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UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA
Forty Years of German-American
PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR
THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
The study covered by this thesis was begun in the autumn of 1916 and was undertaken for the purpose of discovering the general character of the relationship between the l’nited States and Germany after both nations had become world powers, but before events occurred leading immediately to the great war. Covering so long a period, I have confined my study fairly closely to the field of government publications and to autobiography. The nature of the subject, the recent character of the material and the conditions of the times have prevented access to the manuscript archives of either government. Therefore the only unpublished materials available were the very interesting Bancroft and Davis manuscripts dealing with the 1870 period. I have found, however, such an abundance of material in the published sources mentioned, that I feel justified in tracing from it the following conclusions:
First: The general relationship between the two countries shows three main periods of development: There was the early period, comprising approximately the first decade after the founding of the Empire, in which the relations were spontaneously cordial. This was followed by a period of friction developed partly by the ut increasing economic rivalry of the two countries, but mostly by the development in Germany of an aggressive expansion system, and characterized by an indifference on the part of the German Government toward the effect of that policy upon the l’nited States. The third period, comprising the decade following the Spanish-American war, shows a status again of generally good relations, created in part by the solution of certain outstanding controversies and in part by the deliberate policy of the German Government to cultivate in the interests of the empire the friendship of the United States. The expansion policy progressed steadily, but it took into account the factor of the United States.