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MADEIRA HOUSE, in which the temperature of that island is to be constantly maintained. The difference of climate principally consisting in temperature and moisture-if the means of having a dry, warm, and uniform atmosphere, are attainable in England, the object of invalids will, in great measure, be effected. The expense of such an undertaking being unavoidably great, the most eligible plan has appeared to be to create a fund, by subscription,-as 50,000l. in 500 shares, at 1001. each the shares to be transferable. The salubrity of the air of Clifton, with the power of supplying the building with the Hotwell water, have pointed it out as the most proper place in the island for such an institution. It is intended to concentrate within it whatever can contribute to the restoration of health. The public rooms, staircases, and passages, are to be kept at the summer temperature of 62 or 65 degrees, and the private apartments are to be furnished with the means of being kept at any temperature which the feelings of the resident may suggest as most desirable, or his physician prescribes. An extensive conservatory for exotics is to be formed as a promenade for the residents; in addition to which, pleasure-grounds are to be laid out and cultivated as a Botanic garden. A covered circus is to be connected for equestrian exercise, at all seasons, and provision made for other exercises, suited to the strength of the invalid, both active and passive. It is proposed also to introduce baths of every description, and a constant supply of the most approved mineral waters. Thus the inhabitants of the Hygeian Temple may avail themselves, in one spot, of all the scattered gifts of Nature, which the experience of ages has proved to be beneficial to the restoration of health. The building is intended to accommodate fifty persons, each to have two rooms, one adjoining the other; with a dressing-room, capable of lodging a private attendant. There is also to be a suit of public rooms, adequate to the accommodation of the whole of the inmates. Supposing each person to pay 2001. per annum, or per winter, a revenue of 10,0001. per annum will arise, adequate to pay interest to the shareholders, and to support the institution. The estimate for the building is 40,000,-the purchase of the ground, and other expenses, at least, 10,0001. The area for the house and gardens is to cover four acres— which will allow space sufficient for the promenades, circus, botanic garden, and pleasure-grounds. Dr. KENTISH, is to be the resident physician, and Mr. BUSBY is named as the architect.

Literary Prodigy.-The following account is extracted from the Moniteur of May 28.-Gottingen, May 20.-For these eight months we have had among the students of our university, a boy ten years and a half old, who is a real phenomenon. The name of this young savant is Charles Witte. He understands the languages, history, geography, and literature, as well ancient as modern: at the age of eight years he possessed, besides his mother-tongue, Greek, Latin, French, English, and Italian, to such a degree of perfection, that he could not only translate currently, the Eneid of Virgil, and the Iliad of Homer, but could besides speak, with an astonishing facility, all the living languages which has been just mentioned. Of this, the last year gave such satis

factory proofs in a public examination, which he underwent at the University of Leipsic, that that Body honoured him with the following diploma:

Alma Universitatis Lipsiensis Rectore Carolo Gottlob Kuhnio, etc. etc.
Carolus Witte Lochaviensis puer IX. annorum.

Propter præmaturam eximiamque in iis quibus non puerilis,, sed adolescentum ætas inbui solet, solertiam; potissimum veró linguarum antiquarum græcæ ac latinæ, item recentiorum franco-gallicæ, anglicæ, etruscæ, notitiam haud vulgarem, quam a nemine nisi à patre Carolo Henrico Godofrego unico et solo præceptore accepit.

Exemplo planè singulari non modo albo Philyriæ (Leipsick) insertus, serum etiam datà fide, civibus Academiæ nostræ adscriptus est.

Till his arrival at Gottingen, this child had no other instructor than his father, the clergyman Witte. The king of Westphalia, desirous that he should continue to direct the studies of his son to their termination, has granted him a pension, which has enabled him to quit his pastoral functions, and to accompany his pupil to our university. The young Witte is now studying philosophy: he is engaged in a course of mathematics, physicks, and metaphysicks, and shews the most happy disposition for all the sciences.

