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ed to port; but as a forty-four gun ship was substituted 1981, in her place, their line still consisted of eight two deckers. The British commander perceiving the number and strength of the Dutch frigates, detached the convoy with orders to keep their wind, sending his own frigates along with them for their protection, and then threw out a general signal to the squadron to chase. The Dutch likewise fent off their convoy to a distance, when they drew up with great coolness in order of battle, and waited the attack with the utmost composure. Neither fide practised any manœuvre to elude the decision of a naval action. The parties were equally determined to fight it out. A gloomy silence expressive of the most fixed resolution prevailed, and not a gun was fired, until the fleets were within little more than pistol shot distance. Adm. Parker in the Fortitude of 74 guns, ranging abreast of adm. Zoutman's ship, the Admiral de Ruyter of 68, the action commenced with the utmost fury and violence on both sides. The cannonade continued without intermission for three hours and forty mịnutes. Some of the British ships fired 2500 shot each. The effect of the ancient naval emulation was eminently displayed in the obstinący of the battle. In the beginning, the Briţilh fire was remarkably quick, while that of the Dutch was now; when it closed, the case was reversed, and the fire of the Dutch was remarkably quick, while that of the British was now. The British ships at length were so unmanageable, that though their admiral made an effort to form the line that he might renew the action, he found it to be impracticable. His ships were shatgered in their masts, rigging and fails. The Dutch were in a still worfe condition, some of theın having received


several shot under water.

Both squadrons lay to a
considerable time near each other. At last the Dutch
bore away for the Texel; and the British were in no
condition to follow them. The Hollandia of 68 guns,
one of their best ships, went down in the night of the
engagement so suddenly, that the crew were reduced to
the melancholy necessity of abandoning their wounded
when they quitted her. Though she funk in 22 fathoms,
her top-masts were still above water and her pendant
Aying, which being discovered in the morning by one
of the British frigates, was struck and carried to adm.
Parker as a trophy. When the Dutch entered the T
an officer from the feet went on board the Charlestown
frigate of 36 heavy guns upon one deck, which had
been lying there the whole time, and related to the cap-
tain the particulars of the action.

The action was very bloody. On the side of the
British, who were the least sufferers in that respect, 104
were killed, and 339 wounded in the seven ships that
were engaged. Several brave officers fell on both sides.
The British regretted much the death of capt. Macart-
ney, who left a widow and large family. His son, a
boy of seven years old, was by his side when he was
killed : his fortitude, as well upon

that occasion as through the whole action, astonished the boldeft seamen in the ship. Mr. Harrington, one of adm. Parker's lieutenants,' an officer of 40 years service, and of the most distinguished merit, was mortally wounded. Though of an affluent fortune and too much neglected, he nobly disdained to withdraw his professional abilities from the defence of his country in this trying season. The Bri- , tish admiral's letter giving an account of the action was.

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concise, and modest with respect to his own fide, while 1781 just in paying full honor to the valor of his enemy. In Britain, the conduct and valor displayed in the action met with great and general approbation : but an apprehended neglect in government or the admiralty, in not furnishing the admiral with a larger force, excited no less dissatisfaction. It was said, that, at the very time, as many ships were lying idle in port, or waiting for orders in the Downs, as would have enabled Parker to capture the whole Dutch feet and convoy. The admiral's subsequent conduct, as well as an intimation given in his letter to the admiralty, strongly confirm the public opinion, and indicated that he was no less diffatisfied at the want of support, than others were at its not being given. On his arrival at the Nore with his shattered squadron, he was honored with a royal visit: but it was soon understood, that no further honor or intended promotion would be accepted by the sturdy

The king went on board the Fortitude, where he had a levee of all the officers of the squadron, who were received with the most gracious attention; and the admiral had the honor of dining with his majesty and the prince of Wales on board the royal yacht. We have been told, that upon that occasion adm. Parker took an opportunity of hinting (in the presence of the first lord of the admiralty and a number of naval officers) both his diffatisfaction and intention of retiring, by faying to his sovereign". That he wished him younger officers and better ships; and that he was grown too old for the fervice." It was related also as an anecdote at the time, that young Macartney being presented on board the Fortitude, and the royal intention of provid


1781. ing for him, for the sake of his brave father, being de

clared, the admiral apologized for informing his ma-
jesty, that he had already adopted him as his own.
Adm. Parker resigned his command immediately after:
but it was probably intended as a mark of favor and re-
gard to him, that his son Sir Hyde (who had been be-
fore knighted for his good conduct in North America
and the West Indies) was now appointed to the com-
mand of a squadron of frigates, which were employed
in blocking up the Dutch ports during the remainder of
the season for keeping those feas.

The Dutch, beside losing the Hollandia, had two of
their capital ships fo totally ruined in the action, as to
be declared incapable of further service. Their loss of
men is thought to have exceeded 1000 in killed, wounded
and funk. The idea of prosecuting the voyage to the
Baltic was given up; and their immense carrying trade
was annihilated for the remainder of the year. The
Hollanders however are much elated with the bravery
of their countrymen. Before the naval battle on Dog-
ger's Bank, every spring was touched to excite popular
resentments against the Americans and French, so that
the regents of Amsterdam were under the necessity of
taking the like precautions which would have been prac-
tised had an enemy been in the neighbourhood; and the
gloom and despondency at the Hague and elsewhere was
terrible: after it, the Dutchmen became courageous,
and all their apprehensions seemed to disappear. This
action being the first of any consequence, in which they
have been engaged for the much greater part of a cen-
tury, the states general were beyond measure liberal in
the praise, rewards and honors, which they bestowed on

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their officers. Adm. Zoutman and commodore Kindl- 1781. bergen were immediately promoted; and most, if not all of the first and second captains, as well as several of the lieutenants, were either advanced, or flattered with some peculiar mark of distinction. Count Bentinck, who boldly fought the Batavia, and who, though mortally wounded, and informed that his ship was in danger of sinking, would not listen to a proposal for quitting his station, was foothed in his last moments by every mark of honor and testimony of regard, which his country and his prince could beítow; and his funeral was not more honorable to the brave dead, than to the grateful living. But however the Durch have exulted in that the marine courage of their ancestors had not forsaken them, they are much diffatisfied that their fleet was not augmented by two or more ships, which they think would have secured to them a complete victory over the British admiral, and have put his convoy into their poffeßion. They are ready to impute this failure to a treacherous neglect, originating from a prevailing attachment in some to the interests of Great Britain.

The French, to remove all unfavorable jealousies that the Spaniards might entertain respecting the attention of their ally to the Spanish interests, engaged to co-operate with them in attempting the recovery of Minorca-an event which, should it take place, would be highly pleasing to Spain, while it was no wise injurious to France. The plan being laid, the duke de Crillon, a French commander of repute, was taken into the Spanifh service, and appointed to conduct their forces to be employed in executing it. Count de Guichen failed from Brest near the end of June, with 18 capital ships (four


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