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those animals that have not young, on the approach of the pagi attempt to save themselves by flight; the ass alone, from his want of speed, is compelled to defend himself with his heels, which frequently proves successful; but should the pagi, notwithstanding his efforts, leap upon his back, he immediately throws himself on the ground, and endeavous to crush him, or runs with all his force against the trunks of trees, holding his head down so as not to dislocate his neck. By these means he generally succeeds in freeing himself from his assailant, and there are but few asses destroyed by an enemy so frequently fatal to much stronger animals.

"Notwithstanding his ferocity, the pagi never ventures to attack a man, although he is continually hunted and persecuted by the latter. He is naturally a coward, and a woman or child will make him fly and abandon his prey. He is hunted with dogs trained for the purpose, and when hard pressed by them, either leaps upon a tree, seeks an asylum upon a rock, or placing himself against the trunk of some large tree, defends himself in a furious manner, killing many of his enemies, until the hunter, watching his opportunity, slips a noose around his neck. As soon as the animal finds himself taken in this manner, he roars terribly, and sheds a torrent of tears. The skin serves for various uses; good leather for boots or shoes is manufactured from it, and the fat is considered as a specific in the sciatica.”* Vol. I. p. 244.

To the first volume there is added a methodical table of the various species of natural productions described in the work, a supplement to the table of the vegetable kingdom, and supplementary notes illustrative of the History of Chili.

The second volume is divided into four books, and is peculiarly full of interest and entertainment. The first treats of the origin, &c. of the Chilians, the state of the country before and after the arrival of the Spaniards. The second book gives the history and description of the Araucanians, a brave and gallant people, who long and successfully withstood the combined efforts of the army of Spain. This portion of the work commands the strongest sympathy for the high spirit of independence which marked this nation, evinced in their unyielding and protracted opposition to their powerful and disciplined enemies. From this part it seems due to the author to subjoin an extract.

"Although the Araucanians have long since emerged from a saage state, they nevertheless preserve, in many respects, the prejudices, and the peculiar character of that early period. Proud of their valour and unbounded liberty, they believe themselves the only people in the world that deserve the name of men. From hence it is that besides the appellation of auca, or free, which they value so highly, they give themselves metonymically the names of che, or the nation;

*See Pennant and Shaw on Felis Puma. The latter, has a good figure of the animal. Rev.

of reche, pure or undegenerated nation; and of huentu, men; a word of similar signification with the vir of the Latin, and as the latter is the root of the word virtus, so from the former is derived huentugen, which signifies the same thing.

"From this ridiculous pride proceeds the contempt with which they regard all other nations. To the Spaniards they gave, on their first knowledge of them, the nickname of chiapi, vile soldiers, from whence proceeded the denomination of chiapeton, by which they are known in South America. They afterwards called them huinca; this injurious appellation, which from time and custom has lost its odiousness, comes from the word huincun, which signifies to assassinate. It is true that in their first battles the Spaniards gave them too much reason for applying to them these opprobrious epithets, which serve to the present time to denote one of that nation. Esteeming themselves fortunate in their barbarity, they call those Indians who live in the Spanish settlements calme-huinca, or wretched Spaniards. To the other Europeans, the English, French, and Italians, whom they readily distinguish from each other, they give the name of maruche, which is equivalent to the term moro, used by the common people of Spain to denote all strangers indiscriminately. They call each other pegni, that is brothers, and even apply the same name to those born in their country of foreign parents.

"The benevolence and kindness with which these people generally treat each other is really surprising. For the word friend they have six or seven very expressive terms in their language, among others that of canay, which corresponds to the alter ego of the Latins. The relations that result from corresponding situations or common concerns in life are so many ties of regard, and are expressed by appropriate words denoting particular friendship or good will. Those who have the same name call each other laca, and those who bear but a part of the name, apellaca. These denominations incur an obligation of mutual esteem and aid. Relations by consanguinity are called in general monmague, and those of affinity, guillan. Their table of genealogy is more intricate than that of the Europeans, all the conceivable degrees of relationship being indicated therein by particular


"From the mutual affection that subsists between them, proceeds their solicitude reciprocally to assist each other in their necessities.. Not a beggar or an indigent person is to be found throughout the whole Araucanian territory; even the most infirm and incapable of subsisting themselves are decently clothed.

"This benevolence is not, however, confined only to their countrymen; they conduct themselves with the greatest hospitality towards all strangers of whatever nation, and a traveller may live in any part of their country without the least expense.

"Their usual expression whenever they meet, is marimari, and when they quit each other ventempi, or ventini. [These should be explained. They are rather tiresome in their compliments, which are generally too long, as they take a pride upon such occasions, as well as every other, in making a display of their eloquence. The right


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hand is, among them, as with the Europeans, the most honourable station, contrary to the practice of the Asiatics, with whom the left enjoys that privilege. They are naturally fond of honourable distinction, and there is nothing they can endure with less patience than contempt or inattention. From hence, if a Spaniard speaks to one of them with his hat on, he immediately says to him in an indignant tone, entugo tami curtesia, take off your hat. By attention and courtesy, any thing may be obtained from them, and the favours which they receive make an indelible impression upon their minds; while on the contrary, ill treatment exasperates them to such a degree, that they proceed to the greatest excesses to revenge themselves.

"The names of the Araucanians are composed of the proper name, which is generally either an adjective or a numeral, and the family appellation or surname, which is always placed after the proper name, according to the European custom, as cari-lemu, green bush: meliantu, four suns. The first denotes one of the family of the lemus, or bushes, and the second one of that of the antus, or suns. Nor is there scarcely a material object which does not furnish them with a discriminative name. From hence, we meet among them with the families of Rivers, Mountains, Stones, Lions, &c. These families, which are called cuga, or elpa, are more or less respected according to their rank, or the heroes they have given to their country. The origin of these surnames is unknown, but is certainly of a period much earlier than that of the Spanish conquests." Vol. II. p. 110.

