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and in any manner whatever before his inferiors. To an English frame and inexperience, the length of time during which the Persian will thus sit untired on his heels is most extraordinary; sometimes for half a day, frequently even sleeping. They never think of changing their positions, and like other orientals consider our loco-motion to be as extraordinary as we can regard their quiescence. When they see us walking to and fro, sitting down, getting up, and moving in every direction, often have they fancied that Europeans are tormented by some evil spirit, or that such is our mode of saying our prayers." p. 40.

The time consumed in these ceremonies, in the return of the officers to their court to make their reports to the sovereign, in the appointment and arrival of a mehmandar, whose office it is to procure from the inhabitants of the places, through which the mission passed, requisitions of food, money, &c. &c., enabled Mr. Morier to procure some details concerning the pearl fishery, the coasts, and the natural history of the Persian Gulf; they form the substance of the fourth chapter, and are worthy of attention.

On the 17th of December, 1808, the mission quitted Bushire on the road to Shiraz; the party travelled on horseback, and encamped at night; the mehmandar's officers preceding the cavalcade to extort from the inhabitants, by the right of purveyance, the necessary refreshments. Some cultivation, but more ruins, presented themselves to observation; and the villages "afforded a picture of poverty stronger than words can express; there was nothing but what mere existence required; nor to our very cursory observation did the most trifling superfluity show itself." p. 78.

We do not consider this, however, as conclusive with respect to the whole country. Wherever the rights of purveyance exist they will inevitably be abused, and render the roads immediately communicating the extremities of an empire with its court little better than a desert.

On the plains of Khisht they were met by the governor, Zaul Khan, a man of remarkable appearance, without eyes, and with the fragment of a tongue; the rest of which, with his eyes, he had forfeited during the troubles of Persia. In what a state of brutal sensibility must that country and people be, where men carrying about their persons marks of infamous punishments, or who are publicly known to have been chained by the neck to a wall, are elevated to posts of dignity and confidence! What damning proofs at once of the tyranny and venality of the government! It was in this journey that Mr. Morier and Sir Harford examined the ruins of Shapour, to which we have before alluded.

Having received with all due ceremony the King of Persia's firman, a few miles from Shiraz, the envoy made his public entry

in procession into that city, on the 30th of December, surrounded by an immense multitude, through whom the mehmandar and his officers with difficulty procured a passage by the liberal application of large sticks to their shoulders. After several visits of ceremony from the great officers of Ali Mirza, one of the king's sons, who keeps his court at Shiraz, and filling up the intervals of repose with visits to the interesting objects, mosque, gardens, &c. in the neighbourhood of the city, the mission was presented at court on new year's day 1809. On this occasion the streets were filled as before, and the bazars, or markets, displayed all their wealth.

"About thirty paces from the principal gate Sir Harford dismounted, and followed by us all, whilst the trumpet of the troop sounded the salute, advanced through the portico. Here the ish agassi, or master of the ceremonies, Bairam Ali Khan Cadjah, who had been seated in a small place opposite the entrance, rose at our approach to meet us. He then called for his staff of office, (a black cane with a carved pummel) and placing himself at the head of the party, led us through rather a mean passage into a spacious court, at the extremity of which appeared the prince. He was seated in a kind of open room, the front of which was supported by two pillars elegantly gilded and painted. This is called the dewan khonéh, or chamber of audience.

"In the centre of the court is an avenue of lofty trees, at the sides of which are two long canals: there numerous fountains threw up a variety of little spouts of water, to the jingle of the wheels and bells of their machinery. On all sides of the court were placed in close files a number of well-dressed men, armed with muskets, pistols, and swords; these were the subalterns, and the better sort of the soldiery in the prince's guard. Amongst them were here and there intermixed officers of high rank. In the centre of the avenue, and on the borders of the canal, stood in long rows, respectfully silent, and in postures of humility, all the chief officers, khans, governors of towns and districts.

