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the son of Ageltheu, the son of Offa, the son of Wermund, the son of Widaet, the son of Woden."
Offa was a most warlike king; for he conquered the people of Kent in battle, and Vanquished in war the people of Wessex and the Northumbrians. He also shewed himself a pious man, for he transferred the bones of Saint Alban to a monastery which he had built and greatly enriched, and gave to the pope of Rome, the vicar of St. Peter, a fixed tribute for ever, from each town in his kingdom."
In the third year of king Kinewulph, Eadbert, king of the Northumbrians, seeing the unfortunate lives and unhappy ends of the above-named kings, (namely, Ethelbald and Sigebert,) and at the same time the praiseworthy life and glorious end of his predecessor Ceolwulph, chose that better part which could not be taken away from him. For having resigned his kingdom, he assumed the tonsure of his head, destined to produce for him an everlasting crown, and put on the darkcoloured clothes that were to confer on him an ethereal splendour. He was the eighth of those kings who of their own accord gave up their kingdoms for Christ, or rather, to speak more truthfully, exchanged them for an eternal kingdom; which eight are in the everlasting enjoyment of the multiplied delights of unspeakable blessings, and their blessed example is worthy of imitation.
He was succeeded in the kingdom by his son Osulf; who after he had reigned one year, was infamously betrayed by his own household, and slain.
After him, Mollethelwald78 reigned nine years. About this time archbishop Cuthbert79 died.
In the sixth year of the reign of king Kinewulph, Ethelbert, king of Kent, departed this life. In the same year, Ceolwulph, who, having resigned his earthly kingdom, had become a monk, departed unto a heavenly one. In the following year,
76 Roger of Wendover differs considerably in the names, and gives two more ancestors to Offa before Woden. His words are, " the son of Waremund, who was the son of Withleg, who was the son of Wagon, who was the son of Frethegeath, who was the son of Woden."
77 This is the Rome-scot, or St. Peter's pence, which consisted of a penny from each house, payable on the festival of Saint Peter. According to some accounts, it was Ina who made the first grant of it to the Papal see.
7s This is the same king whom he has already mentioned under the year 759, by the name of Ethelwald, surnamed Moll.
Lambert was made archbishop of Canterbury. After having reigned six years, Mollethelwald resigneds0 the kingdom of Northumbria; after him Aelred reigned eight years, in the second year of 'whose reign, Egbert, archbishop of York, departed this life, after having enjoyed the archbishopric for a period of thirtyrsix years: Frithebert, bishop of Hagustald,s1 also died, after having been bishop thirty-four years.
Archbishop Egbert was succeeded by Adelbert,82 and Alcmund succeeded bishop Fridebert.
In the fourth year of king Aelred, died Pepin, king of the Franks, Stephen, pope of Rome, and Eadbert,s3 the son of Hecta, a most famous duke of [East] Anglia.
In the year of grace 769, in the fifteenth year of king Kinewulph, a wondrous mutation first began to take place.s1 For the Roman empire, which had for so many years continued to enjoy pre-eminence, became subject to Charles the Great, king of the Franks. This took place after thirty years of his reign, which first commenced in this year,s5 and from that time forward, down to the present day, it has belonged to his successors.
In the twentieth year of king Kinewulph, king Offa and the Mercians fought against the people of Kent at Ottanforde,66 and after a dreadful slaughter on both sides, the illustrious Ona was crowned with success. In the same year, the Northumbrians expelled their king Aelred from Eworwic,97 in Easter week, and chose for their king, Ethelred, the son of Mollethelwald, who reigned four years. In this year were seen dreadful signs in the heavens after sunset, of a red color;6s and, to the great astonishment of people, serpents were seen in Sussex.
In the second year after this, the Ancient Saxons, from whom
s0 He says previously, under the year 765, that this king lost his kingdom at Wincanhele.
s1 Hexham. s2 Before called by him, Albert.
s3 The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle calls him a king, but it does not appear of what place.
s4 This is a paraphrase for the words in the text, "Incepit fieri mutatatio dexterae excelsi;" which literally translated, would make perfect nonsense. The text is evidently corrupt.
* This is wrong; he has previously said that his reign began in the year 771.
* Otford, in Kent. * York.
M Ethelwerd, inhis Chronicle,says,that it was the sign of the Lord's cross. the English nation is descended, were converted to the faith, and in the same year, Withwin,s9 bishop of Whitherne, departed this life, in the twenty-fourth year90 of his episcopate.
In the twenty-fourth year of his reign, Kinewulph fought against Offa, near Benetune ;91 being humbled by the fortune of war, he retreated,92 and Offa reduced that fortified place to subjection. In the same year, Ethelbert was consecrated at Eworwic,93 bishop of Whitherne.
In the following year, Ethelbald and Herebert, earls of the king of Northumbria, rebelled against their master, and slew Aldulph, the son of Bose, general of the king's army, in a pitched battle at Kingesdiwe ;91 and afterwards in a great battle, the same generals slew Kinewulph and Egga, the king's earls, at Hilatirn. Upon this, the above-named king Ethelred, having lost his generals and his hopes, fled from before them, and they elected Alfimod95 king, who reigned for a period of ten years. In the following year, the nobles and high-reeves of Northumbria burned a certain earl and justiciary of theirs,97 who had shown himself more severe than was befitting. In the same year, archbishop Esbert" died at Cestre,1 and was succeeded by Enbalo. In this year, Kinebald was made bishop of Lindisfarne. In the same year also, a battle took place between the Franks and Ancient Saxons, the Franks being the conquerors.
