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A M ER Í C À R E V O Ľ Ú Ï Í O N. -113 were well warmed, and then opened his masked battery. 1781. He complained of the wants that prevailed in the British camp, commended the supplies with which the American abounded, expressed his inclination to return, and then asked—" What say you, will you go with me?” They agreed. It was left with him to manage as to the sentries. To the first he offered, in a very friendly manner, the taking a draught of rum out of his canteen. While the fellow was drinking, Charly secured his arms; and then proposed his deserting with them; to which he consented through necessity. The second was served in like manner. Charly Morgan by his management carried off seven deferters with him. When he had reached the American army, and was brought to head quarters, the marquis upon seeing hin cried out, “ Ha! Charly, are you got back ?” “ Yes and please your excellency, and have brought seven more with me," was the answer. When Charly had related the reason of his returning, and the observations he had made, the marquis offered him money; but he declined accepting it, and only desired to have his gun again. The marquis then proposed to promėte lim to the rank of a corporal or sergeant. To this Morgan replied" I will not have any promotion. I have abilities for a common foldier, and have a good charac

to preserve the health and lives of the failors, he ordered their allowance of rum to be mixed with a proper quantity of water, and the liquor to be put upon deck for their use. The failors resented the alteration; but the resolution of the admiral obliged them to drink the mixture or go without. It so happened that he generally wore on board an old grograin coat: the sailors took occafion from thence to file the mixture that was imposed upon them--groga VOL. IV,


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1781. ter ; should I be promoted my abilities may not an,

swer, and I may lose my character.” He however
nobly requested for his fellow soldiers, who were not so
well supplied with shoes, stockings and clothing as him-
self, that the marquis would promise to do what he
could to relieve their distresses; which he easily ob-

Lord Cornwallis, meeting with a plentiful supply of
fine horses in the stables of private gentlemen, mounted
a considerable body of troops.

Cols. Tarleton and Simcoe were dispatched from the South Anna with separate detachments to scour the interior country. They penetrated into the recesses, which had been hitherto free from spoilers, and might have done considerable more mischief to the inhabitants. They destroyed a number of arms under repair, some cannon, a quantity of gunpowder, salt, harness and other matters, designed for or capable of being applied to military services. Had their destructive operations of this nature been ever lo considerable, instead of trilling, they must have escaped all cenfure; and the Americans would have had no just ground of complaint ; but it was otherwise in various instances. Baron Steuben, who was at the Point of Fork with 500 regulars of the Virginia new levies and a few militia, retired

upon the approach of Simcoe. He had been separated from the marquis, in consequence of an order from Greene for the baron to come and join him. The baron had proceeded to the borders of North Carolina. This left the marquis so weak, that he was obliged to fall back as Cornwallis advanced, till he should be reinforced. His lordship's march to Virginia made the revocation of Greene's order necessary. Tarleton penetrated, by a 9


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forced march, as far as Charlotte-ville ; and had nearly 1781* surprised and taken the whole assembly of Virginia pri- June soners. They had removed from Richmond to Char- 4. lotte-ville to be out of the way of Cornwallis; and received information of Tarleton's approach but just time enough to escape his legion. They now crossed the mountains, and convened at Stanton. The British convention prisoners had been early marched from Charlotteville toward Pennsylvania.

Lord Cornwallis not having any immediate occasion for gen. Arnold, dispensed with his absence, so that he returned to New York about the beginning of June. His lordship finding it impossible to force the marquis de la Fayette to an action, endeavoured to prevent his junction with Wayne ; who had been ordered by gen. Washington to march from the northward with the Pennsylvania line, amounting to 800, with a view to that

It was effected without lofs at Racoon ford on the 7th of June. But while this junction was making, his lordship obtained an opening for placing himself between the marquis and his stores. The stores, which were an object with both armies, had been removed from Richmond to Albemarle old court-house above the Point of Fork. His lordship was so far advanced, as that within the course of two days he must have gained poffeffion of them. At the same moment he found that the marquis, by an unexpected and rapid march, was within a few miles of his army. This at first might be matter of joy to him; as he saw no practicable way for the marquis to get between him and the ftores, but by a road, in passing which the Americans might be attacked to great advantage. However, con



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3781. trary to his lordship’s expectation, the marquis discos

vered a nearer road to Albemarle. It had been long
disused, and therefore was much embarrassed. Fayette had
it opened in the night; and to the astonishment of
Cornwallis, fixed himself the next day in a strong pofi-
tion between the British army and the American stores.

His lordship now commenced a retrograde move-
ment; and in two night marches measured back up-
ward of 50 miles. He was accompanied with his de

tachments under Tarleton and Simcoe. By about the June 17th he entered Richmond ; the marquis pressing hard 68. after him. On the 18th the British moved toward the

Americans, seemingly with the design of striking a de-
tached .corps. But upon the marching of the light in-
fantry and Pennsylvanians, they returned into the town.
The next day the marquis was joined by Steuben's
troops; and on the night of the 20th, Richmond was
evacuated. His lordship, under an apprehension that
the marquis was much stronger than was really the case,
haftened to William burgh; where he occupied a strong

poft, was under the protection of his fhipping, and re16. ceived a reinforcement from Portsmouth. On the 26th

of June, the day after the main body of the British
army arrived at Williamsburgh, their rear was attacked
within six miles of the place, by an American light
corps under col. Butler ; and had 160 killed and
wounded. According to a private letter of Fayette to
the president of congrefs, his own troops ať this period
conlisted only of 1500 regulars, 400 new levies, and
about 2000 militia, in all 3900; while Cornwallis's
amounted to 4000 regulars, 800 of whom weré mounted.
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