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One "other young man asked him to read the 11th chapter of Isaiah, and he, full of suspicion, stopped short at the 10th verse. Why was this? Did he suppose he could not encounter the whole chapter? that he could not reconcile the character there given of the Messiah to Jesus? nor the events to happen on his coming, to what has hitherto eventuated? He then sees the strength of the objection, and how does he get over it? How does he answer it to himself? Thus, "The second coming with power;" he will not allow two Messiahs, because neither Jacob nor any other prophet does speak but of one ;* and let me ask in what part of the prophecies do we read of two comings. The Jews are represented as listening attentively, not at all gainsaying indeed, (if we are to believe Mr. Sargon) as being in some points convinced, still this wicked Sargon cannot let them pass without the usual complw ments, "I believe the black Jews are more obstinate and stiffnecked than any other people.f Thanks, many thanks, Mr. Sargon, for the black Jews: one thing is clear, they were too obstinate to be converted by him, who acknowledges it a difficult matter to encounter the arguments of those who oppose ianity; and finally how does he get rid of them? He sends them all to a wedding. "I should have made a longer stay at Chinotta if the people had not gone away that very night to Antchingamal, to join a marriage feast."J They left him in possession of the town, synagogue, Sepher Toras, and all his books. I have here a question to ask; may not a man be saved without believing this, or even without placing any confidence in any of his representations? He introduces^ an old black Jew, giving him the following account of their history.

"One of them, who appeared to be more aged than the rest, replied, that an ance? tor of theirs had a book, which he brought with him when they came out to India from Jerusalem, after the destruction of the second temple, and that book contained every account of theirllistory and traditions since the beginning, (of the world) continued down to their arrival on this coast, but which they lost at the destruction of Cranganore. He declared that, according to the book in question, they (the black Jews) are as truly the children of Israel, (Geu. xxxii. 2o,) as the white Jews; and that they had a cohen (or priest) who came out with them from Judea, who was buried in this place, (Chinotta,) named Aaron Cohen, and some of whose descendants by the female side he pointed out as then standing before us: that this Cohen had two sons, but both died—one became deranged, and the other was dumb: that, how

:: Israel's Advocate, p. 196. + Ibid. 193. t H»d. 197- { Ibid. 194

ever, the ancient sepulchres were destroyed by Hyder, during his war with the native princes, who likewise destroyed and burnt many of their Synagogues, killed some of their people, and made others captives, and the rest took refuge at different places in these parts: that they had a brass plate and various books, which they had preserved and kept in this (Chinotta) Synagogue, from whence the white Jews came with power and took away from them, when the Dutch were in possession of Cochin: that the white Jews had the Rajahs as well as the Dutch in their favour, whoput the black Jews under the jurisdiction of the white Jews: that they greatly repented themselves of having foolishly adopted,on theirfirst arrival at Cranganore, the dress, habits, and customs, in every respect, of the Hindoos. "We came to the Malabar coast," continued the old man, "long before the white Jews, and our chie f was Joseph Rabban, whose name is on the brass plate. There were altogether seventy-two families of black Jews. The white Jews had intercourse with us, and we had likewise intermarriage with each other." (1 have since, upon diligent inquiry, found that the circumstance of the intermarriages is true, but confined solely to some Arabian Jews at the time alluded to, andof no further extent.) Subsequently the great man among the white Jews, Ezekiel Rahaby by name, had been honoured by visits from the Dutch governors and Malabar princes, and from that period the black Jews have been entirely degraded, and subjected to the power of the white Jews; and that was the time when the black Jews were separated totally from all communion with the white Jews, who placed Nasis, or governors, over them, until some time before the late war between the English and the Rajahs of Travancore and Cochin in the year 1809. That they have no written account of what is here mentioned, but they received it from oral tradition, and recite it from memory; besides, they have possessed no learned people among them latterly, to record these things. The old man added, that the white Jews even prevented the black Jews from writing to the Jews of other countries j and if any Jews came from other places, they hindered them from going to visit them—exclusive of which, should foreign Jews see them in such dresses, and following the customs they have unfortunately adopted from the natives, they would think they belonged to some other nation, instead of being Jews, and would in course abhor to go amongst them. Moreover, as the black Jews had not many females among them, they did buy the native women, who had female children, and made their offspring free, and married them afterwards. Thus they intermixed with the natives, and became such as they. On the other hand, when they made their slaves' male offspring free, they gave themjtheir females to wife, and in three or four generations considered them as black Jews; buj that there was a difference made, such as "that they could not wear sandals, as the other black Jews; were considered as inferior to the other black Jews, and distinctj y separated from all kinds of offices in their Synagogue; they could only marry among themselves; and could not be public readers in the Synagogue, nor go up to read in the Sepher Torah, or Book of the Law."

