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king, and lands as well; consigning to everlasting flames those who should take away any portion therefrom. After this, with a very large force he subdued the enemy, and with his army laid waste Scotland, even as far as Feoder and Wertermore, while with his fleet he ravaged as far as Catenes j46 in consequence of this, king Constantine, being compelled so to do, gave up his son to him as a hostage, together with, suitable presents; and the peace heing thus renewed, the king returned to Wessex. In the same year Saint Bristan departed this life.

In the year 925, the religious monk Elphege, surnamed the Bald, a kinsman of Saint Dunstan, received the bishopric of Winchester.

In the year 927, Anlaf, the pagan king of Ireland and of many of the islands, being encouraged by his father-in-law, Constantine, king of the Scots, entered the mouth of the Humber with a vast fleet, amounting to six hundred and fifteen sail; on which he was met by king Ethelstan and his brother the Clito Edmund, with an army, at the place which is called Brumanburgh.41 The battle lasted from the beginning of the day to the evening, and they slew five minor kings and seven dukes, whom the enemy had invited to their aid, and shed such a quantity of blood, as in no battle before that had ever been shed in England; and, having compelled the kings Anlaf and Constantine, and the king of the Cumbrians, to fly to their ships, they returned in great triumph. But the enemy having experienced extreme disaster in the loss of their army, returned home with only a few men.

In the year from the incarnation of our Lord 940, Ethelstan, the valiant and glorious king of the English, departed this life at Gloucester, in the sixteenth year of his reign, and in the fourteenth of the indiction, on the sixth day before the calends of November, being the fourth day of the week; his body was carried to the city of Maidulph,47* and was there honorably interred. His brother Edmund succeeded him in the eighteenth year of his age.

In the year 941, the Northumbrians proving regardless of the fealty which they owed to Edmund, the mighty king of the English, chose Anlaf, king of the Norwegians

46 Caithness.

41 Or Brunenburgh; I rumley, in Lincolnshire. This battle was the subject of an Anglo-Saxon poem, which is still in existence. Malmesbury.

as their king. The elder Richard became duke of the Normans, and continued so for fifty-two years.

In the first year of the reign of king Edmund, king Anlaf first came to York, and then marching to the south, laid siege to Hamtune j44 but not succeeding there, he turned the steps of his army towards Tameworde,45 and having laid waste all the places in the neighbourhood, while he was returning to Legacestre,16 king Edmund met him with an army; but he had not a severe struggle for the mastery,47 since the two-archbishops Odo and Wulstan, having allayed the anger of both of the kings, put an end to the fight. And thus peace being made, the Watlingastrete4s was made the boundary of both kingdoms; Edmund having the sway on the southern side, and Anlaf on the northern. Anlaf having pillaged the church of Saint Balther and burnt Tinningham, shortly after perished. After this, the people of York laid waste the island of Lindisfarne, and slew great numbers. The son of Sithric, whose name was Anlaf, then reigned over the Northumbrians.

In the year 942, Edmund, the mighty king of the English, entirely wrested five cities, namely, Lincoln, Nottingham, Derby, Leicester, and Stamford from the hands of the Danes, and reduced the whole of Mercia under his own power. He was a friend49 of Dunstan, the servant of God, and by following his counsels became renowned. Being loaded by him with various honors the latter was appointed to the abbacy of Glastonbury, in place he had been educated.

In. the year 943, when his queen, Saint Elgiva, had borne to Edmund, the mighty king, a son named Edgar, Saint Dunstan heard voices, as though on high, singing and repeating, "Peace to the church of England in the times of the child that is now born, and of our Dunstan." In this year, the same king raised king Anlaf, of whom we have previously made mention, from the font of holy regeneration, and gave him royal presents, and shortly afterwards held Reginald, king of the

44 Southampton. 45 Tamworth. 46 Leicester.

*> On the contrary, Roger of Wendover says that the loss on either side was excessive. ^

4s The road which passed from the south of England, through London, into the north.

49 There is little doubt that the word "summus " here, is an error for "amicui."


Northumbrians when he was confirmed by the bishop, and adopted him as his own son.

In the year 944, Edmund, the mighty king of the English, expelled two kings, namely, Anlaf, son of king Sithric, and Reginald, son of Guthferth, from Northumbria, and reduced it to subjection.

In the year 945, Edmund, the mighty king of the Englisfl, laid waste the lands of the Cumbrians, and granted them to Malcolm, king of the Scots, on condition that he should be faithful to him both by land and sea.

In the year from the incarnation of our Lord 946, Edmund, the mighty king of the English on the day of the feast of Saint Augustine, the instructor of the English, while, at a town, which in English is called Pucklecirce,60 he was attempting to rescue his sewer Leosl from the hands of a most vile robber, for fear lest he should be killed, was slain by the same man, after having reigned five years and seven months, in the fourth year of the indiction, on the seventh day before the calends of June, being the third day of the week. Being taken to Glastonbury, he was there interred by Saint Dunstan, the abbat.

