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artless and unaffected, giving a most amiable idea of the writer's mind and temper; and it cannot but be considered as highly curious to contemplate in these pages the development of such a mind as that of Linnæus. It is, in short, such a journal as a man would write for his own use, without the slightest thought of its ever being seen by any other person.' The object of the tour, and the equipment of its author for the undertaking, are characteristically expressed in the following passage:
"Having been appointed by the Royal Academy of Sciences to travel through Lapland, for the purpose of investigating the three kingdoms of nature in that country, I prepared my wearing apparel and other necessaries for the journey as follows:*
"My clothes consisted of a slight coat of Westgothland linsey-woolsey cloth without folds, lined with red shalloon, having small cuffs and collar of shag: leather breeches; a round wig, a green leather cap, and a pair of half boots. I carried a small leather bag half an ell in length, but somewhat less in breadth, furnished on one side with hooks and eyes, so that it could be opened and shut at pleasure. This bag contained one shirt; two pair of false sleeves; two half-shirts; an inkstand, pencase, microscope and spying-glass; a gauze cap to protect me occasionally from the gnats; a comb; my journal, and a parcel of paper stitched together for drying plants, both in folio; my manuscript ornithology, Flora Uplandica, and Characteres Generici. I wore a hanger at my side, and carried a small fowling-piece, as well as an octangular stick, graduated for the purpose of measuring. My pocket book contained a passport from the Governor of Upsal, and a recommendation from the Academy." I set out alone from the city of Upsal, on Friday, May 12, 173, at eleven o'clock, being at that time within half a day of twenty-five years of age."
We shall not detain the reader in traversing the more cultivated provinces of Sweden, Upland, Gestrickland, Kelsingland, Medelpad, Angermanland and Westbothland. We pass over, too, many pleasing and intelligent remarks, in which our traveller derives and communicates instruction from the most common subjects in natural history in a manner almost peculiar to himself, as well as his interesting observations on the domestic economy of Sweden. These occur at every step, but we rather hasten to the immediate object of the tour-his information respecting Lapland.
It is pleasing to contemplate the benevolent and religious feelings which constantly actuated the mind of Linnæus. Wherever he had an opportunity of attending divine service, we find him
* A print, taken from Linnæus in this dress, was published some years ago in London, and may be frequently seen in the possession of his pupils and ad
invariably present, and he was particularly anxious to inform himself of the state of religion among the Laplanders. He tells us that
At Easter, Whitsuntide and Christmas, as well as on the four annual festivals by law established, the Laplanders (of the lower or woodland tracts) and the colonists usually attend divine service at church, where they stay till the holidays are over, and are accommodated in huts adjoining the sacred edifice. Those who live at no great distance from a church, attend there every other Sunday, to hear a sermon. On the intermediate Sundays, prayers are read to the members of each family at home."
Happy would it be for the more civilized part of mankind, if they were more generally influenced by the same zeal and devotion which characterize the simple inhabitants of these northern regions!-The subsequent passage may be taken as an example of Linnæus's classical taste in composition :
"Ovid's description of the silver age is still applicable to the native inhabitants of Lapland. Their soil is not wounded by the plough, nor is the iron din of arms to be heard; neither have mankind found their way to the bowels of the earth, nor do they engage in war to define its boundaries. They perpetually change their abode, live in tents, and follow a pastoral life, just like the patriarchs."