In the next year, Alfinild, king of Northumbria, sent to Rome for the pall, and gave it to archbishop Embald.3 At the same period, Gilbert succeeded Alcmund, bishop of Ha
69 Under the year 777, he previously calls him Pechtvriu. 90 This is probably incorrect; he held the bishopric but fourteen years, according to the Saxon Chronicle.
n Benson, or Benington, in Oxfordshire.
62 The various reading, "loco secessit,"seems far preferable to that in the text, "jocose cessit;" "he jokingly," or " good humouredly yielded." 93 York.
84 The various reading is Kingsclive. Roger of Wendover calls this place Cunesclive, and the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Kings-cliff.
95 Under the year 779, he is previously called Elfwald. A various reading makes the name " Alfimold." Below he is called Alfinild.
97 The fate of the patrician Beam is previously related under the year 780.
99 Of York. He is previously called Albert. The Saxon Chronicle says that he died at York. 1 Probably Chester-le-street, in Durham. 2 Also called Eanbald and Enbalo.
gustald,5 who had lately died. Ahout this time, there was a synod held at Ade.4 After Kinewulph had reigned twentysix years, and, being victorious, had gained many battles against the Britons,5 and subdued them on every side,6 at length, he determined on banishing a certain young man, named Kineard, the brother of Sigebert. Upon this, he attacked the king at Meretune,' whither he had privately gone to visit a certain female. On finding this to be the case, the king stoutly defended himself at the door, until he caught sight of the youth, upon which he rushed out and wounded him, whereon all his confederates turned upon the king, and slew him On the uproar being heard, the king's soldiers, who were in the town, ran towards the youth, and refusing gifts of lands and money that were offered by him, all died bravely fighting, with the exception of one Briton, who was severely wounded, and taken as a hostage. In the morning, the soldiers of the king, who were near at hand in waiting,s when the king was slain, hemmed in the young man and his confederates; on which he thus said to them; "Your kinsmen are on my side; I will give you lands and money to your hearts' content, if you will not fight against us; I made the same offer to your companions, and refusing it they perished!" To this they made answer, that no money was dearer to them than their lord, and that they would avenge the death of their king and their comrades; and then rushing on, after a severe combat at the door, they slew the young man and eighty-four others who were with him. The only one left was a little son of the young man, and he received a wound. Kinewulph was buried at Winchester, in the thirty-first year of his reign, the young man at Acsminster.'
Brithric, who also sprang from king Cerdic so often mentioned,
1 Evidently a mistake for Acle, or Aclea, or Ockley, in Surrey; which is mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as the place where the svnod was held in 782. o The Welsh.
6 The various reading," Ex omnia parte," has been adopted, as it seems preferable to the words of the text, " Ex Dei parte."
7 Merton, in Surrey. s " In atrio," literally, "in the court."
8 Axminster, in Devon. William of Malmesbury, and Roger of Wendover, however, agree in stating, that he was buried at Repandun, or Repton, in Lerbyshire. Kinewulph, in reality, reigned only nine and twenty years.
succeeded Kinewulph, and reigned over Wessex sixteen years. In his second year, pope Adrian sent legates into Britain, to renew the faith which Augustine had preached. Being honorably received by the kings and the people, they raised a fair edifice upon a firm foundation, the mercy of Christ co-operating with them. They held a council at Cealtide,10 where Iambert" resigned a portion of his episcopate; there also Higbert was elected" by king Offa. In the same year, Egfrid was consecrated king of the province of Kent.13
In the following year, being the year of grace 786, there appeared a sign14 upon people's clothes, which may be justly deemed marvellous to be mentioned and to be heard of. Whether this took place as a forewarning of the movement relative to the recovery of Jerusalem, and the assumption of the cross,16 which happened three hundred and eleven years after this period, in the time of William16 the younger, or whether it was rather intended for the correction of the people, lest they should not view the plague of the Danes with which they were shortly afterwards afflicted, in the light of a chastisement, I will not rashly undertake to settle, but, the mysteries of God I leave to God.17
In the fourth year of his reign, Brithric took to wife Eadburga, the daughter of OfFa, king of Mercia. Strengthened , on tie throne by this alliance, he gave way to pride. In these days, the Danes came to Britain, with three ships, for the sake of plunder; the king's reeve in that province, seeing this, went to meet them without taking due precautions, in order that, having captured them, he might carry them to the king's town ;19 for he was ignorant who they were, or for what purpose they had come; but, being immediately surrounded by them, he was slain. He was the first person of the English nation slain by
10 Lambarde makes this place to be Chalkhythe, but does not say in what county. 11 Archbishop of Canterbury.
12 To be Archbishop of Lichfield, the portion of his province which the Archbishop of Canterbury had resigned.
13 Which he held jointly with his father Offa. 14 The sign of the cross. 15 By the Crusaders as their emblem. 16 William Bums.
17 The note of interrogation in the text after " relinquimus" seems misplaced.
1s "Propositus regis;" the king's bailiff or reve, or steward of the shire ; holding the office of the present sheriff.
i» "Castrum;" literally, " fortified town."