His brother Edred succeeded him in the kingdom, and was consecrated king by Saint Odo, the archbishop, at Kingston.

In the year 947, Wulstan, archbishop of York, and all the nobles of Northumbria, swore fidelity to Edred, the excellent king of the English, at a town which is called Tadenesclif,82 but they did not long observe it; for they elected a certain man, named Eiric, a Dane by birth, to be king over them.

In the year 948, in return for the unfaithfulness of the Northumbrians, Edred, the excellent king of the English, laid waste the whole of Northumbria; in which devastation the monastery at Rhipum,53 which was said to have been formerly built by Saint Wilfred, the bishop, was destroyed by fire. But, as the king was returning homewards, the army sallied forth from York, and made great slaughter of the rear of the king's

50 Pucklechurch, in Gloucestershire. Matthew of Westminster and Roger of Wendover call the place^icklesbury.

61 It is more generally represented that the name of the robber was Leof; the name no doubt which is here given to the attendant.

62 Lambarde takes this place to be the same as Topcliff, in Yorkshire. * Kipon.

army, at a place which is called Chesterford. The king being greatly enraged thereat, wished to return at once and entirely to depopulate the whole of that region; but, on understanding this, the Northumbrians, being struck with terror, forsook Eiric, whom they had appointed king over them, and made compensation to the king for his injuries with honors, and for his losses with presents, and mitigated his anger with no small sum of money.

In the year 951, Saint Elphege, surnamed the Bald, bishop of Winchester, who had graced Saint Dunstan with the monastic garb and the degree of priest, ended this life, and was succeeded in the see by Efsin. In this year also died Oswel," the king of the Britons.

In the year 952, Edred, the renowned king of the English, placed Wulstan, archbishop of York, in close confinement at Withanbrig,56 because he had been often accused before him on certain charges.

In the year 953, Wulstan, the archbishop of York, having been released from custody, the episcopal dignity was restored to him at Dorchester.

The kings of the Northumbrians having now, as I have mentioned above, come to a close, it is my intention here to insert how and to what earls that province afterwards became subject.

The last of the kings of that province, as I have said a little above, was Eiric, whom the Northumbrians, on violating their plighted faith, which they had sworn to king Edred, made king; for which reason the king, in his anger, ordered the whole province to be utterly laid waste. On this, the Northumbrians having expelled their king and slain Amancus, the son of Anlaf, and with oaths and presents appeased king Edred, the province was given in charge to ^ari Osulph; who afterwards, in the reign of king Edgar, took Oslac as his associate in the government. After this, Osulph took charge of the parts on the northern side of Tyne, while Oslac ruled over York and its vicinity. He was succeeded by Waltef the Elder, who had, as his successor, his •on, Ucthred. When, in the reign of king Edric, king Canute

55 V. r. Owel, or, as we write it, Howel.

M The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says Jedburgh.

invaded Northumbria with a hostile force, being compelled by necessity, he went over with his followers to Canute; and after having taken the oath of fealty and given hostages, he was slain by a certain very wealthy Dane, Thurebrand, surnamed Holde, Canute giving his sanction thereto; and in his place his brother, Eadulph Cudel, was substituted. Earl Ucthred left three sons surviving him, Aldred, Eadulph, and Cospatric. The first two of these were successively earls of Northumbria; the third, who did not enjoy the honor of the earldom, had a son named Ucthred, whose son was Eadulph, surnamed Rus, who, in after times, was the leader of those who murdered bishop Walcher; indeed, he himself is said to have slain him with his own hand. However, shortly afterwards, he himself was slain 'by a woman, and was buried in the church of Gedeworde; but afterwards such a mass of filth as his body was cast out from there by Turgot, formerly prior of the church of Durham, and archdeacon.

After Eadulph Cudel, Aldred, the son of the above-named earl XJcthred, received the earldom, and slew the murderer, Thurebrand, in revenge for the death of his father. On this, Carl, the son of Thurebrand, and the said earl Aldred, after plotting against the lives of each other, were at last reconciled. But shortly after, Aldred, suspecting no evil, was slain by Carl, in a wood which is called Risewode, the brother of Aldred having joined in the plot. After the death of his brother, Eadulph became earl of Northumbria; who, being elated with pride, laid waste the country of the Britons—that is to say, of the Welsh—in a most cruel manner. But, in the third year after, when, a treaty having been made, he had come to Hardicanute to be reconciled, he was slain by Siward; who, in succession to him, had the earldom of the whole of that province of Northumbria: that is to say, from the Humber to the Tweed. On his death he was succeeded by Tosti; who, having been banished from England for the great injuries which he had done to Northumbria, his earldom was given in charge by king Edward to Morcar; and, afterwards, by king William. Morcar, finding his attention distracted by weighty matters in other quarters, entrusted the earldom beyond the Tyne to Osulph, a young man, son of the above-named earl Eadulph. Morcar being afterwards taken prisoner and placed in confinement, king William gave the earldom of Osulph to Copsi, who was the uncle of

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