Panharmonicon. Of the many exhibitions of human ingenuity displayed in this country, the Panharmonicon, invented by Mr. J. Gurk, a native of Vienna, is certainly amongst the most remarkable. In this machine, after seven years of unremitting labour, the artist has succeeded in producing a complete self-acting band of musical instruments-the whole of which are conprehended within a frame of about six feet in length, four feet in width, and about nine feet in height. The appearance of the machine is that of a canopy bed, with elegant blue silk furniture. The front view presents to the spectator a row of thirty-one oboes, and twenty German flutes, placed perpendicularly, as the pipes of an organ; the ends resting on a frame raised somewhat less than two feet from the floor. Behind these is a considerable number of square pipes of wood, also placed perpendicularly. Above these instruments are placed four French horns, the mouths directed towards the front of the machine; and on the same frame are fixed fourteen trumpets, in a perpendicular position. Behind these are a pair of kettle drums, with a triangle on the one side, and a pair of cymbals on the other. Above is a double drum; and in the front, behind the flutes and oboes, a regimental drum, in a perpendicular position. At the back of the machine is a barrel, like that of a common organ, five feet in length and nine inches in diameter, resting in a horizontal position on its axis, about two feet from the floor. Within the base of the ma chine is a pair of bellows, which supply the flutes, oboes, and other pipes. Immediately beneath the trumpets and French horns is a smaller pair of bellows, comprehended within what appears merely a cross bar. The mechanism by which the machine is put in action, consists of three distinct parts. The first actuates the flutes, oboes, pipes, and drums; the second the trumpets, French horns and trian, gle; and the third the cymbals. The several parts being wound up as

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a clock, the pins upon the revolving barrel raise small brass lavers, which communicate by cords with the different valves and stops of the various instruments. German Waltzes, and full pieces by Mozart, Rom. berg, and Starke, are performed with great correctness'; but the watch reli ƒ of the Emperor's guard, at Vienna, is peculiarly grand, from the powerful effect of the horns and trumpets. The tones produced by the combination of flutes, oboes, and pipes, bear some resemblance to those of the organ. The pieces are not rapidly performed, but the effect is grand and striking. We understand that this machine having been submitted to a minute inspection of the connoisseurs at Leipsic, the inventor received unbounded approbation from those critics, esteemed the first in Europe, with regard to musical science and mechanism. The execution of the trumpet notes had been pronounced impossible till the completion of this extraordinary machine, which will deservedly become an object of universal curiosity during its exhibition in this country. It is indeed an astonishing effort of human ingenuity and perseverance. Mr. Gurk is a performer on every instrument, comprehended in this elaborate piece of mechanism.

Massacre. An account of the horrible massacre in Egypt has been transmitted to England by a young gentleman of Hull. He was at Alexandria when the slaughter commenced, on the 1st of March; and in his passage up the Nile, he met the heads, in pickle, of 24 Beys, going as a present to the Grand Signior at Constantinople. On his arrival at Grand Cairo, he saw the heads of the ordinary Mamelukes ranged before the doors and windows of the mosques, to be owned by the relations of the deceased. The massacre continued for several days. The Pacha of Egypt defends his conduct in ordering the massacre by stating, that the Beys had formed a plan to atack him as soon as the military force of 15,000 men should have been ordered against Mecca and Medina.

Description of the Guerillas.-This is a hardy race :-They generally perambulate in small parties, according in number to the object they have in view; their unceasing thirst for spoil makes them extremely active in learning where the enemy are contemplating to convey baggage or provisions; and the perfect knowledge of these Guerillas have of every tract of the country, gives them a decided advantage, in being able to watch and way-lay the enemy's transports. They are unremitting in their labours, night and day, when they have any object in view; and their information is generally correct. The dress and look of these marauders (as the enemy term them) are enough to inspire dread; they wear an immense cap, covered with fur, which is tied by a black belt under the chin; a loose dark jacket is thrown carelessly over their shoulders, and at the side of their horses hangs the destructive weapon of terror, a lance, which measures about ten feet; the sharp point fixes into a leather tube, which is suspended from the saddle to the off-shoulder of the horse, on the right side; in the centre of the handle of the weapon is a strap affixed, to secure it from impeding the animal's progress, or inconveniencing the rider; and when

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necessity requires the use of the weapon, it is unslung with the greatest facility; their immense whiskers, and goat-skin boots, give these natives a most striking and terrific appearance; and the hardy way in which they subsist (as an onion, a piece of bread, or a bunch of grapes is to them a meal of luxury and content) enables them to undergo any privation, and renders them fit for the harrassing nature of their war fare, so destructive and annoying to the enemy.

Russian Caravan.-In course of last August there left Asiatic Russia, for Koulgi, the frontier town of China, a caravan of merchandise, in value 30,200 rubles, laden on sixty-six horses, and a second caravan was in preparation. The traffic with China, in this direction, began in 1803, they succeeded in a carrying safely goods to the amount of 25,000 rubles. The Chinese city of Koutscha, with some other Chinese forts and establishments, form a line at the foot of Mount Tarabagatay, extending to Little Buckharia, along the limits of the kingdom of Koutaischa, which was conquered by the Emperor of China, about the year 1750.

