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that bloody code, which after a long night of darkness, was announced to it, under the same name! And I pondered on the mysterious dispensation, which permitted the ministers of the inquisition, with their racks and flames, to visit these lands, before the heralds of the Gospel of Peace. But the most painful reflection was, that this tribunal should yet exist, unawed by the vicinity of British humanity and dominion. I was not satisfied with what I had seen or said at the inquisition, and I determined to go back again. The inquisitors were now sitting on the tribunal, and I had some excuse for returning; for I was to receive from the chief inquisitor a letter which he said he would give me before I left the place, for the British Resident in Travancore, being an answer to a letter from that officer.

"When I arrived at the inquisition, and had ascended the outer stairs, the door-keepers surveyed me doubtingly, but suffered me to pass, supposing that I had returned by permission and appointment of the inquisitor. I entered the great hall, and went up directly towards the tribunal of the inquisition, described by Dellon, in which is the lofty crucifix. I sat down on a form, and wrote some notes; and then desired one of the attendants to carry in my name to the inquisitor. As I walked up the hall, I saw a poor woman sitting by herself on a bench by the wall, apparently in a disconsolate state of mind. She clasped her hands as I passed, and gave me a look expressive of her distress. This sight chilled my spirits. The familiars told me she was waiting there to be called up before the tribunal of the inquisition. While I was asking questions concerning her crime, the second inquisitor came out in evident trepidation, and was about to complain of the intrusion; when I informed him I had come back for the letter from the chief inquisitor. He said it should be sent after me to Goa; and he conducted me with a quick step towards the door. As we passed the poor woman, I pointed to her, and said with some emphasis, 'Behold, father, another victim of the holy inquisition!' He answered nothing. When we arrived at the head of the great stair, he bowed, and I took my last leave of Josephus a Doloribus, without uttering a word." p. 250—264.

The English government, we are happy to say, had anticipated the author's suggestion, as to the propriety of interfering, by means of its influence with the Portuguese government, to abolish the power of the inquisition. We trust they will pay an equally humane attention to that other enormity which has been mentioned, the immolation of females, perpetrated as it is in our own territories, and within the unquestionable sphere of our own independent jurisdiction.

Dr. Buchanan visited Colonel Macaulay, the British Resident in Travancore, from whom he states himself to have derived much valuable information, and whom he represents as the warm friend of Christianity. After residing with this officer a few days, they proceeded together to Udiamper, formerly the resi dence of Beliarte, king of the Christians, and the place at which,

in 1599, the Archbishop of Goa convened the synod of the Syrian clergy, when he burned the Syrian and Chaldaic books. From Udiamper they went to Cande-nad, to confer with the Syrian bishop, and found that he had commenced the translation of the Scriptures into the language of Malayala. They then visited Cranganore, the seat of a Romish archbishopric, to which 45 churches are subject. Not far from Cranganore is the town of Paroor, where there is an ancient Syrian church, bearing the name of St. Thomas, and supposed to be the oldest in Malabar. Dr. Buchanan took a drawing of it. At Verapoli, the residence of Bishop Raymondo, the Pope's apostolical vicar in Malabar, there is a college for the sacerdotal office, where the students are taught the Latin and Syriac languages. The apostolical vicar superintends 64 churches, exclusive both of the 45 already mentioned, and of the large diocesses of Cochin and Quilon, whose churches extend to Cape Comorin, and are visible from the sea.

"The view of this assemblage of Christian congregations," observes Dr. Buchanan, “excited in my mind, mingled sensations of pleasure and regret; of pleasure to think that so many of the Hindoos had been rescued from the idolatry of Brahma, and its criminal worship; and of regret when I reflected that there was not to be found among the whole body, one copy of the Holy Bible.