There are other peculiarities which distinguish this very singular people, which will well repay the reader's attention; and in particular their military system, their marriage ceremonies, and domestic employments.

The third book contains the history of the wars of the Araucanians with the Spaniards, which is also extended to the fifth, which concludes with an account of the first establishment of peace, and the present state of the country.

To the history is added an Essay on the Chilian language, which will be found in a peculiar degree worth the attention of the philological reader. This essay terminates with a brief vocabulary.

There are two appendixes by the English editor. No I, contains an account of the Archipelago of Chiloe, extracted chiefly from the Description Historical of that province by P. F. Pedro Gonzales de Agueros. Madrid, 1791.

No. II. exhibits an account of the native tribes who inhabit the Southern extremity of South America, extracted chiefly from Falkner's Description of Patagonia-to the first volume sufficiently explicit for the common purposes of the reader, but it is conceived to be very different from that which accompanied the original work. Altogether it is a publication well edited, interesting and amusing in its contents, and a very acceptable addition to our geographical and statistical collections.


Travels in Greece, Palestine, Egypt, and Barbary, during the years 1806 and 1807. By F. A. De Chateaubriand. Translated from the French, by Frederick Shoberl, 8vo. 2 vols. pp. 815. Price 11. 148. Colburn. 1811.

IT seems that M. de Chateaubriand, a grandson of the distinguished Malesherbes, has attained much celebrity in France by means of works comparatively very little known in England. The last of these works, preceding this book of Travels, was intitled "The Martyrs; or, the Triumph of the Christian Religion," and is here denominated by the author an epopee. He thought the scenery of that work might be the most effectually poetical by being true to reality; and as his heroes were to be represented accomplishing their labours, and finishing their lives, in several regions of the East, he was desirous that the general ground of the representation should be composed of images immediately taken from the landscapes, the edifices, and whatever is permanent in the manners of the people, of those regions. For this purpose, therefore, as a leading object, he resolved on the adventurous expedition narrated in the present work. He was determined to acquire the power of composing, in effect, in Greece or Palestine, even while sitting in a back parlour of a house in Paris. And never, certainly, was there a more costly preparation for securing the perfection of the secondary parts and merits of a fictitious work; for displaying its personages and transactions on a field characteristically marked in all its features of earth and water, wood and rock; for faithfully exhibiting the appropriate phenomena of the morning and evening in the climate of the Greeks and Hebrews; or for selecting the epithets most accurately expressive of the appearance of marble ruins in the light of the setting sun. So earnest and ambitious an exertion for excellence in the delineation of the scenery, must bring on an author some cause for solicitude and extraordinary effort, lest the story should be less striking than the pictures, and lest his characters, like the people now inhabiting Greece, should seem unworthy of their place.

Two memoirs precede the travelling narration. The first sketches rapidly the history of Athens, from about the age of Augustus, to the present time, and recounts, in order, the travellers who have visited and described it, during the last three centuries. It is briefly noted in what state the monuments were found, at several successive periods; the progress of their dilapidation is thus ascertained; and the memoir closes with expressions of regret. "It is a melancholy reflection, that the civilized

nations of Europe have done more injury to the monuments of Athens in the space of one hundred and fifty years, than all the barbarians together in a long series of ages: it is cruel to think that Alaric and Mahomet II. respected the Parthenon, and that it was demolished by Morosini and Lord Elgin."

The second memoir, a work of much labour, learning, and zeal, is designed to establish the authenticity, indeed the infallibility, of those traditions which have continued through the whole Christian æra, to mark certain places in and near Jerusalem as the precise spots where the most memorable circumstances in the History of Christ and his Apostles took place. The author makes too little allowance for the well known credulity of many of the Christian Fathers, and is not scrupulous of admitting the aid of here and there a groundless assumption; as, for instance, that the sanctuaries of the Christians, at the time of the destruction of Jerusalem, being without the walls, must not have suffered much by the siege. On the whole, however, the argument is ably managed, and rendered very strong. The following paragraph affords a very brief summary of it:

"What an astonishing body of evidence is here! The Apostles saw Jesus Christ, they knew the places honoured by the Son of Man; they transmitted the tradition to the first Christian church of Judea; a regular succession of bishops was established, and religiously preserved the sacred tradition. Eusebius appeared, and the history of the sacred places commenced. It was continued by Socrates, Sozomenes, Theodoret, Evagrius, and St. Jerome. Pilgrims thronged thither from all parts. From this period to the present day, an uninterrupted series of travels for fourteen centuries, gives us the same facts and the same descriptions. What tradition was ever supported by such a host of witnesses? Besides, I have not made all the use of the crusades that I might have done."

It is not easy to ascertain exactly in what degree of faith and submissiveness our traveller is an dherent to the Catholic Church. We have some doubt whether his fidelity is of the most punctilious and reverential kind; partly because we do not discern among these memoranda of a portion of his life the traces of any competent number of ceremonial exercises, (which, however, he might perform and say nothing about); and partly because his observations and reflections sometimes appear to indicate a freer use of his faculties, than a dutiful son of the Romish Church should trust himself to make. At the same time, his veneration for "holy places," his large faith in traditions, and the zeal with which he vindicates Monks and Crusades, certainly look well for his orthodoxy. And it must be acknowledged, too, that he has not sought any subterfuge, from the philosophical ri

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