Linnæus's first attempt to enter Lapland was unpropitious. Finding the country intersected by marshes nearly impassable, he sent a native of the country in search of accommodation, and of a guide. The messenger on his return,
"was accompanied by a person whose appearance was such that I did not at first know whether I beheld a man or a woman. I scarcely believe that any poetical description of a fury could come up to the idea which this Lapland fair-one excited. It might well be imagined that she was truly of Stygian origin. Her stature was very diminutive. Her face of the darkest brown from the effects of smoke. Her eyes dark and sparkling. Her eye-brows black. Her pitchy-coloured hair hung loose about her head, and on it she wore a flat red cap. She had a gray petticoat; and from her neck, which resembled the skin of a frog, were suspended a pair of large loose breasts of the same brown complexion, but encompassed by way of ornament, with brass rings. Around her waist she wore a girdle, and on her feet a pair of half boots. Her first aspect struck me with dread; but though a fury in appearance, she addressed me with mingled pity and reserve in the following terms. "O thou poor man! what hard destiny can have brought thee hither, to a place never visited by any one before? This is the first time I ever beheld a stranger. Thou miserable creature! how didst thou come, and whither wilt thou go? Dost thou not perceive what houses and habitations we have, and with how much difficulty we go to
church?" I entreated her to point out some way, by which I might continue my journey in any direction, so as not to be forced the way! came. "Nay man," said she," thou hast only to go the same way back again; for the river overflows so much, it is not possible for thee to proceed further in this direction. From us thou hast no assistance to expect in the prosecution of thy journey, as my husband, who might have helped thee, is ill. thou mayst inquire for our next neighbour, who lives about a mile off and perhaps if thou shouldst meet with him, he may give thee some assistance, but I really believe it will scarcely be in his power." I inquired how far it was to Sorsele. "That we do not know," repled she, "but in the present state of the roads it is about seven days journey from hence, as my husband has told me."
"My health and strength being by this time materially impaired, by wading through such an extent of marshes, laden with my apparel and luggage, for the Laplander had enough to do to carry the boat; by walking for whole nights together; by not having for a long time tasted any boiled meat: by drinking a great quantity of water, as nothing else was to be had; and by eating nothing but fish, unsalted and crawling with vermin, I must have perished but for a piece of dried and salted reindeer's flesh, given me by my kind hostess the clergyman's wife at Lycksele. This food, however, without bread, proved unwholesome and indigestible. How I longed once more to meet with people who fed on spoon meat! I inquired of this woman whether she could give me any thing to eat. She replied, “nothing but fish."-I looked at the fresh fish, as it was called, but perceiving its mouth to be full of maggots, I had no appetite to touch it: but though it thus abated my hunger, it did not recruit my strength. I asked if I could have any reindeer's tongues, which are commonly dried for sale, and served up even at the tables of the great; but was answered in the negative. "Have you no cheese made of reindeer's milk?” said I, "Yes," replied she, "but it is a mile off."—" If it were here, would you allow me to buy some ?" "I have no desire," answered the good woman, "that thou shouldst die in my country for want of food."
"On arriving at her hut, I perceived three cheeses lying under a shed without walls, and took the smallest of them, which she, after some consultation, allowed me to purchase. The cap of my hostess, like that of all the Lapland women, was very remarkable. It was made of double red cloth, as is usually the case, of a round flat form. The upper side was flat, a foot broad, and stitched round the edge, where the lining was turned over. At the under side was a hole to receive the head, with a projecting border round it. The lining being loose, the cap covers more or less at the pleasure of the wearer. As to shift, she, like all her country women, was destitute of any such garment. She wore a collar or tippet of the breadth of two fingers, stitched with thread, and bordered next the skin with brass rings Over this she wore two gray jackets, both alike, which reached to her knees, just like those worn by the men."
Two very curious notices respecting natural history, occur at
Vol. 1. p. 182 and 191, in the former of which Linnæus clearly anticipates the Hedwigian theory of the fructification of mosses, from which his difference to Dillenius subsequently diverted him, and in the latter he seems first to have conceived the idea of his arrangement of quadrupeds, principally founded on the teeth. If I knew,' says he, how many teeth, and of what peculiar form, as well as how many udders, and where situated, each animal has, I should perhaps be able to contrive a most natural methodical arrangement of quadrupeds.'
The district of Lulea affords many entertaining remarks on natural history, and the description of its ancient church, with its magnificent altar-piece is very amusing. The gilding of this is said to have cost 2408 ducats. There were statues of martyrs with cavities in their heads to hold water, which ran out at the eyes; and other figures whose hands were, at the pleasure of the priest, lifted up in adoration, by means of a cord.