"When we entered the court, the ish agassi stopt and made a very low obeisance towards the prince; and Sir Harford and his mission made an English bow, and just took off their hats. These salutations, which were made four times in as many different places of the court, were repeated as we entered the dewan khonéh. The prince in all this looked at us, but did not stir a muscle: we now proceeded straight for wards until Sir Harford faced the prince, where he was then directed to sit, and we all took our stations in order. When we were seated, the prince said in a loud voice, "Kosh amedeed," that is, "You are welcome," which was repeated by Nasr Oallah Khan, his minister, who stood at about five paces from him, in an attitude of respect. Sir Harford made the compliments required, when the prince desired us to sit at our ease. We however, as in a former instance, chose to be respectful and uncomfortable, and to continue in the fashion of Persia. "The prince then added a variety of flattering things, talked of the

friendship of the two nations, said how anxious his father was to see the embassador, and advised him to proceed to his court without delay. We had kaleoons, then coffee, and then (a compliment not repeated to a common guest) another kaleoon. After this was over, we got up, and making an obeisance quitted the prince's presence, with every precaution not to turn our backs as we departed. The same number of bows, repeated in the same places as on our entrance, closed the audience.

"Ali Mirza, the prince of Shiraz, is not the least amiable of the king's sons. After Prince Abbas Mirza, the governor of Aderbigian, and the heir of the crown, he is his father's greatest favourite. In person he is an engaging youth of the most agreeable countenance, and of very pleasing manners. His dress was most sumptuous; his breast was one thick coat of pearls, which was terminated downwards by a girdle of the richest stuffs. In this was placed a dagger, the head of which dazzled by the number and the brilliancy of its inlaid diamonds. His coat was rich crimson and gold brocade, with a thick fur on the upper part. Around his black cap was wound a Cashmire shawl, and by his side, in a gold platter, was a string of the finest pearls. Before him was placed his kaleoon of state, a magnificent toy, thickly inlaid with precious stones in every distinct part of its machinery. To me the prince appeared to be under much constraint during the ceremony of our audience; in which he had been previously tutored by his minister: and I very easily believe, according to the stories related of him, that he exchanges with eagerness these etiquettes of rank for the less restrained enjoyments of his power. On these he lavishes his revenue; and in the costliness of a hunting equipage, the fantasies of dress, and the delicacies of the harem are frittered away a hundred thousand tomauns a year. Young as he is, (for he is only nineteen) he has already a family of eight children. In his public government he is much beloved by his people; and although the Persians are not inclined in conversation to spare the faults of their superiors, of him I never heard an evil word. He has not indeed those sanguinary propensities, which are almost naturally imbibed in the possession of despotic power; and where others cut off ears, slit noses, and pierce eyes, he contents himself with the administration of the more lenient bastinado."

Three days afterwards the prince gave a fête to the mission, and amused them with feats of rope-dancers, water-spouters, fireeaters, singers, drummers, and musicians. On the 7th a fête of a sterner nature was given, in which an ox was devoured by a lion; the Persian nobles displayed feats of horsemanship, and the troops were made to go through their newly acquired Russian


"In the evening, the prince invited the envoy to meet him on horseback at the Maidan, and expressed a wish to see the troop of cavalry go through some of its exercises and evolutions. We accordingly


proceeded, and, when we perceived the prince, we all dismounted from our horses for a moment, and when he waved his hand, we all mounted again, and rode close up to him. His manners and appearance were most elegant and prepossessing. He was dressed most richly: his outer coat was of blue velvet, which fitted tight to his shape; on the shoulders, front pocket, and skirts, was an embroidery of pearl, occasionally (in the different terminations of a point or angle,) enlivened with a ruby, an emerald, or a topaz. Under this was a waistcoat of pearl; and here and there hanging in a sort of studied negligence, were strings of fine pearl. A dagger, at the head of which blazed a large diamond, was in his girdle. The bridle of his horse was inlaid in every part of the head with precious stones; and a large silver tassel hung under the jaws. The prince was altogether a very interesting figure." p. 117.