The whole of this account is undoubtedly a tissue of misrepresentations, of which this wicked sinner himself shows a consciousness, and as a salvo to his veracity, (for every appearance contradicts it,) he adds the following.

"From all the foregoing, and for other reasons, I conclude that the black Jews

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are partly of the long lost ten tribes, anJ partly of those proselyted to Judaism after the white Jews arrived at Cranganore."

Thus then the black Jews are at last no Jews at all, but partly of the 10 tribes; the question yet remains how came they black f The cohen, was he white or black? He was buried at Chinotta; was that the place they first settled in when, as is pretended, they first arrived at Judea? Now all this from a bare first view appears false, for it does appear that, as far as concerns religion, the black are as much Jews as the white; but as regards descent, they are principally Hindoos: they consequently are not to be blamed for having Hindoo customs, (fashions,) nor for intermarrying with the native free women of colour, they being first freed and proselyted, even if they purchase them young and free them. Their persecution under Hyder is also a misrepresentation of the apostate Sar

gon. They have the pious Portuguese ians to thank for

that affair, and history will faithfully fasten it on ianity,

inaugre all the tricks of apostate and other ian missionaries. The arrival and settlement of the white Jews at Cranganore, is also acknowledged. Sargon appears to expect the account will be doubted; for he says

"1 should have entered further into conversation with this old man, if he had not himself declined a free communication with ine. When one closely converses with these people, in order to inquire into their state, they appear soon to feel a kind ol suspicion and fear, which prevents their giving; a proper account of themselves."

Thus far Sargon; but the Rev. Claudius Buchanan, L. L. D. in his ian researches in Asia, gives us the following account.


"On my inquiry into the antiquity of the White Jews, they first delivered to me a narrative, in the Hebrew Language, of their arrival in India, which has been handed down to them from their fathers; and then exhibited their ancient brass Elate, containing their charter and freedom of residence, given by a King of Malahar. The following is the narrative of the events relating to their first arrival."

*' After the second Temple was destroyed, (which may God speedily rebuild!) our fathers, dreading the Conqueror's wrath, departed from Jerusalem, a numerous body of men, women, priests, and Levites, and came into this land. There were among them men of repute for learning and wisdom; and God gave the people favour in the sight of the King who at that time reigned here, and he granted them a place to dwell in, called Cranganor. He allowed them a patriarchal jurisdiction within the district, with certain privileges of nobility ; and the Royal Grant was engraved, according to the custom of those days, on a plate of brass. Thi«

was done in the year from the creation of the world 4250 (a. D. 490) and thi« plate of brass we still have in possession. Our forefathers continued at Cranganor for about a thousand years, and the number of Heads who governed were seventytwo. Soon after our settlement, other Jews followed us from Judea; and among these came that man of great wisdom, Rabbi Samuel, a Levite of Jerusalem, with his son Rabbi Jehuda Levita. They brought with them the Silvbr Tr Umpets, made use of at the time of the Jubilee, which were saved when the second Temple was destroyed; and we have heard from our fathers, that there were engraven upon those trumpets the letters of the ineffable Name. There joined us also from Spain, and other places, from time to time, certain tribes of Jews, who had heard of our prosperity. But at last, discord arising among ourselves, one of our Chiefs called to his assistance an Indian King, who came upon us with a great army, destroyed our houses, palaces, and strong holds, dispossessed us of Cranganor, killed part of us, and carried part into captivity. By these massacres we were reduced to a small number. Some of the exiles came and dwelt at Cochin, where we have remained ever since, suffering great changes from time to time. There are amongst us some of the children of Israel (Beni-Israel) who came from the country of Ashkenaz, from Egypt from Tsobo, and other places, besides those who formerly inhabited this country.'

"The native annals of Malabar confirm the foregoing account, in the principal circumstances, as do the Mahomedan histories of the latter ages; for the Mahomedans have been settled here in great numbers since the eighth century.