Book with invisible Letters and Embellishments.-Altona, July 23. Great doubts have been entertained as to the existence of a book for which it is affirmed the Emperor Rodolphus offered 11,000 ducats. Liber Passionis Domini nostri Jesu Christi, cum figuris et characteribus ex nullâ materia compositis. "The book of the Passion of our Lord Jusus Christ, with figures and characters not made of any materials whatever." This book, it is recently ascertained, is in possession of the family of the Princess de Ligne.-It contains twenty-four leaves of vellum, in 12mo. on which not the smallest trace is apparent on inspection; but when a leaf is strongly pressed against the blue paper with which the book is interleaved, the characters become visible, as also the out-lines of the figures, which are executed with the most laborious finishing. This work is attributed to the time of Henry VII. between 1485 and 1509. A certificate of that age vouches for its authenticity.

Night Excursion in an Air Balloon.-An Italian journal gives the following relation:-M. Giard ascended from Florence in a balloon, Oct. 1. In half an hour he lost sight of the earth, and found himself at an elevation of 2,500 toises (15,000 feet). The balloon still continued to rise, when M. Giard finding his limbs benumbed by the extreme cold, and himself nearly overpowered by sleep, manœuvred to descend; but, perceiving beneath him the Mediterranean Sea, he rose again, and suffered still more from the excessive cold. He journeyed thus in the heavens, until two o'clock in the morning. He then perceived land, and descended safely at St Gasciano, having from the moment of his ascension been absent nine hours.

Preservative Cloak from Drowning: the Invention restored to its rightful Owner-All the world knows that Captain Ladorini made not only in Upper Italy, but also in our city, in the course of last month,

sundry experiments in proof of the efficacy of his cloak for swimming, to which he has given the appellation of "Hydrostatic cloak," and es pecially in this city, he crossed the sea from the mole to the light house. M. Ladorini in his annunciations to the public, attributes to himself the invention of this cloak; but the learned have proved that the merit of this discovery appertains to Leonardo da Vinci, who has been dead more than three centuries. In 1785, the brothers Gerii, architects of Milan, published a work in which they gave a description and figure of this cloak, acknowledging at the same time, that they had traced the drawing of it from a sketch of Leonardo da Vinci. By means of this machine the celebrated Lunardi passed in 1788, the arm of the sea from Calais to Dover, which is seven leagues across. In the same year the brothers Gerii made experiments of a like nature at Munza, in the presence of his highness the Archduke Ferdinand, also at Pavia, Placenza, Rome, &c. At Closternenburgh, near Vienna, they passed the Danube under the inspection of Prince Charles of Lichtenstein, and many officers of the staff. Some years afterwards the brothers Gerii caused a party of five grenadiers preceded by a drummer, to proceed two Italian miles along the canal of Milan; when all these soldiers happily landed with their cloaks, in the presence of the Count of Wilezeck, and many thousands of spectators. In consequence of these discoveries and recollections, our Journals advise Captain Ladorini, instead of claiming the invention as his own, to endeavour to improve this Hydrostatic cloak to the same perfection as it had obtained in the hands of the brothers Gerii, in order to prevent any further loss of lives among such of his associates as may be induced to try experiments on its powers.

We do not sufficiently recollect such passage of Lunardi across the sea, from Calais to Dover to offer additional remarks or intelligence on this article. If it be fact that he really did perform that voyage in the manner alluded to, we should be glad to know the principle he employed. A machine capable of that enterprize may deserve encouragement. In the hands of some of our workmen, it may reach nearer to perfection than in those of the brothers Gerii.

Transparent Leather-Nuremburgh, Sept. 27. The manufacturer Rosch, at Weimar, has discovered a method of making leather transparent; and completely proof against humidity. This leather has greatly the appearance of horn.

Great Saving in Brewing. An intelligent correspondent, who has successfully tried the experiment, recommends to families brewing their own malt liquor, the use of 32lbs. of brown sugar with two bushels of malt, which produced him about 50 gallons of ale as good in every respect as if made from six bushels of malt, besides effecting a saving of 31s. 8d. being the difference between 32lbs. of sugar at 17s. 4d. and two bushels of malt at 24s. making together 41s. 4d. and six bushels of malt at 72s.-The same quantity of hops is required for 8lbs. of sugar as for a bushel of malt, and he mixes the sugar with the wort as it runs from the mash-tub.

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