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by oath a firm friendship between them, and, laying them aside, set at rest all ancient enmities. Then, by the counsel of the perfidious duke Edric, king Canute banished the Clito Edwin, the brother of king Edmund, and Edwin,67 who was styled "the King of the Churls;" but this Edwin was reconciled to the king. The Clito Edwin, however, being deceived by the treachery of those whom he had hitherto deemed to be most friendly disposed to him, at the request and entreaty of king Canute, was, the sameyear, without guilt on his part, put to death.

Edric also gave him this advice, that he should put to death the younger Clito's, Edward and Edmund, the sons of king Edmund; but as it seemed to him a great disgrace for them to be put to death in England, after the lapse of a short time he sent them to the king of Sweden to be slain; he however, although there was a treaty between them, would by no means assent to- his request, but sent them, for the preservation of their lives, to Salomon, king of the Hungarians, to be brought up; and one of them, namely, Edmund, in process of time, ended his life there. But Edward received in marriage Agatha, the daughter of the emperor, by whom he had Margaret, afterwards queen of the Scots, Christina, a virgin, who became a nun, and the Clito Edgar.

In the month of July, king Canute took to wife queen Emma, the widow of king Egelred, by whom he had a son, named Hardicanute, afterwards king, and a daughter, named Gunhilda, who was afterwards married to Henry, the emperor of the Romans.

In the year 1018, at the Feast of the Nativity of our Lord, while Canute was in London, he ordered the perfidious duke Edric Streona to be slain in his palace, because he feared lest he should be on some occasion betrayed by his treachery, just as his former masters Egelred and Edmund had been frequently betrayed. He also ordered his body to be thrown over the walls of the city, and to be cast out without burial; together with him duke Norman, the son of duke Leofwin, and brother of earl Leofric, Ethelward, the son of duke Engelmar, and Brithric, the son of Elphege, earl of Devonshire, were slain without any guilt on their parts. In this year, by the whole of England, seventy-two pounds, and by London, four hundred and ten pounds,69 were paid to the army of the Danes. Aldun,

67 Properly Edwy.

** These numbers are manifestly wrong; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle bishop of Durham, departed this life, and a great battle was fought between the English and the Scots at Carre.69 The English and the Danes came to an understanding at Oxford as to the observance of the laws of king Edgar.

In the year 1019> Canute, king of the English and of the Danes, crossed toDeumark, and remained there throughout the whole of the winter.

In the year 1020, king Canute returned to England, and at the festival of Easter held a great council at Cirencester. Edmund was appointed to the see of Durham, and Living, archbishop of Canterbury, departing this life, was succeeded by Agelnoth, who was called the Good, the son of Agelmar, a nobleman. In the same year, the church which king Canutes and earl Turketel had built on the hill which is called Assendun,TM was dedicated in their presence with great honor and pomp by Wulstan, the archbishop of York, and many other bishops.

In the year 1021, Canute, king of the English and of the Danes, before the feast of Saint Martin, expelled the earl Turkill so often mentioned, together with his wife, Egitha, from England. Algar, the bishop of East Anglia, departed this life, and was succeeded by Alfwin.

In the year 1022, Agelnoth, the archbishop of Canterbury, went to Rome, and being received by pope Benedict with great honor, the pall was given to him.

In the year 1023, the body of Saint Elphege the Martyr was transferred from London to Canterbury. Wulstan, the archbishop of York, departed this life at York, on the day before the calends of July, being the third day of the week, but his body was carried to Ely, and there buried. He was succeeded by Alfric, the prior of Winchester.

In the year 1026, Alfric, the archbishop, of York, went to Rome, and received the pall from pope John. Richard, the second duke of Normandy, departed this life; and was succeeded by Richard the Third, who died in the same year, being succeeded by his brother Robert.

In the year 1027, it having been intimated to the king of the English and of the Danes that the people of Norway greatly despised their king, Olaf, for his simplicity, mildness, justice

states the amount paid by the whole of England as 72.000 pounds, and that paid by the city of London, 10,500. "Probably Carron. 10 Ashendon, in Essex.

and piety, he sent to certain of them a great quantity of gold and silver, begging them, with many intreaties, that, having deposed and expelled him, they would become subject to him, and permit him to reign over them. Receiving, with great avidity, what he sent them, they ordered word to be sent him, that they were ready to receive him whenever he chose to come.

In the year 1028, Canute, king of the English and of the Danes, crossing over to Norway with fifty large ships, expelled king Olaf, and rendered it subject to himself.

In the year 1029, Canute, king of the English, of the Danes, and of the Norwegians, returned to England; and shortly after sent into exile Hacun, a Danish earl, on the pretext that he was sending him on an embassy, as he feared lest he should be deprived of his life by him. He was married to a noble woman, Gunhilda, the daughter of his own sister and of Wertgeorn, king of the Windi.