"The desolation of Cranganor the Jews describe as being like the desolation of Jerusalem in miniature. They were first received into the country with some favour and confidence, agreeably to the tenor of the general prophecy concerning the Jews; for no country was to reject them: and after they had obtained some wealth and attracted the notice of men, they are precipitated to the lowest abyss of human suffering and reproach. The recital of the sufferings of the Jews at Cranganor resembles much that of the Jews at Jerusalem, as given by Joscphus.

"I now requested they would show me their brass plate. Having been given by a native King, it is written, of course, in the Malabaric language and character; and is now so old that it cannot be well understood. The Jews preserve a Hebrew translation of it, which they presented to me: but the Hebrew itself is very difficult, and they do not agree among themselves, as to the meaning of some words. I have employed, by their permission, an engraver at Cochin, to execute a fac-simile of the original plate, on copper. This ancient document begins in the following manner, according to the Hebrew translation:

"' In the peace of God, the King, which hath made the earth, according to his pleasure. To this God, I, AIRVI BRAHMIN, have lifted up my hand, and have

granted by this deed, which many hundred thousand years shall run 1, dwelling

in Cranganor, have granted, in the thirty-sixth year of my reign, in the strength of power I have granted, in the strength of power I have given in inheritance, to JO , SEPH RABBAN.'

"Then follow the privileges of nobility; such as permission to ride on an elephant; to have a herald to go before, to announce the name and dignity; to have the lamp of the day; to walk on carpets spread upon the earth ; and to have trumpets and cymbals sounded before him. King Airvi then appoints Joseph Rabban to be' Chief and Governor of the houses of congregation (the Synagogues,) and ofcer tain districts, and of the sojourners in them.' What proves the importance of the Jens at the period when this grant was made, is, that it is signed by seven Kings as witnesses. * And to this are witnesses, King Bivada Cubertin Mitadin, and he is King of Travancore. , King Airla Nada Mana Vikriin, and he is the Samorin. King Veloda Nada Archarin Shatin, and he is King of Argot.'1 The remaining four Kings are those of Palgatehery, Colastri, Carbinalh, and Vara-changur. There is no date in this document, farther than what may be collected from the reign of the Prince, and the names of the royal witnesses. Dates are not usual in old Malabaric writings. One fact is evident, that the Jews must have existed a considerable time in the country, before they could have obtained such a grant. The tradition before mentioned assigns for the date of the transaction, the year of the Creation 4250, which is in Jewish computation, A. D. 490. It is well known, that the famous Malabaric King, Ctiuii Perdmal, made grants to the Jews, Christians, and Mahomedans, during his reign; but that Prince flourished in the eighth or ninth century.

THE BLACK JEWS. "It is only necessary to look at the countenance of the Black Jews to be satisfied that their ancestors must have arrived in India many ages before the white Jews.— Their Hindoo complexion, and their very imperfect resemblance to the European Jews, indicate that they hare been detached from the parent stock in Judea many ages before the Jews in the West; and that there have been intermarriages with families not Israelitish. I had heard that those tribes, which had passed the Indus, have assimilated so much to the customs and habits of the countries in which they live, that they may be sometimes seen by a traveller, without being recognized as Jews. In the interior towns of Malabar, I was not always able to distinguish the Jew from the Hindoo. I hence perceived how easy it may be to mistake the tribes of Jewish descent among the Afghans and other nations in the northern parts of Hindostan. The White Jews look upon the Black Jews as an inferior race, and not of a pure cast: which plainly demonstrates that they do not spring from a common stock in India."

On this account I must remark, that the desolation of Cranganore is here ascribed to discord arising among the Jews themselves 700 years since. But at last this differs from the account given by the apostate Sargon, who gives it a later date. He seems to intimate the desolation was occasioned by Hyder during his war with the native princes. I notice also, that the Rev. Mr. Buchanan mistakes the Jews of Ashkenas, for Ephraimites. Concerning the brass plate, he might in a few words have given us the whole correctly, or its translation as given him by the white Jews: his remark that "it is only, necessary to look," not only as he says "indicate," but also might have indicated and proved the truth to the reverend gentleman, if it would have suited his purpose to have avowed it, they arc black Jews; their very appearance testifies their descent is principally from the native Hindoos, a mixt race; and they are none the worse on this account; they have joined themselves to the Lord, andhavethe promise of place and

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