In his approach towards the Lapland Alps, the patience of Linnæus was put to the test by the curate of Jockmock, who held his scientific knowledge very cheap, because he doubted that the clouds were solid bodies, striking the mountains, as they passed, and carrying away stones, trees and cattle. At page 268, is a singular delineation of the aspect of the Alps, of which our traveller first had a full view in his approach to Kromitis; and on the sixth of July, he ascended the snowy mountain of Wallavari.
"When I reached this mountain, says he, I seemed entering on a new world and when I had ascended it, I scarcely knew whether I was in Asia or Africa, the soil, situation, and every one of the plants being equally strange to me. All the rare plants I had previously met with, and which had from time to time afforded me so much pleasure, were here as in miniature, and new ones in such profusion that I was overcome with astonishment."*
Here he first entered into the society of the mountain Laplanders, and partook of their hospitality. He gives an interesting account of their innocent and simple manners, their quiet peaceable lives, and their truly pastoral habitations. Many particulars also respecting the nature and economy of the reindeer, are highly curious.-Gradually ascending, our traveller arrived on the 11th of July, at more lofty regions of perpetual snow.
"Here the mountain streams began to take their course westward, a sign of our having reached Norwegian Lapland. The delightful
* Of some of these plants Linnæus formed new genera, which he dedicated to the honour of some eminent botanists, and though he afterwards changed the names, these genera have all remained unshaken. What he now called Jussiea was afterwards Sibbaldia; his Dillenia, Azalea; and his Bannisteca, Diapensia, Rev.
tracts of vegetation which had hitherto been so agreeably interspersed among the Alpine snows, were now no longer to be seen. No charming flowers were here scattered under our feet, the whole country was one dazzling snowy waste.-At length after having travelled about three or four (Swedish) miles, the mountains appeared before us bare of snow, though only sterile rocks, and between them we caught a view of the western ocean. The only bird I had seen in this icy tract was what the Laplanders call Pago (Charadrious Hiaticula )."
The following picturesque and striking description we cannot withhold from the reader:
"Having thus traversed the Alps, we arrived about noon upon their bold and precipitous limits to the westward. The ample forest spread out beneath us, looked like fine green fields, the loftiest trees appearing no more than herbs of the humblest growth. About these mountains grew the same species of plants I had observed on the other side of the Alps. We now descended into a lower country. It seems, as I write this, that I am still walking down the mountain, so long and steep was the descent, but the Alpine plants no longer made their appearance after we had reached the more humble hills. When we arrived at the plains below, how grateful was the transition from a chill and frozen mountain to a warm balmy valley! I sat down to regale myself with strawberries. Instead of ice and snow, I was surrounded with vegetation in all its prime. Such tall grass I had never before beheld in any country. Instead of the blustering wind so lately experienced, soft gales wafted around us the grateful scent of flowery clover and various other plants. In the earlier part of my journey, I had for some time experienced a long-continued spring (whose steps I pursued as I ascended the Lapland hills); then unremitted winter and eternal snow surrounded me; summer at length was truly welcome. Oh how most lovely of all is summer!"
Observing the activity of his two Lapland companions, Linnæus is here led to enter into a long disquisition on the causes of activity in the human body, and especially in these people. This is succeeded by an enumeration of the supposed causes of their healthy constitutions; among which are tranquillity of mind, moderation in eating, and the deficiency of spirituous liquors. Nevertheless these privileged people have, by their intercourse with neighbouring countries, become in some measure corrupted on the last mentioned subject. One purpose of the men who accompanied Linnæus to Torfjorden, was to purchase brandy; they drank it in the first place as long as they could stand on their legs, and having brought with them a number of dried bladders, these were subsequently all filled with brandy, tied up, and carried away by them.
Our author was induced to spend a few days in examining the