better conditions from his adversary. Margaret of Austria, the sister of the emperor's father, and Louisa of Savoy, the mother of the king of France, met at Cambray ; and in conference, to which no witnesses were admitted, arranged what was called
Página 84 - Ligurian side, which, in memory of their podesta, bears to this day the name of Pietra Santa. The signoria showed themselves also worthy to be the governors of a city renowned for commerce, the arts, and liberty. The whole monetary system of Europe was at this period abandoned to the depredations of sovereigns who continually varied the title and weight of coins, — sometimes to defraud their creditors, at other times to force their debtors to pay more than they had received, or the tax-payers more...
Página 101 - ... are easily distinguished from those half-wild districts which had remained subject to the feudal lords. The cities, surrounded with thick walls, terraced, and guarded by towers, were, for the most part, paved with broad flagstones ; while the inhabitants of Paris could not stir out of their houses without plunging into the mud. Stone bridges of an elegant and bold architecture were thrown over rivers; aqueducts carried pure water to the fountains. The palace of the podestas and signorie united...
Página 255 - He had the taste to adorn his palace with the finest works of antiquity, and the sense to enjoy the society of philosophers and poets ; but he had never the elevation of soul to comprehend his duties, or to consult his conscience. His indecent conversation and licentious conduct...
Página 233 - Well, if it be thus, sound your trumpets, and we will ring our bells ! " This energetic movement daunted the French ; Charles declared himself content with the subsidy offered by the republic, and engaged on his part to restore as soon as he had accomplished the conquest of Naples, or signed peace, or even consented to a long truce, all the fortresses which had been delivered to him by Medici. Charles after this convention departed from Florence, by the road to Siena, on the 28th of November.
Página 272 - The evil destiny of Italy was accomplished. Charles VIII., when he first invaded that country, opened its gates to all the transalpine nations; from that period Italy was ravaged, during thirty-six years, by Germans, French, Spaniards, Swiss, and even Turks. They inflicted on her calamities beyond example in history; calamities so much the more ikeenly felt, as the sufferers were more civilized, and the authors more barbarous.
Página 276 - ... entered by another gate, with a part of the army which besieged Florence. The different corps, which had on every side harassed Ferrucci in his march, poured in upon him from all quarters : the battle instantly began, and was fought with relentless fury within the walls of Gavinana. Philibert de...
Página 262 - Medici. The republics of Sienna and Lucca were tremblingly prepared to obey the strongest: all the rest depended on the transalpine power ; for an unexpected election, on the 9th of January, 1522, had given a Flemish successor to Leo X., under the name of Adrian VI. This person had been the preceptor of Charles V., and had never seen Italy, where he was regarded as a barbarian. The kingdom of Naples was governed and plundered by the Spaniards. After the French had lost the duchy of Milan, Francesco...

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