In the year 1030, the above-named earl Hacun perished at sea; some say that he was slain at this period in the island of Orkney. Saint Olaf, the king and martyr, son of Harold, king of Norway, whom king Canute had expelled, returning to Norway, was unrighteously slain by the Norwegians.

In the year 1031, Canute, king of the English, of the Danes, and of the Norwegians, set out with great state from Denmark for Rome, and presented to Saint Peter, the chief of the Apostles, vast gifts of gold and silver and other precious things, and obtained, at his request, from pope John, that the school of the English at Rome should be exempt from all tax and tribute; also, in going and returning he bestowed bounteous alms on the poor, and put an end to many barriers on the road where toll was exacted from strangers, by payment of a large sum of money; before the tomb of the Apostles he also made a vow to amend his life and manners.

In the year 1032, the church of Saint Edmund, the king and martyr, was dedicated. Conflagrations, almost unextinguishable, ravaged many places throughout England. Elphege, the bishop of Winchester, departed this life, and was succeeded by Elfwyn, the king's priest.

In the year 1033, died Leolf, bishop of the Wiccii,72 a man of great piety and modesty, at the episcopal town of 73 Worcester.

Kemeys.73 He died on the fourth day before the calends of September, being the third day of the week, and, as we have reason to believe, departed to the kingdom of heaven; his body was buried with due honor in the church of Saint Mary, at 'Worcester. To his see was elected Brithege, abbat of Pershare, son of the sister of Wulstan, the archbishop of York.

In the year 1034, Malcolm,74 the king of the Scots, departed this life, and was succeeded by Machetad.

In the year 1035, Canute, king of the English, just before bis death appointed his son, Sweyn, king of the Norwegians; and of the Danes Hardicanute, his son by queen Emma; his son Harold, whom he had by Elfgiva of Southampton, he appointed king of England; and shortly after, in the same year, on the second day before the ides of November, being the fourth day of the week, he departed this life at Shaftesbury, but was buried at Winchester, with all due honors, in the old monastery there. After his burial, queen Elfgiva," who was also called Emma, took refuge76 at that place.

But Harold, on obtaining the royal dignity, sent his followers with all haste to Winchester, and took away from her, in a tyrannical manner, the largest and best portion of the treasures which king Canute had left her; and after having spoiled her, dismissed her, to take her seat there as she had previously done. With the consent, also, of the greater part of the elders of England he began to reign, as being the lawful heir; but yet not with such power as did Canute, because [by some] Hardicanute was looked for as being the more lawful heir. For which reason, shortly afterwards, the kingdom of England was divided by lot, and the northern part fell to Harold, the gouthern to Hardicanute. Robert, duke of the Normans, died, and was succeeded by his son, William the Bastard, at a very youthful age.

In the year 1036, the innocent Clito's Alfred and Edward, the sons of Egelred, the former king of the English, crossed over to England with a few ships from Normandy, where they had remained for a long time with their uncle Richard, and,

13 In Pembrokeshire. 74 The Second.

15 A suspicion is mentioned by some of the chroniclers that this woman palmed off the children of a priest and a cobbler on Canute as his own. She herself was the daughter of earl Elfelm.

16 This was for protection from the violence of Harold.

attended by a great number of Norman soldiers, came to Winchester, to have an interview with their mother, who was staying at that place. This some of the men in power took amiss, and were indignant at it; because, although unjustly so, they were much more devoted to king Harold than to them, and especially, as it is said, the earl Godwin.

He, after having hurried on Alfred towards London for the purpose of an interview with king Harold, in obedience to his commands, detained him and placed him in close custody. Some of his attendants he dispersed, some he placed in chains, and afterwards put out their eyes; some he scalped and tortured, and deprived of their hands and feet, by cutting them off. Many, also, he caused to be sold, and by various and shocking deaths he put to death six hundred men at Guilford. But their souls, we believe, are now rejoicing in Paradise with the Saints, whose bodies, without cause, were so cruelly consigned to death on earth.

On hearing this, queen Emma in great haste sent back her son Edward, who had remained with her, into Normandy; whereupon, by the command of Godwin and certain others, the Clito Alfred was led in the most strict bonds to the isle of Ely; but as soon as the ship came to shore, on board of it, they instantly in the most cruel manner put out his eyes, and then, being led to the monastery by the monks, he was delivered into their charge; here, shortly afterwards, he departed this life, and his body was buried with due honor in the south porch on the western side of the church, while his soul enjoys the delights of Paradise.

In the year 1037, Harold king of the Mercians and Northumbrians, was chosen king by the nobles and the people, to reign over all England. But Hardicanute, because he stayed too long in Denmark and delayed coming to England as he had been requested, was entirely set aside, and his mother Elfgiva, who was also called Emma, the former queen of the English, at the beginning of the winter, was expelled from England without mercy, and shortly afterwards, passing over in a ship to Flanders, was received with honor by earl Baldwin. He, in the way that became such a man, as long as her need demanded it, willingly took care that all necessaries were provided her. In the same year, a short time before this, Avic, the prior of Eresham, a man of great piety, died.

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