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markets that are open to him. In consequence the consumption of cotton is admitted to be at present as great as it has ever been in this country although America prohibits our goods, and Austria the import of yarn spun here of the lower qualities.
" What I have stated respecting bowed cottons does not apply to Sea Islands; from these the best and finest descriptions of goods are manufactured, and for them it might be difficult, for some time, to find a substitute in sufficient quantity, although the usual supply does not, I believe, exceed twenty thousand bales, or about 6,000,000 pounds annually-small compared with the aggregate import.
“ The present annual consumption of cotton in the United Kingdom, is estimated to be from seventy to seventy-five millions of pounds; the stock now on hand, consisting chiefly of American, Brazil, and West Iudia cottons is, I believe, admitted on all sides, to be fully equal to one year, and from that to fifteen months' consumption; an ordinary crop in the late Dutch and West-India Colonies exceeds twenty millions of pounds; the usual crop in the Brazils is estimated to exceed thirty millions more, and I am informed that a considerable surplus from former crops remains over in that country; to these may be added imports from Turkey, Spanish America, and captured cotton, independent of Indian supplies; these West-India and Brazil crops are now ready to ship, and in part actually shipping; the whole might be imported in the next six months, thus forming, with the stock on hand, a supply cqual to near two years' consumption to be followed by succeeding crops and extended cultivation, encouraged by the protection that would then be afforded in the home market."
That India, which supplies the finest cotton goods in the world, and has done so for ages, should not also furnish the finest species of cotton, looks very like a contradiction, and may well put theorists to a stand: but what shall we say of the introduction of the seed of the Bourbon and Sea Island cotton into the presidency of Madras, as an improvement? The produce of such novelty ! in India, has been brought to London, has fetched the best price at market, and the cultivation of it may be expected to increase rapidly. Possibly the mode of treatment practised may partly explain this mystery. In India the cotton pod is allowed to become over ripe, and to fall on the ground, where it is swept into heaps; whereas in other countries the pod is gathered when it opens on the tree, before the strength of the fibre can be injured by over ripeness. That cottons of the very finest kinds may be raised in some parts of India cannot be doubted; but the difference of soil and exposure, must necessarily make a difference in the product. It is enough, however, for us to know that care and attention will render this article equal to any; the cheapness of labour in that country is beyond competition: and, in fact, the Chinese market is now supplied with cotton from India, and the American ships sail to China in ballast; which they would not do
if they could compete, in that market, with the production of India. Whatever may contribute to the prosperity of India demands our warmest patronage.
But there are other countries which produce cotton, and are willing to take our manufactured articles in return for it; these are surely entitled to all the advantages derivable from mutual inter
The Brazils, a friendly country, are welcome to whatever profit attends a larger cultivation of the plant. The West Indies furnish great quantities ; and why they should not furnish much more, and of superior quality, unless there be some natural cause, there ought to be no political reason. The commodity might also be obtained from the Levant; but no stress of argument seems to be laid by any conversant with the subject, on the supply to be derived from that quarter. The proportions in which those countries might furnish a supply is stated by Mr. L.
“ That, from different parts of the Brazils, namely, Maranlıam, Para, Paraiaba, Siara, Pernambuco, Pernaiba, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, &c. places at the distance of from one to two and three months' sail at the very utmost, from Great Britain, we can bring hither about 270,000 bags of cotton wool, of various descriptious, of an average weight of 150lbs. each, making 40,500,000lbs.
“ That from our own colonies in the West Indies, of Surinam, Demarara, Berbice, Tobago, Barbadoes, Bahama, &c. we may expect about 66,635 bags, of an average weight of 290lbs. each, making 19,324,150lbs.
“ That from Surat and Bengal we may expect about 80,000 bales of an average weight of 340lbs. each, making 27,200,000lbs.
“ Aod thus, therefore, without counting on what we are likely to receive from the Island of Bourbon, now in our possession, or on what we may receive from the Spanish colonies, and from Turkey, and exclusive also of what we may also naturally expect by the capture of cotton in American vessels, it appears in the first place that we have now cotton wool in England to the amount of 86,800,000lbs. and that we may reasonably expect, from the places above enumerated, (if the entry of North Americau cotton be prevented,) the enormous quantity of 86,934,800lbs. making together the grand total of 173,734,800lbs. this, equal to the average consumption of our manufacturers for no less space of time than two years and four months and a half, carrying the period down to the very remote date of the middle of July, 1815, and moreover a portion of the additional quantity of 86,934,800lbs. is daily arriving, and the whole can and will probably be imported into Great Britain long before it be possible to consume what is now here; this, however, provided that due encouragement is given to that effect, by preventing the import of that from our enemies the North Americans; otherwise there is no ground for supposing that one half of the quantity, or any thing near it, will come.”
It is singular enough, that that description of cotton, now thought indispensable was formerly out of repute, and sold at a price so low that the spinners altered their machinery to enable them to take advantage of its cheapness. At the very worst, they can restore their machinery to its former state.