In truth, whether we form our judgment by a reference to Mr. Morier's drawings, (see plate at page 70) or by the concurrent testimony of all travellers, no sight can more strongly impress on the mind the combination of feudal grandeur, with elegance and good taste than a Persian nobleman on horseback.-The beautiful symmetry of the horse, the housings, the trappings, the dress of the rider, the attendant footmen, and horsemen, some of the former of whom (called chatters) will run thirty-six leagues in fourteen hours, all recall to mind the ancient splendour of the nation, and the ambition of the Persian noble, which from time immemorial has been "to be a great horseman," a qualification second in their estimation, in former times at least, only to that of "speaking truth."

Of the enticing wines of Shiraz, concerning which, Mr. Gibbon has asserted, that "in every age they have triumphed over the laws of Mahomet," we do not recollect that Mr. Morier has given any account; and M. Gardanne dismisses them with the contemptuous expression, "Le vin de Shiraz ne vaut pas sa reputation:" an opinion in which our limited experience of a few specimens brought to this country, induces us entirely to agree.

In the last visit of the mission to the prince of Shiraz, they beheld a sight calculated to rend the heart of every one who has read with delight, the Cyropædia of Xenophon. "On walking through the garden," says Mr. Morier, "we met one of the prince's brothers, a little fellow about six years old, who could just totter under the weight of the brocades, furs, and shawls, with which he was encumbered. Several khans and men of consequence were standing before him in the same attitudes of respect and humility, as they did before his elder brother, and attending to all his little orders and whims, with as much obsequiousness as they would have shown to a full grown sovereign." (p. 121). Connected with this perversion of the education of

their princes, we cannot help reciting the following passage from M. Gardanne's pamphlet, which strongly exemplifies the general neglect of education among the higher ranks: "Nous demandons," says he, " à un grand seigneur le nombre de ses enfans; il repond naïvement qu'il n'en sait rien; se tourne du coté de son secretaire, & le lui demande ; celui-ci repond, dix-sept." (p. 36.) Extreme reverence to parents is, however, still preserved among the Persian youths. They prostrate themselves before them at their entrance, stand in their presence, and always rise even at the mention of their names.

On the thirteenth of January, the mission quitted Shiraz, and on their way to Ispahan, visited the ruins of Persepolis, the sculptures of Nakshi Rustam, and other less known antiquities, of which Mr. Morier gives an account, illustrated by several plates; most of these curiosities, however, have been visited and described with tolerable accuracy by le Brun, and other travellers; and our contracting limits warn us to confine ourselves to subjects of more immediate interest, and of undisputed originality.

The following extract conveys a forcible description of the barrenness of the country, and of the difficulties which any accession of mouths to be fed brings upon the miserable inhabitants.

"The evening set in gloomily; Deibeed is considered the coldest spot in this region, and the snows in the winter have sometimes impeded the progress of travellers for forty days together. The Mehmandar looked at the sky with apprehension; and the governor of Moorgh-aub, (Aga Khan, an Arab of an old and respected family who had accompanied us to the bounds of his district to provide amply for our passage,) shared his forebodings. He had himself often experienced the severities of this country, and he, better than any one, knew the distresses which the detention of two or three hundred men in a spot so destitute and insulated would occasion. He had provided sustenance for ourselves and our cattle for one night only, and this he had transported with great trouble from Moorgh-aub and other villages. Indeed through the whole of our march great and early were the preparations made by the chiefs of the country for our reception. If these were the difficulties of our passage, the march of an army would not be easily conducted. The country in its present state could not complete magazines of provisions, even if it were required by its own government. It must however be always recollected that this is the least fertile province of the kingdom." p. 147.

Notwithstanding the last observation, the general context of Mr. Morier's journal does certainly fortify the conclusions arising from the nature of the country, and of the government, and from the concurrent testimony of other travellers, that agricultural industry is at a very low ebb in Persia; and the consequent

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