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were saved when the second temple was destroyed; and we have heard from our fathers, that there were engraven upon those trumpets the letters of the ineffable Name. There joined us also from Spain, and other places, from time to time, certain tribes of Jews, who had heard of our prosperity. But at last, discord arising among ourselves, one of our chiefs called to his assistance an Indian king, who came upon us with a great army, destroying our houses, palaces, and strong holds, dispossessed us of Cranganor, killed part of us, and carried part into captivity. By these massacres we were reduced to a small number. Some of the exiles came and dwelt at Cochin, where we have remained ever since, suffering great changes from time to time. There are amongst us some of the children of Israel, (Beni-Israel) who came from the country of Ashkenaz, from Egypt, from Tsoba, and other places, besides those who formerly inhabited this country." p. 305, 306.

The Black Jews appeared to Dr. Buchanan to have arrived in India many ages before the White Jews; and so much had they been assimilated, by intermarriages, to the Hindoos, that it was sometimes difficult to distinguish them.

"The Black Jews," observes Dr. Buchanan, 'communicated to me much interesting intelligence concerning their brethren the ancient Israelites in the East; traditional indeed in its nature, but in general illustrative of true history. They recounted the names of many other small colonies resident in northern India, Tartary and China; and gave me a written list of SIXTY-FIVE places. I conversed with those who had visited many of these stations, and were about to return again. The Jews have a never-ceasing communication with each other in the East. Their families indeed are generally stationary, being subject to despotic princes; but the men move much about in a commercial capacity; and the same individual will pass through many extensive countries. So that, when any thing interesting to the nation of the Jews takes place, the rumour will pass rapidly throughout all Asia.

"I inquired concerning their brethren, the ten tribes. They said that it was commonly believed among them, that the great body of the Israelites are to be found in Chaldea, and in the countries contiguous to it, being the very places whither they were first carried into captivity; that some few families had migrated into regions more remote, as to Cochin and Rajapoor, in India, and to other places yet father to the East; but that the bulk of the nation, though now much reduced in number, had not to this day removed two thousand miles from Samaria.-Among the Black Jews I could not find many copies of the Bible. They informed me, that in certain places of the remote dispersion, their brethren have but some small portions of the Scriptures, and that the prophetical books were rare; but that they themselves, from their vicinity to the White Jews, have been supplied, from time to time, with the whole of the Old Testament.

"From the communications, I plainly perceive the important duty which now devolves on Christians possessing the art of printing, to send to the Jews in the east, copies of the Hebrew Scriptures, and particularly of the prophetical books. If only the prophecies of Isaiah and

Daniel were published among them, the effect might be great. They do not want the law so much. But the prophetical books would appear among them with some novelty, particularly in a detached form; and could be easily circulated throughout the remotest parts of Asia.” p. 310-312.

Much interesting information follows, on the subject of manu scripts of the Scriptures, obtained from both the White and Black Jews, particularly two versions of the New Testament in Hebrew. The translator of one of these, a learned Rabbi, conceived the design of making an accurate version of the New Testament, for the purpose of confuting it. The style is copious and elegant, and the translation generally faithful. There appears no wish to pervert the meaning of a single sentence. "How astonishing it is," observes Dr. Buchanan," that an enemy should do this!" A copy of this version has been presented to the Society for the Conversion of the Jews, who are now deliberating whether it shall be adopted as the basis of a translation of the New Testament into the Hebrew language, which they have resolved to publish. The first sheet of the intended version has already been printed off, for the purpose of its being submitted to the revision of the best Hebrew scholars, both Jews and Christians, that it may go forth as perfect as possible: and Dr. Buchanan expects, that, before the end of the present year, the four Gospels will be published, and copies sent to the Jews in the East, as the first fruits of the Jewish Institution.