That America will manufacture when manufacturing yields a tempting profit, none can doubt; and as the raw material is a product of that country, neither power nor policy can prevent that event. But in the mean time, we also are at liberty to encourage the growth of what countries we please ; and if they can beat America out of our market, no blaine can possibly attach to us.
Mr. Lyne proceeds to argue the question of the possible drain of bullion from this country to pay the Americans, who will no longer receive our goods. We presume that this branch of the discussion is laid to rest, by the determination of the American legislature to suspend exportation, by neutrals; a measure concerning which our information will be more correct shortly. Mr. Lyne concludes his pamphlet with a copy of the memorial presented to Lord Liverpool by the merchants trading to Portugal and Brazil : who are mainly interested on this occasion.
It is not fair to come to any determination on a practical question, without having heard what the other side can allege. Much as we wish to render all our connexions and friends prosperous, the mode of accomplishing that purpose may admit of much controversy; and it certainly requires that the subject be thoroughly considered in all its bearings. America has thrown down the gauntlet; we have very reluctantly and slowly taken it up. We would not have animosity last for ever; neither would we put it into the power of America to say, “this advantage ne gained by our war with Britain.” If after meeting with disappointinents equal to those of her prime mover, Bonaparte, and after finding the balance of profit and loss against her—we mean against her happiness, peace, and concord, she inclines to renew her amity, we would meet her with frankness; but if in the mean time we have formed new connexions, bave directed our commerce through other channels, and have distributed the wealth attendant on commerce to our friends in other parts of the world, let her not think that we will abandon those friends at her request; but let her consider that state of things as the result of her own policy, and for all the mortifying consequences, while she clears our will and wishes, let her thank herself, and her subserviency to the caprice of an unprincipled despot.
An Historical Sketch of the origin, progress, and present stale
of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of the University of the State of New-York. New-York, printed by C. S. Van Winkle, 1812, pp. 52.
It is the just pride of our countrymen that an opportunity of acquiring a good education is in no other part of the world so common, or so easy of access. The disciples of Calvin introduced into Scotland, Switzerland and Connecticut, nearly at the same time, a system of education, accessible to persons in every situation in life, which is still the pride and boast of these countries. However we may feel disposed to condemn the fiery zeal of this sect of reformers, breathing destruction to the elegant and liberal arts, we must bear testimony to their usefulness in promoting the study of the severer sciences, and the general diffusion of the elements of useful knowledge. Carrying with them merely a spirit of enmity against all catholic establishments, they unconsciously effected the delivery of the countries in which they were successful, from the tyranny of scholastic institutions, and overturned those doginas so prejudicial to science which long custom had sanctified, and even incorporated in the religious creed. For nothing are we more indebted to them than for the establishment of schools, not placed nor governed according to the caprice of illinformed and interested founders, but distributed by law, proportionably to the number of inhabitants; forming a part of the constituted authority, and a powerful engine of government; powerful, however, from its limitations and effects, only unto good. This system of education appears to have spread, previous to the revolution, through all the eastern, and many of the middle states, and has since · Vol. II. New Series.
been adopted, by positive laws, in rearly every state of the union. To its wide diffusion appears to be owing that regularity in idiom, and that purity of expression, in the lower classes, throughout every part of this country, which is so much the astonishment of foreigners. While each of the kingdoms which compose the British empire; while every county, every petty district of country, has its own peculiar dialect; while every department of France has its patois ; while the Saxon, the Austrian, and the Palatine Germans find difficulty in understanding each other, the natives of the different parts of the United States are more easily distin guished by the physical effects of climate on their constitution and appearance, than by any variety in their language; and this throughout approaches more nearly to the purity of written En. glish, than the usual dialect of any part of the British nation, except the learned and noble orders.
The proverbial shrewdness of that portion of our countrymen vulgarly denominated Yankees, is set off, even in the lowest classes, with a polished language and address, totally different from the blunt manners and uncouth jargon of the natives of Yorkshire, in England, who resemble them in many striking characteristics. A few peculiarities do undoubtedly exist in most parts of the union, but they are rather in the use of particular words, than in general idiom. They are fast disappearing; and as attention and criticism are more and more directed towards purifying our orthography and elocution, we may confidently anticipate that they will, in a little while, be entirely eradicated. Even those words that are so unmercifully scourged, both by English writers, and critics of our own country, as Americanisms, do yet deserve a fair examination, before we give them up to condemnation. We do not allude to those coined by our diplomatic men, and epic poets; those are base coin, which do not pass current with the nation, and the guilt of which must rest on the heads of those that utter them. But there are certain words in common use among us which are stigmatized as being of American birth, but which, in fact, are used by us in the very sense in which they were employed by the best writers under Elizabeth and James I. They were brought over to this country in the early periods of the settlement, by those intelligent persons who fled hither from religious persecution. If, in the revolutions and capricious changes