"The Apostolic Vicar is an Italian, and corresponds with the Society 'de propaganda Fide.' He is a man of liberal manners, and gave me free access to the archives of Verapoli, which are upwards of two centuries old. In the library I found many volumes marked 'Liber hereticus prohibitus.' Every step I take in Christian India, I meet with a memento of the Inquisition. The Apostolical Vicar, however, does not acknowledge its authority, and places himself under British protection. He spoke of the Inquisition with just indignation, and, in the presence of the British Resident, called it 'a horrid tribunal.' I asked him whether he thought I might with safety visit the Inquisition, when I sailed past Goa; there being at this time a British force in its vicinity. It asserted a personal jurisdiction over natives who were now British subjects: and it was proper the English government should know something of its present state. The Bishop answered, "I do not know what you might do, under the protection of a British force; but I should not like (smiling, and pressing his capacious sides,) to trust my body in their hands.'

"We then had some conversation on the subject of giving the Scriptures to the native Roman Catholics. I had heard before, that the Bishop was by no means hostile to the measure. I told him that I should probably find the means of translating the Scriptures into the Malabar language, and wished to know whether he had any objection to this mode of illuminating the ignorant minds of the native Christians. He said he had none. I visited the Bishop two or three times afterwards. At our last interview he said, 'I have been thinking of the good gift you are meditating for the native Christians; but believe

me, the Inquisition will endeavour to counteract your purposes by every means in their power.' I afterwards conversed with an intelligent native priest, who was well acquainted with the state and characser of the Christians, and asked him, whether he thought they would be happy to obtain the Scriptures? Yes,' answered he, those who have heard of them.' I asked, if he had got a Bible himself? he said; but he had seen one at Goa.'

6

No,'

6

"""

p. 226, 227.

The account of the Syriac manuscripts, which Dr. Buchanan succeeded in obtaining, and of the ancient tablets, on which are recorded the rights and privileges granted to the Christians, supposed to have been lost, but lately recovered by the exertions of Colonel Macaulay, has been, in some measure, anticipated in our volume for 1807. Most of these manuscripts, together with copper-plate fac-similies of the tablets, are deposited in the public library of the university of Cambridge.

The translation of the Scriptures into the Malayalim, which was set on foot, as we have seen, at Dr. Buchanan's suggestion, was prosecuted by the Bishop without intermission. In the following year Dr. Buchanan visited Travancore a second time, and carried the manuscript version of the New Testament to Bombay to be printed, learned natives being sent from Travancore to superintend the press. It is intended to continue the translation until the whole Bible is completed. The British and Foreign Bible Society have voted a large supply of paper in aid of the design. Dr. Buchanan likewise urges the printing of an edition of the Syriac Scriptures for distribution in Malayala, and also in Mesopotamia. We trust that the Bible Society will not be inattentive to this important object.

Before our author quits the subject of the Romish christians, he takes occasion to recommend that the Holy Scriptures, in Portuguese, should be sent to illuminate the 3000 priests of Goa, as well as the vast number of Roman catholics, in different parts of India, who speak and read the Portuguese language. The Portuguese language prevails wherever there are, or have been, settlements of that nation. Their descendants people those immense › coasts, which extend from the vicinity of the Cape of good Hope to the sea of China, as well as a great part of the western coast of Africa. In many of the places which Dr. Buchanan visited, though full of Portuguese, he could not hear of a single copy of the Portuguese Scriptures. At the same time, "There is a Portuguese press at Tranquebar, and another at Vepery, near Madras; and pecuniary aid only is wanted from Europe to multiply copies, and to circulate them round the coasts of Asia. The Portuguese language is certainly a most favourable medium for diffusing the true religion in the maritime provinces of the East." Even the priests, we are assured, "will gladly receive copies of

the Latin and Portuguese Vulgate Bible, from the hands of the English nation."

Dr. Buchanan next adverts to the languages of Persia and Arabia. The number of natives already professing Christianity in Persia, and who are, therefore, prepared to receive a version of the Scriptures, is considerable. Besides this, the Persian language is known far beyond the limits of Persia Proper. It is spoken at all the Mahommedan courts in India, and is the usual language of judicial proceedings, even under the British government in Hindostan. "It is next in importance," in the opinion of Dr. Buchanan," to the Arabic and Chinese, in regard to the extent of territory through which it is spoken, being generally understood from Calcutta to Damascus." In the work of translating the Scriptures into the Persian, a work requiring a perfect knowledge, not of that language only, but of the Arabic also, Sabat, with whose name the readers of the Christian Observer are well acquainted, and Mirza Filrut, a Persian by descent, and a man of learning, who visited England some years ago, and now acts as Persian teacher in the College of Fort William, are employed, under the superintendence of the Rev. Henry Martyn, who is himself an Arabic and Persian scholar, and skilled in the original tongues of the sacred Scriptures. The Gospels of St. Matthew and St. Luke had already been printed, and a number of copies of them deposited for sale, in the Bibliotheca Biblica, at Calcutta, so long ago as May, 1810.