We shall very briefly notice the information which is contained in the concluding part of this highly interesting volume. Dr. Leyden, of the College of Fort William, has offered to conduct translations of the Scriptures in the following languages-viz. the Affghan; the Cashmirian, the Jaghatai, or the language spoken in Bochara, Balk, and Samarchand, and in other cities of Usbeck, and Independent Tartary;* the Siamese; the Bugis, or the language of the Celebes; the Macassar, spoken at Borneo ; and the Maldivian. This design of Dr. Leyden will be hailed by christians in Europe as a noble undertaking, deserving their utmost patronage. "It will give pleasure," adds Dr. Buchanan, " to all those who have hitherto taken any interest in the restoration of learning in the East, to see that the College of Fort William is producing such excellent fruit. May its fame be perpetual !"

Of the Bibliotheca Biblica, in Bengal, we have already given some account, (see our volume for 1810.) This institution Dr. Buchanan states to have been first projected by the Rev. Mr. Brown, with a full reliance on the patronage of the British and

These three languages comprehend the regions which, by many, are sup posed to contain the Ten Tribes. They certainly contain vast numbers of Jews.

VOL. VII.

Foreign Bible Society, which it has since received; of the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge; and of the different Universities in the United Kingdom.

Dr. Buchanan states, that there are Armenian Christians settled in all the principal places of India. They are the general merchants of the East, and are wealthy, industrious, and enterprising. Wherever they colonise, they build churches. Their ecclesiastical establishment, even in Bengal, is more respectable than that of the English. They have churches at Calcutta, Madras, Bombay, and also in the interior. A bishop sometimes visits Calcutta ; but their patriarch resides at Erivan, not far from Mount Ararat. Of all the Christians in central Asia, these have preserved themselves most free from Mahommedan and Papal corruptions. The pope, for a time, assailed them with great violence, but with little effect; and they retain their ancient Scriptures, doctrines, and worship to this day. The Bible was most faithfully translated into the Armenian language, in the fifth century. In 1662, a council of Armenian bishops resolved on printing it. Three editions of it were printed at Amsterdam in the 17th century, and it has since been printed at Venice. At present, however, the Amenian Scriptures are very rare, even in Persia; and in India a copy is scarcely to be procured at any price. Notwithstanding the length to which this review has gone, we cannot refuse a place to the following remonstrance of our author, with respect to the people of whom we are speaking.

"The Armenians in Hindostan are our own subjects. They acknowledge our government in India, as they do that of the Sophi in Persia; and they are entitled to our regard. They have preserved the Bible in its purity: and their doctrines are, as far as the author knows, the doctrines of the Bible. Besides, they maintain the solemn observance of Christian worship, throughout our empire, on the seventh day; and they have as many spires pointing to heaven among the Hindoos, as we ourselves. Are such a people then entitled to no acknowledgment on our part, as fellow-christians? Are they for ever to be ranked by us with Jews, Mahommedans, and Hindoos? Would it not become us to approach nearer to these our subjects, endeavour to gain their confidence and conciliate their esteem? Let us, at least, do that which is easily practicable. We are in possession of the means of printing, which they have not. Let us print the Armenian Bible, and employ proper persons from among themselves, to superintend the work, and encourage them to disperse their own faithful copy throughout the East. Let us show them, that the diffusion of

"Sarkies Joannes, an Armenian merchant of Calcutta, when he heard of the king's recovery from illness in 1789, liberated all the prisoners for debt in the gaol of Calcutta. His Majesty, hearing of this instance of loyalty in an Armenian subject, sent him his picture in miniature. Sarkies wore the royal present suspended at his breast, during his life; and it is now worn by his son, when he appears at the levee of the Governor-General."

the Scriptures is an undertaking to which we are not indifferent; and, by our example, let us stimulate their zeal, which is very languid. But, however languid their zeal may be, it is certain that they consider the English as being yet more dead to the interests of religion, than themselves. Such a subject as this, indeed every subject which is of great importance to Christianity, is worthy the notice of our government, as well as of individuals and societies. The printing press, which shall be employed in multiplying copies of the pure Armenian Bible, will prove a precious fountain for the evangelization of the East; and the Oriental Bible Repository at Calcutta, will be a central and convenient place for its dispersion." p. 345, 346.

