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*780. fisted on a speedy satisfaction, and the punishment of the

pensionary Van Berkel and his accomplices. This con-
duct was declared to be no less contrary to the most
sacred engagements of their high mightinesses, than re-
pugnant to the Dutch constitution.

The reference to such engagements seems to have
been ill timed, as the royal order of the 17th of April
last had declared Holland to be on the footing of other
neutral powers; and had disannulled the efficacy of such
engagements for the present, by suspending till further
orders all the particular ftipulations respecting the sub-
jects of the States General, contained in the several
treaties then subsifting. The States General disavowed
the intended treaty of the city of Amsterdam, and en-
gaged to prosecute the pensionary according to the laws **
of the country. This not being deemed satisfactory, Sir
Joseph Yorke received orders to withdraw from the
Hague; and on the 20th of December, a manifesto
against the Dutch was published in a London Gazette
Extraordinary, followed by an order of council -" That
general reprisals be granted against the ships, goods and
subjects of the States General.” A few days before the
publication, the States General had acceded to the con-
federation of the armed neutrality.

On Tuesday October the 3d, Jamaica was visited with a complicated calamity. A. most extraordinary swell of the sea, ten feet higher than its common level, succeeded by an earthquake and hurricane, brought dreadful destruction on particular parts of the island. Savannah La Mar, a considerable trading town on the south side of the island in Westmoreland parish, was totally destroyed, by the sea's suddenly bursting through.


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all bounds and surmounting all obstacles. Every thing 78.00
was so completely swept away upon its retreat, as not to
leave the smallest vestige of man, beast or habitation
behind, About 200 persons of all colours, perished by
this terrible irruption. The sea flowed up half a mile
beyond its usual fixed limits. This was the prelude to
the succeeding earthquake and hurricane. The damage
in the parish of Westmoreland only, amounted to near.
700,000l. sterling. In that of Hanover, one fourth
part of the absolute property is said to be loft for ever.
The merchants of Kingston generously sent down for
the immediate relief of the unhappy sufferers, 10,000).
value in different kinds of provision, clothing and other

A yet more tremendous hurricane began at Barbadoes OA.
in the morning, and continued with little intermission
about 48 hours. The ships were driven from their
anchors, and obliged to encounter all the horrors of a
most outrageous sea. It prevailed chiefly in the night;
and Bridge Town, the capital, was nearly levelled with
the earth. The inhabitants who escaped, anxiously
waited the break of day, Aattering themselves that with
the light they should see a cessation of the storm. But
the strongest colours cannot paint the miseries they were
under. The ground was covered with the mangled
bodies of their friends and relations. Reputable fami-
lies wandered through the ruins in search of food and
shelter. Mean while there was a continual scene of rapine
and confusion. The negroes, instead of attempting to
fave the effects of the unhappy sufferers, were plunder-
ing every part of the town. The tempest was but little
abated. The day served but to exhibit the most melan-


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1780.choly prospect. The devastation on all fides was ter

rible--not a building standing—the trees, if not torn up
by the roots, stripped of their leaves and branches--the
most luxuriant spring changed in one night to the
dreariest winter--the few public buildings, notwithstand-
their strength, fallen in the general wreck. The loss of
human lives was great even among the whites ; but in-
cluding the blacks was estimated at some thousands.
To increase the calamity, most of the living stock on
the island, particularly of the horned cattle, perished.
An extraordinary instance of the united force of the
winds and waves was apparent upon this occasion in
the removal of a cannon, a twelve pounder, from the
south to the north battery, being a distance of one hun-
dred and forty yards. The truth of this fact and of the
others was supported by public documents, transmitted
to the secretary of state by the governor of the island,
and by gen. Vaughan. Be it mentioned to the honor
and praise of Don Pedro St. Jago, a captain of the re-
giment of Arragon, and of the other Spanish prisoners
at Barbadoes, who were all under his inmediate direc-
tion, that they acted the kind part of friends, instead
of behaving like enemies, or even with indifference, in
this season of calamity; and omitted no labor or service
in their power, for the assistance of the distressed inha-
bitants, and the preservation of public order.

The islands of St. Lucie, Grenada and St. Vincent,
were likewise laid nearly desolate. Most of the ships of
war were driven out to sea from St. Lucie, in the be-
ginning of the hurricane. The transports, victuallers,
and traders, were dismafted, and generally driven on
More. A prize of 18 guns was wrecked on the back

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of the island, and all except 17 perished. The Andro- 1980.
meda and Laurel of 28 guns each, were lost on the
coast of Martinico; none of the officers and but few
of the crews were faved. The Deal Castle of 24 guns
fuffered the fame fate. The squadron under admiral
Rowley, which convoyed the Jamaica trade on its way
to Europe, experienced no less calamity, and sustained
still greater loss. The admiral returned to Jamaica with
five fhips, moftly dismafted and all disabled. The Ster-
ling Castle of 64 guns, was totally loft on the coast of
Hispaniola, and only about so of the crew saved. The
Thunderer, commodore Boyle Walsingham, was un-
doubtedly swallowed up, no traces of her fate having
yet come to light. The Phænix of 44 guns, Sir Hyde
Parker, was wrecked on the isle of Cuba; but her
officers and most of her crew were saved. The Barba-
does and Victor foops of war, with the Cameleon,
Scarborough, and La Blanche frigates, became likewise,
with a partial or total loss of men and officers, victims
to the rage of this merciless season. The French islands
appear to have suffered even more than the British,
Barbadoes only excepted. At Martinico the public
buildings and private houses of Fort Royal town, to the
amount of more than fourteen hundred, were blown
down, and an incredible number of persons lost their
lives. Every house in St. Pierre shared the fame fate,
and more than a thousand people perished. The num-
bers loft upon the island, including negroes, is computed
at about 9000, and the damage at 700,000 louis d'ors.
Sixty-two fail of transports from France, which arrived
that morning at Martinico, with stores and 2500 troops
on board, were all driven out to sea, and several were



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1780. loft. The Experiment of 50 guns, and the Juno of

40, with some other royal French frigates, were de-
ftroyed; and 19 sail of loaded Dutch vessels were dashed
to pieces on Grenada. The destruction of people
(whites and blacks) at St. Eustatia, was reputed to be
between and

5000. A number of houses were blown
down and washed away with the inhabitants into the
fea. The pecuniary loss must be very great.

The humanity of the marquis de Bouille affords fome relief to chete scenes of horror and devastation. He fent 31 British fajlors (the remains that were faved of the crews of the Laurel and Andromeda) under a fag of truce to commodore Hotham at St. Lucie, accompanied with a declaration, that he could not consider in the light of enemies, men who had so hardly escaped in a contention with the force of the elements; but that they having, in common with his own people, been partakers of the same danger, were in like manner entitled to every comfort and relief that could be given, in a season of such universal calamity and distress. He only lamented, he said, that their number was so small,

and particularly that none of the officers were saved. Oct.

The new parliament met on the last of October. The late speaker, Sir Fletcher Norton, having offended the ministry, by exercising too much of an independent spirit, they determined upon choosing another person in his room.

Mr. Dunning moved, that Sir Fletcher should be continued. The ministry pretended, that an anxiety for his health was the real cause of moving that a different member might be chosen: but Sir Fletcher, after declaring that he came there with a full determination not to go again into the chair upon any account,


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