The importance of the Arabic language, in diffusing a knowledge of christianity, is universally admitted. It is read in every quarter of Europe, Asia, and Africa, where Mahommedanism prevails. A version of the whole Bible in Arabic has, indeed reached us; but its language is antiquated, being probably upwards of a thousand years old; and although the republication of this version, which is that of the Polyglot, now proceeding under the patronage of the Bishop of Durham, is likely to answer many valuable purposes, yet it seems highly desirable that a version of it should be obtained which shall not be liable to the same objections with the present, and which from its style, may "command respect even in Nujed and Hejaz." Mr. Martyn has circulated proposals for such a work, which have met with very liberal encouragement in India, and we trust will meet with equally liberal patronage in England. It is a work, the importance of which can hardly be overrated. When it is completed, "we will begin," says Mr. Martyn, "to preach to Arabia, Syria, Persia, Tartary, part of India and of China, half of Africa, all the sea-coast of the Mediterranean and Turkey, and one tongue shall suffice for them all." It was expected that the translation of the New Testament would be completed by the end of the present year.

Mr. Martyn himself is more immediately engaged in the translation of the Scriptures into the Hindostanee language, for which he is peculiarly qualified. He has already translated the liturgy of the church of England into that tongue; and the work is esteemed by competent judges to be a faithful version of the sublime original. He now uses it in his ministrations. He has also translated the parables of our Saviour into the same language, with an explanation subjoined to each.

After some valuable observations on the Prophecies, calculated to excite a warm interest in favour of the Jews, Dr. Buchanan proceeds to give some account of his intercourse with them while in India.

"Cochin, Feb. 4, 1807.

"I have been now in Cochin, or its vicinity, for upwards of two months, and have got well acquainted with the Jews. They do not live in the city of Cochin, but in a town about a mile distant from it, called Jews'-Town. It is almost wholly inhabited by the Jews, who have two respectable synagogues. Among them are some very intelligent men, who are not ignorant of the present history of nations. There are also Jews here from remote parts of Asia, so that this is the fountain of intelligence concerning that people of the East; there being constant communication by ships with the Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, and the. mouths of the Indus. The resident Jews are divided into two classes, called the Jerusalem or White Jews; and the ancient or Black Jews. The White Jews reside at this place. The Black Jews have also a synagogue here; but the great body of that tribe inhabit towns in the interior of the province. I have now seen most of both classes. My inquiries referred chiefly to their antiquity, their manuscripts, and their sentiments concerning the present state of their nation." p. 304, 305.

The following is the narrative, given by the White Jews, of their first arrival in India.

"After the second temple was destroyed, (which may God speedily rebuild!) our fathers, dreading the conqueror's wrath, departed from Jerusalem, a numerous body of men, women, priests, and Levites, and came into this land. There were among them men of repute for learning and wisdom; and God gave the people favour in the sight of the king who at that time reigned here, and he granted them a place to dwell in, called Cranganor. He allowed them a patriarchal jurisdiction within the district, with certain privileges of nobility; and the royal grant was engraved, according to the custom of these days, on a plate of brass. This was done in the year from the creation of the world 4250 (A. D. 490); and this plate of brass we still have in possession. Our forefathers continued at Cranganor for about a thousand years, and the number of heads who governed were seventy-two. Soon after our settlement, other Jews followed us from Judea; and among these came that man of great wisdom, Rabbi Samuel, a Levite of JeBusalem, with his son, Rabbi Jehuda Levita. They brought with them the SILVER TRUMPETS, made use of at the time of the JUBILEE, which

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