Dr. Buchanan, before he concludes his Researches, recurs to the subject of a Memoir formerly presented by him to the public, and advances some new and forcible arguments for giving an ecclesiastical establishment to British India; but for these we must refer to the work itself, which we now close, with sentiments of the highest esteem for the author, and with ardent prayers, that the magnificent career which he has opened to this Christian country, may be speedily entered upon, and eagerly pursued. We most warmly recommend the perusal of this volume, in an especial manner, to our statesmen and senators, to the rulers of our church, and the rulers of our Indian empire. Possibly they may disapprove of some parts of it, and they may entertain doubts with respect to others; (neither in that doubt, nor in that disapprobation, have we ourselves any participation ;) yet they will meet with much, which even the most sceptical must admit to be both well founded and important, and to which the most prejudiced will concede, that an early and serious attention is due from those who rule both in the state and in the church. Should these pages meet the eye of any of those to whom the providence of God has assigned an influence in our national councils, we would urge it upon them, under the sanction of that higher than parliamentary responsibility which awaits us all, not to turn from the subject until they have at least investigated, with calmness and impartiality, its claims to consideration. We anticipate an early opportunity of again invoking their attention to the same general topics, and in the mean time we will content ourselves with observing, in the view of the approaching discussions on the renewal of the East India Company's Charter, that no man can stand acquitted by God, or by his own conscience, who shuts his eyes to the magnitude of the questions which Dr. Buchanan has brought before him; or who, having examined them, is induced, by any motives of a merely worldly and shortsighted policy, we would not say to resist, but to withhold his active aid from, every prudent and practicable expedient which may be proposed, for giving the light of Heaven to our Asiatic empire.

FROM THE EDINBURGH REVIEW.

The Vision of Don Roderick, a Poem, By Walter Scott, Esq. 4to. p. 122 Edinburgh, 1811.

THE odds are considerably against the success of any man, when he can only succeed by coming up to the expectations which have been excited in the public by his own great fame, and the supposed inspiration of events of present interest and notoriety.

However cruel or unjust it may appear, it is certainly true, as we think we have intimated before, that a prosperous poet has always harder measure dealt him by the public, in proportion to his former popularity;-that his most formidable rival is commonly himself;-and that, in comparing his new productions with his old, we are exceedingly apt to judge of the former by their best passages, and of the latter by their worst. Thus the unhappy adventurer on Parnassus is only tasked the more severely for the success of his former exertions,-is expected to run faster the more breath he has expended,―and pronounced to be falling off in vigour and activity, if he does not appear to move more rapidly over the steep and distant regions at the summit, than he did along the flowery slopes at its base.

His hazards, however, are prodigiously increased, if, in these later appearances, he should venture upon a theme with which all the vulgar echoes of the country are at that moment resounding-if he should undertake, for instance, to celebrate the heroes of the last Gazette, or the victory for which the bells are still ringing, and the Tower guns roaring in our ears. All experience has shown, that there can be no successful poetry upon subjects of this description:-and there are two very good reasons why it must be so. In the first place, the author, in such cases can never tell his readers any thing which they did not know better before; and in the second place, he can neither add any ennobling circumstance to the certain and notorious truth, nor suppress any vulgar or degrading ones with which it may happen to be encumbered. The great charm of poetry is, that it places before us the newest and most extraordinary objects;-and by its vivid colours, and artful combinations, makes us present, as it were, to the most remote or fabulous transactions. When it chooses, therefore, to employ itself on transactions that are actually present and before us already, in all their detail and reality, it evidently has no scope for its deceptions ;-the great end which it aims at producing has been already attained, though by more vulgar and ordinary means; -every reader of the authentic narrative, has more facts and more pictures in his memory, than the most diligent versifier

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