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part of its value. No class of people suffered more by 1781. the depreciation than salary-men, and efpecially the clergy, particularly in the New England states. They were reduced to the greatest difficulties, and were much injured, by having their annual incomes paid them in paper, without having the badness of its quality compensated in the quantity allowed them. When in the beginning of the year, some compensation was voted to them in certain places, the increased depreciation, before the salary was paid, destroyed in a great measure the efficacy of the vote. It has been observed by some, ; i that the quakers and methodists in Pennsylvania, were faithful to their old engagements, and were not corrupted by handling paper money. Though these denominations excelled, there were many individuals in all religious focieties through the United States that preserved their integrity. As a striking instance of the nature and effects of a depreciating paper currency, the following is related out of many. A merchant of Bofton sold a hogshead of rum, for twenty pounds, calk included. The purchaser did not settle for it, till after the seller applied to him for an empty hogshead, for which he was charged thirty pounds. When they came to settle, the merchant found upon examining, that he had to pay a balance of ten pounds on that very cask, which, with the rum it contained, he had sold for twenty.

The extinction of the paper has occasioned no convulsion; and the specie which the French army and navy have already introduced, which the trade now opening with the Spanish and French West India islands will furnish, and which the loan from France will supply--this joint quantity added to what will now be brought into

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1781. use by those whose precaution led them to store up their

hard money, will prevent the mischiefs that must otherwise have ensued from a total want of a circulating medium. The extraordinary change of this medium without fhaking the United States to the

very foundation, intimates a peculiarity in the circumstances and disposition of the Americans, distinguishing them from the inhabitants of old countries.

A few detached particulars remain to be related be. fore the present letter is forwarded. · On the 17th of August, 3000 German troops arrived at New York from Europe. The fame day the American frigate Trumbull was carried in by one of the king's ships. This capture has reduced the naval force of the United States to two frigates, the Alliance and the Deane. A number of fine privateers have also been taken by the royal navy; but there are still a great many from the different states which have been very successful.

By various channels, and particularly the arrival of a French frigate from Brest on the 15th of August, cer, tain advice has been received of the French having captured a number of ships from Statia. It feems, that France determining to profit from the absence of the British grand feet, equipped 7 or 8 ships of the line at Brest, which were sent out in the beginning of May, un, der M. de la Motte Piquet, in order to intercept the Statia convoy, freighted with the most valuable commodities taken at that island, as well as a rich fleet on its way home from Jamaica. Mr. Piquet succeeded in the first part of the design. Commodore Hotham had only four ihips for the protection of the Statia con

voy. Fourteen of the merchantmen were taken : but 1781.
the men of war, with the remainder of the convoy,
sheltered themselves in some of the western ports of
Ireland. The French commander considering the num-
ber and richness of the prizes, gave up all views upon
the Jamaica fleet, and returned immediately to Brest,
by which mean he escaped falling in with the British
squadron. We have learned, that the sale of the prizes
was advertised in France for the soth of July last.

On the 25th of August, another French frigate ar-
rived in Boston, with two large vessels under her con-
voy. They were on their passage 36 days longer than
the frigate which arrived on the 15th. They have
brought clothing, military stores, and a quantity of fpe-
cie. Col. Laurens returned by this conveyance. He
reached France by the middle of March, and executed
his commission with great dispatch and success.

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Com

10mmodore Johnstone's squadron, which sailed for

the East Indies, consisted of a 74, a 64, and three 50 gun fhips, beside several frigates, a bomb vessel, fire ship, and some sloops of war.

A land force, com

manded

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1781. use by those whose precaution led them to store

up

their hard money,

will prevent the mischiefs that must other-
wise have ensued from a total want of a circulating me-
dium. The extraordinary change of this medium with-
out fhaking the United States to the very foundation,
intimates a peculiarity in the circumstances and disposi-
tion of the Americans, distinguishing them from the in-
habitants of old countries.

A few detached particulars remain to be related be.
fore the present letter is forwarded.
· On the 11th of August, 3000 German troops arrived
at New York from Europe. The fame day the Ame-
rican frigate Trumbull was carried in by one of the
king's ships. This capture has reduced the naval force
of the United States to two frigates, the Alliance and
the Deane. A number of fine privateers have also
been taken by the royal navy; but there are still a great
many from the different states which have been very
successful.

By various channels, and particularly the arrival of a
French frigate from Brest on the 15th of August, cer,
tain advice has been received of the French having cap-
tured a number of ships from Statia. It seems, that
France determining to profit from the absence of the
British grand feet, equipped 7 or 8 ships of the line at
Brest, which were fent out in the beginning of May, un,
der M. de la Motte Piquet, in order to intercept the
Statia convoy; freighted with the most valuable com-
modities taken at that island, as well as a rich fleet on
its way home from Jamaica. Mr. Piquet succeeded
in the first part of the design. Commodore Hotham
had only four ihips for the protection of the Statia con-

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voy. Fourteen of the merchantmen were taken : but 1781. the men of war, with the remainder of the convoy, sheltered themselves in foine of the western ports of Ireland. The French commander considering the number and richness of the prizes, gave up all views upon the Jamaica fleet, and returned immediately to Brest, by which mean he escaped falling in with the British squadron. We have learned, that the sale of the prizes was advertised in France for the roth of July last.

On the 25th of August, another French frigate àrrived in Boston, with two large vessels under her convoy. They were on their passage 36 days longer than the frigate which arrived on the 15th.

They have brought clothing, military stores, and a quantity of fpecie. Col. Laurens returned by this conveyance. He reached France by the middle of March, and executed his commission with great dispatch and success.

L E T T E R

V.

Rotterdam, OEtober 13, 1781.

FRIEND G

Com

Ommodore Johnstone's squadron, which failed for

the East Indies, consisted of a 74, a 64, and three 50 gun ships, beside several frigates, a bomb vessel, fire ship, and some sloops of war. A land force, com

manded

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